Harald Sodemann's picture

Harald Sodemann

Professor, Meteorology (Numerical Modelling, Atmospheric Water Cycle)
  • E-mailHarald.Sodemann@uib.no
  • Phone+47 55 58 29 74
  • Visitor Address
    Allegt. 70
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7803
    5020 BERGEN

I am enthusiastic about research, education and outreach using models and observations related to  the atmospheric water cycle, stable water isotopes, and transport of atmospheric constituents, such as dust. A particular focus is on integrating models and experimental data, I have contributed to several airborne measurement campaigns in recent years. I am part of the leadership for FARLAB, the new National Facility for Advanced Research on Light isotopes at the University of Bergen, and affiliated with the Bjerknes Center.

Research topics 

  • Atmospheric water cycle
  • Stable water isotopes
  • Atmospheric constituent transport
  • Desert dust transport
  • Stable boundary layer research

Current topics for a Masters Thesis

I currently teach the following courses in the BSc programme "Climate, Atmosphere and Ocean Physics" and in the MSc programme "Meteorology and Oceanography" at the Geophysical Institute:

GEOF105 / Atmosphere and Ocean physics: This is a BSc level course where students acquire quantitative introductory knowledge about the atmosphere and ocean through lectures, laboratory experiments, assignments and programming exercises. The highlight of the course is a cruise on one of the research vessels available to the Geophysical Institute.

GEOF232 / Practical meteorology and oceanography: This is a final year BSc course where groups of students conduct small research projects centered around field work in meteorology and oceanography. The challenges of fieldwork and the reward of working with own measurement data create unique learning experiences. See here for short movies about the fieldwork in this course in 2017 and 2016.

GEOF321 / Models and methods in numerical weather and climate prediction: This is an advanced MSc/PhD level course where we attempt a both wide and deep coverage of the science of weather and climate modelling. Starting out with the details of how atmospheric models are constructed in terms of dynamics and physical processes, we cover data assimilation methods and modern forecasting paradigms, including ensemble prediction and verification methods. Students learn to use the terminology in discussions by challenging role-playing exercises. See here for a written report on how that works.

GEOF351 / Seminar in Atmospheric Science: This is a MSc/PhD level course where students will acquire in-depth knowlege on an annualy changing subject through literature study and review, discussion, writing and presentation. This year's theme is "The Atmospheric Water Cycle - From Processes to Budgets"

submitted manuscripts:

Duetsch, M., Pfahl, S., and Sodemann, H.: The impact of rainout and mixing on two different deuterium excess formulations, submitted manuscript.

Schäfler, A. et al: The North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Experiment, submitted manuscript.

Bohlinger, P., Sorteberg, A., and Sodemann, H.: Synoptic conditions and moisture sources actuating extreme precipitation in Nepal, submitted manuscript.


52. Sodemann, H., F. Aemisegger, S. Pfahl, M. Bitter, U. Corsmeier, T. Feuerle, P. Graf, R. Hankers, G. Hsiao, H. Schulz, A. Wieser, and H. Wernli, 2017: The stable isotope composition of water vapour above Corsica during the HyMeX SOP1: insight into vertical mixing processes from lower-tropospheric survey flights, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6125-6151, doi:10.5194/acp-17-6125-2017.


51. Blazina, T., A. Läderach, G. D. Jones, H. Sodemann, H. Wernli, J. W. Kirchner and L. H. E. Winkel, 2016: Marine primary productivity as a potential source of selenium and other trace elements in atmospheric deposition, Env. Sci. Techn., accepted, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b03063.

50. Spengler, T., I. Renfrew, A. Terpstra, M. Tjernström, J. Screen, I. Brooks, A. Carleton, D. Chechin, L. Chen, J. Doyle, I. Esau, P. Hezel, T. Jung, T. Kohyama,  C. Lüpkes, K. McCusker, T. Nygård, D. Sergeev, M. Shupe, H. Sodemann, and T. Vihma, 2016: High Latitude Dynamics of Atmosphere-Ice-Ocean Interactions. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00302.1, in press.

49. Läderach, A. and Sodemann, H., 2016: A revised picture of the atmospheric moisture residence time, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, doi:10.1002/2015GL067449.


48. Aemisegger, F., J. K. Spiegel, S. Pfahl, H. Sodemann, W. Eugster, and H. Wernli, 2015: Isotope meteorology of cold front pas- sages: A case study combining observations and modeling, Geo- phys. Res. Lett., 42, 5652–5660, doi:10.1002/2015GL063988.

47. Ryder, C.L., J. B. McQuaid, C. Flamant, P. D. Rosenberg, R. Washington, H. E. Brindley, E. J. Highwood, J. H. Marsham, D. J. Parker, M. C. Todd, J. R. Banks, J. K. Brooke, S. Engelstaedter, V. Estelles, P. Formenti, L. Garcia-Carreras, C. Kocha, F. Marenco, H. Sodemann, C. J. T. Allen, A. Bourdon, M. Bart, C. Cavazos-Guerra, S. Chevaillier, J. Crosier, E. Darbyshire, A. R. Dean, J. R. Dorsey, J. Kent, D. O’Sullivan, K. Schepanski, K. Szpek, J. Trembath, and A. Woolley, 2015: Advances in understanding mineral dust and boundary layer processes over the Sahara from Fennec aircraft observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8479–8520, doi:10.5194/acp-15-8479-2015.

46. Sodemann, H., Lai, T.-L. M., Marenco, F., Ryder, C., Flamant, C., Knippertz, P., Rosenberg, P., Bart, M., and McQuaid, J.,  2015: Lagrangian dust model simulations for a case of moist convective dust emission and transport in the western Sahara region during Fennec/LADUNEX, J. Geophys. Res.,  120, 6117–6144, doi:10.1002/2015JD023283.

45. Baker, A., Sodemann, H., Baldini, J. U. L., Breitenbach, S. F. M., Johnson, K. R., van Hunen, J., and Pingzhong, Z., 2015: Seasonality of westerly moisture transport in the East Asian Summer Monsoon and its implications for interpreting precipitation d18O, J. Geophys. Res., 120,  doi:10.1002/2014JD022919.

44. Steen-Larsen, H. C., Sveinbjörnsdottir, A. E., Jonsson, T., Ritter, F., Bonne, J.-L., Masson-Delmotte, V., Sodemann, H., Blunier, T., Dahl-Jensen, D., Vinther, B. M., 2015: Moisture sources and synoptic to seasonal variability of North Atlantic water vapor isotopic composition, J. Geophys. Res., 120, 5757–5774, doi:10.1002/ 2015JD023234.

43. Bonne, J.-L., Steen-Larsen, H. C., Risi, C., Werner, M., Sodemann, H., Lacour, J.-L., Fettweis, X., Cesana, G., Delmotte, M., Cattani, O., Vallelonga, P., Kjær, H. A., Clerbaux, C., Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. E., and Masson-Delmotte, V., 2015: The summer 2012 Greenland heat wave: In situ and remote sensing observations of water vapor isotopic composition during an atmospheric river event, J. Geophys. Res., 120, 2970-2989, doi:10.1002/2014JD022602.

42. Luetscher, M., Boch, R., Sodemann, H., Spoetl, C., Cheng, H., Edwards, R. L., Frisia, S., Hof, F., Mueller, W., 2015: North Atlantic storm track changes during the Last Glacial Maximum recorded by Alpine speleothems, Nature Comm. 6: 6344, doi:10.1038/ncomms7344.

41. Papritz, L., Pfahl, S., Sodemann, H., and Wernli, H, 2015: A climatology of cold air outbreaks and their impact on air-sea heat fluxes in the high-latitude South Pacific, J. Climate 28: 342-364, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00482.1


40. Papritz, L., Pfahl, S., Rudeva, I., Simmonds, I., Sodemann, H., and Wernli, H., 2014: The role of extratropical cyclones and fronts for Southern Ocean freshwater fluxes, J. Climate 27: 6205–6224, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00409.1.

39. Schäfler, A., Boettcher, M., Grams, C. M., Rautenhaus, M., Sodemann, H., and Wernli, H., 2014: Planning aircraft measurements within a warm conveyor belt, Weather 69: 161–166. doi:10.1002/wea.2245.

38. Winschall, A., Sodemann, H. ,Pfahl, S. and Wernli, H., 2014: How important is intensified evaporation for Mediterranean precipitation extremes?, J. Geophys. Res., 119: 5240–5256, doi:10.1002/2013JD021175

37. Winschall, A., Pfahl, S., Sodemann, H. and Wernli, H.. 2014. Comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics - the flood event in eastern Europe in May 2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14: 6605–6619, doi:10.5194/acp-14-6605-2014.

36. Pfahl, S. and Sodemann, H., 2014: What controls deuterium excess in global precipitation?, Clim. Past 10: 771–781, doi:10.5194/cp-10-771-2014.

35. Aemisegger, F., Pfahl, S., Sodemann, H., Lehner, I., Seneviratne, S. I., and Wernli, H., 2014: Deuterium excess as a proxy for continental moisture recycling and plant transpiration, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14: 4029–4054, doi:10.5194/acp-14-4029-2014.

34. Bonne, J. L., Masson-Delmotte, V., Cattani, O., Delmotte, M., Risi, C., Sodemann, H., and Steen-Larsen, H. C., 2014:The isotopic composition of water vapour and precipitation in Ivittuut, southern Greenland, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14: 4419–4439, doi:10.5194/acp-14-4419-2014.



33. Ryder, C. L., Highwood, E. J., Lai, T. M., Sodemann, H., and Marsham, J. H., 2013: Impact of atmospheric transport on the evolution of microphysical and optical properties of Saharan dust, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, doi:10.1002/grl.50482.

32. Sodemann, H. and Stohl, A., 2013: Moisture origin and meridional transport in atmospheric rivers, and their association with multiple cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev., accepted, doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-12-00256.1.

31. Moerman, J. W., Cobb, K. M., Adkins, J. F., Sodemann, H., Clark, B., Tuen, A. A., 2013: Diurnal to interannual rainfall δ18O variations in northern Borneo driven by regional hydrology. Earth Planet. Sci. Let., 369-370:108-119, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2013.03.014

30. Steen-Larsen, H. C., Johnsen, S. J., Masson-Delmotte, V., Stenni, B., Risi, C., Sodemann, H., Balslev-Clausen, D., Blunier, T., Dahl-Jensen, D., Ellehøj, M. D., Falourd, S., Gkinis, V., Grindsted, A., Jouzel, J., Popp, T., Sheldon, S., Simonsen, S. B., Sjolte, J., Steffensen, J. P., Sperlich, P., Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. E., Vinther, B. M., and White, J. W. C., 2013: Continuous monitoring of summer surface water vapour isotopic composition above the Greenland Ice Sheet. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4815-4828, doi:10.5194/acp-13-4815-2013.

29. Wang, Y., Sodemann, H., Hou, S., Masson-Delmotte, V. Jouzel, J. and Pang, H., 2013: Snow accumulation and its moisture origin over Dome Argus, Antarctica. Clim. Dyn., 40:731-742, doi: 10.1007/s00382-012-1398-9.

28. Ryder, C. L., Highwood, E. J., Rosenberg, P. D., Trembath, J., Brooke, J. K., Bart, M., Dean, A. Crosier, J., Dorsey, J., Brindley, H., Banks, J., Marsham, J. H., McQuaid, J. B., Sodemann, H. and Washington, R., 2013: Optical properties of Saharan dust aerosol and contribution from the coarse mode as measured during the Fennec 2011 aircraft campaign. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 303–325, doi:10.5194/acp-13-303-2013.



27. Martius, O., Sodemann, H., Joos, H., Pfahl, S., Winschall, A., Croci-Maspoli, M., Graf, M., Madonna, E., Mueller, B., Schemm, S., Sedlacek, J., Sprenger, M. and Wernli, H., 2012: The role of upper-level dynamics and surface processes for the Pakistan flood in July 2010. Quart. J. Royal Meteorol. Soc., published online, doi: 10.1002/qj.2082.

26. Kennett, D. J., Breitenbach, S. F. M., Aquino, V. V., Asmerom, Y., Awe, J., Baldini, J. U. L., Bartlein, P., Culleton, B. J., Ebert, C., Jazwa, C., Macri, M. J., Marwan, N., Polyak, V., Prufer, K. M., Ridley, H. E., Sodemann, H., Winterhalder, B. and Haug, G. H., 2012: Development and Disintegration of Maya Political Systems in Response to Climate Change. Science, 338: 788-791, doi: 10.1126/science.1226299.

25. Winschall, A., Pfahl, S., Sodemann, H. and Wernli, H., 2012: Impact of North Atlantic evaporation hot spots on southern Alpine heavy precipitation events. Quart. J. Royal Meteorol. Soc., 138:1245-1258, doi: 10.1002/qj.987.

24. Meckler, A. N., Clarkson, M. O., Cobb, K. M., Sodemann, H., and Adkins, J. F., 2012: Interglacial hydroclimate in the Tropical West Pacific through the Late Pleistocene. Science, 336: 1301-1304, doi: 10.1126/science.1218340.

23. Aemisegger, F., Sturm, P., Graf, P., Sodemann, H., Pfahl, S., Knohl, A., and Wernli, H., 2012: Measuring variations of δ18O and δ2H in atmospheric water vapour using two commercial laser-based spectrometers: an instrument characterisation study. Atmos. Meas. Techn. 5, 1491-1511.

22. Winkler, R., Landais, A., Sodemann, H., Dümbgen, L., Priéa, F., Masson-Delmotte, V., Stenni, B., and Jouzel, J., 2012: Deglaciation records of 17O-excess in East Antarctica: reliable reconstruction of oceanic relative humidity from coastal sites. Clim. Past 8, 1-16.



21. Roiger, A., Schlager, H., Schäfler, A., Huntrieser, H., Scheibe, M., Aufmhoff, H., Cooper, O. R., Sodemann, H., Stohl, A., Burkhart, J., Lazzara, M., Schiller, C., Law, K. S., and Arnold, F., 2011: In-situ observation of Asian pollution transported into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 11, 16265-16310.

20. Schmale, J., Schneider, J., Ancellet, G., Quennehen, B., Stohl, A., Sodemann, H., Burkhart, J., Hamburger, T., Arnold, S. R., Schwarzenboeck, A., Borrmann, S., and Law, K. S., 2011: Source identification and airborne chemical characterisation of aerosol pollution from long-range transport over Greenland during POLARCAT summer campaign 2008, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 11, 7593-7658.

19. Quennehen, B., Schwarzenboeck, A., Schmale, J., Schneider, J., Sodemann, H., Stohl, A., Ancellet, G., Crumeyrolle, S., and Law, K. S., 2011: Physical and chemical properties of pollution aerosol particles transported from North America to Greenland as measured during the POLARCAT summer campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 11, 11771-11808.

18. Sodemann, H., Pommier, M., Arnold, S. R., Monks, S. A., Stebel, K., Burkhart, J. F., Hair, J. W., Diskin, G. S., Clerbaux, C., Coheur, P.-F., Hurtmans, D., Schlager, H., Blechschmidt, A.-M., Kristjánsson, J. E., and Stohl, A., 2011: Episodes of cross-polar transport in the Arctic troposphere during July 2008 as seen from models, satellite, and aircraft observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3631-3651.

17. Brock, C. A., Cozic, J., Bahreini, R., Froyd, K. D., Middlebrook, A. M., McComiskey, A., Brioude, J., Cooper, O. R., Stohl, A., Aikin, K. C., de Gouw, J. A., Fahey, D. W., Ferrare, R. A., Gao, R.-S., Gore, W., Holloway, J. S., Hübler, G., Jefferson, A., Lack, D. A., Lance, S., Moore, R. H., Murphy, D. M., Nenes, A., Novelli, P. C., Nowak, J. B., Ogren, J. A., Peischl, J., Pierce, R. B., Pilewskie, P., Quinn, P. K., Ryerson, T. B., Schmidt, K. S., Schwarz, J. P., Sodemann, H., Spackman, J. R., Stark, H., Thomson, D. S., Thornberry, T., Veres, P., Watts, L. A., Warneke, C., and Wollny, A. G., 2011: Characteristics, sources, and transport of aerosols measured in spring 2008 during the aerosol, radiation, and cloud processes affecting Arctic climate (ARCPAC) project, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 2423-2453.

16. Masson-Delmotte, V., Buiron, D., Ekaykin, A., Frezzotti, M., Gallée, H., Jouzel, J., Krinner, G., Landais, A., Motoyama, A., Oerter, H., Pol, K., Pollard, D., Ritz, C., Schlosser, E., Sime, L. C., Sodemann, H., Stenni, B., Uemura R., and Vimeux, F., 2011: A comparison of the present and last interglacial periods in six Antarctic ice cores Clim. Past, 7, 397-423. 

15. Lee, J., Worden, J., Noone, D., Bowman, K., Eldering, A., LeGrande, A., Li, J.-L. F. , Schmidt, G., and Sodemann, H., 2011: Relating tropical ocean clouds to moist processes using water vapor isotope measurements. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 741-752.



14. Sodemann, H. and Zubler, E., 2010: Seasonality and inter-annual variability of the moisture sources for Alpine precipitation during 1995-2002, Int. J. Climatol., 30: 947-961, doi:10.1002/joc.1932.

13. Hirdman, D., Burkhart, J. F., Sodemann, H., Eckhardt, S., Jefferson, A., Quinn, P. K., Sharma, S., Ström, S. and Stohl, A., 2010: Long-term trends of black carbon and sulphate aerosol in the Arctic: Changes in atmospheric transport and source region emissions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 9351-9368.

12. Hirdman, D., Sodemann, H., Eckhardt, S., Burkhart, J. F., Jefferson, A., Mefford, T., Quinn, P. K., Sharma, S., Ström, S. and Stohl, A., 2010: Source identification of short-lived air pollutants in the Arctic using statistical analysis of measurement data and particle dispersion model output, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 669-693.

11. Warneke, C., Froyd, K. D., Brioude, J., Bahreini, R., Brock, C. A., Cozic, J., de Gouw, J. A., Fahey, D. W., Ferrare, R., Holloway, J. S., Middlebrook, A. M., Miller, L., Montzka, S., Schwarz, J. P., Sodemann, H., Spackman, J. R. and Stohl, A., 2010: An important contribution to springtime Arctic aerosol from biomass burning in Russia, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L01801, doi:10.1029/2009GL041816.

10. Stohl, A., and Sodemann, H., 2010: Characteristics of atmospheric transport into the Antarctic troposphere, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D02305, doi:10.1029/2009JD012536.



9. Sodemann, H., and Stohl, A., 2009: Asymmetries in the moisture origin of Antarctic precipitation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L22803, doi:10.1029/2009GL040242.

8. Hirdman, D., Aspmo, K., Burkhart, J. F., Eckhardt, S., Sodemann, H., and Stohl, A., 2009: Transport of mercury in the Arctic atmosphere: Evidence for a spring-time net sink and summer-time source, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L12814, doi:10.1029/2009GL038345.

7. Sodemann, H., Wernli, H. and Schwierz, C., 2009: Sources of water vapour contributing to the Elbe flood in August 2002: A tagging study in a mesoscale model, Quart. J. Royal Meteorol. Soc., 135, 205-223, doi:10.1002/qj.374.


2008 and before

6. Sodemann, H., Masson-Delmotte, V., Schwierz, C., Vinther, B. M. and Wernli, H., 2008: Inter-annual variability of Greenland winter precipitation sources. Part II: Effects of North Atlantic Oscillation variability on stable isotopes in precipitation, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D12111, doi:10.1029/2007JD009416.

5. Sodemann, H., Schwierz, C., and Wernli, H., 2008: Inter-annual variability of Greenland winter precipitation sources. Lagrangian moisture diagnostic and North Atlantic Oscillation influence, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D03107, doi:10.1029/2007JD008503.

4. Stohl, A., Forster, C. and Sodemann, H., 2008: Remote sources of water vapor forming precipitation on the Norwegian west coast at 60°N - a tale of hurricanes and an atmospheric river, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D05102, doi:10.1029/2007JD009006.

3. Sodemann, H., Palmer, A. S., Schwierz, C., Schwikowski, M. and Wernli, H., 2006: The transport history of two Saharan dust events archived in an Alpine ice core,Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 667-688.

2. Sodemann, H. and Foken, T., 2005: Special characteristics of the temperature structure near the surface, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 80, 81-89, doi:10.1007/s00704-004-0092-1.

1. Sodemann, H. and Foken, T., 2004: Parameter estimation for an extended theory for stable atmospheric boundary layers, Quart. J. Royal Meteorol. Soc., 130, 2665-2672.

Publications in national current research information system (CRIStin)

SNOWPACE (2017-2022). As Principal Investigator of SNOWPACE (Sources of the Norwegian Winter season snow pack) we will work closely together with the group of Prof. John Burkhard at Univeristy of Oslo to analyze from which parts of the North Atlantic the water deposited with the winter snow in the Norwegian mountains in Norway comes from. We will soon announce a PhD and a PostDoc position within this new project.

INTAROS (2017-2022). As co-Investigator in INTAROS (Integrated Arctic Observing System), funded by the EU in Horizon 2020 blue growth call H2020-BG-09-2016, we will be conducting water vapour isotope measurements during research cruises to the Marginal Ice Zone. The large INTAROS project has many partners and is lead by the Nansen Centre, which is also one of the partners of Bergen's renowned Bjerknes Center.

WaVIL (2017-2020). As external partner in the WaVIL Project (Differential Absorption lidar for monitoring water vapor and isotope HDO in the lower troposphere: the Water Vapor and Isotope Lidar) funded by the French ANR and led by Cyrille Flamant at CNRS, we support the development of an exciting new instrument for the remote sensing of stable isotopes in atmospheric water vapour.

FARLAB (2015-2025). As co-manager in this Infrastruktur project FARLAB (Facility for advanced isotopic research and monitoring of weather, climate, and biogeochemical cycling) funded by the Norwegian Research Council, we are establishing state-of-the-art measurement facilities for light stable isotope analysis at University of Bergen. Our ambition for FARLAB is to become a national hub and training facility for triple-isotope analysis of liquid water samples and for water vapour isotope measurements in Norway. Take a look at our equipment and capabilities at the FARLAB home page.

COIN (2016-2018). As PI of the Collaboration Iceland-Norway project, funded by the Participation in Arctic Research and Studies Program of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs in Iceland and Norway, we coordinate activities with research groups working on stable water isotopes in Denmark and Norway through a series of workshops.

ACE (2016-2018). As collaborators in the Antarctic Circumpolar Expedition (ACE) project XI ("Investigation of air-sea interaction in the Southern Ocean from stable water isotope measurements"), we collected a unique set of samples in this project led by Heini Wernli's research group at the IACETH at ETH Zürich in Switzerland. The cruise has been very successfully completed from Dec 2016 to Mar 2017 and we are now analysing samples at FARLAB. Here are TV reports on Swiss and French television about this fascinating cruise.

TWEX-Future.no (2016-2020). As counsellor in the TWEX-Future.no project (Translating weather extremes into the future - a case for Norway) lead by Jana Sillmann at CICERO, we support the analysis of how extreme flood events produced by Atmospheric Rivers affecting Norway today and in the future are represented in high resolution climate models. The project is set up to such that enables close interaction with stakeholders and local communities.

AC-AHC2 (2015-2019). As external partner in the AC-AHC2 project (Atmospheric Circulation and Arctic Hydrological Cycle Changes) funded by the French ANR and led by Valerie Masson-Delmotte, CNRS, we contribute to the installation of a bottom-up network of water vapour measurement stations in the European Arctic, including moisture source analysis.

Research groups