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Ruth-Anne Sandaa

Professor
  • E-mailRuth.Sandaa@uib.no
  • Phone+47 55 58 46 46
  • Visitor Address
    Thormøhlensgt. 53 A/B
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7803
    5020 Bergen

 

 

 

Half of the accessible oxygen on earth is produced by marine microorganisms, which constitute ~95% of the biomass in the marine ecosystem. Viruses interfere with these biogeochemical cycles by lysing ~50% of the microbial biomass every day.  Most marine viruses are bacteriophages, since bacteria are the most common prey items. However viruses infecting photosynthetic organisms like Cyanobacteria (cyanophages) and Phytoplankton (algal viruses) are also important players in marine ecology as their host organisms are responsible for most of the primary production in the ocean. My primary research objective is to gain information about these viral-host interactions in the marine environment.  

Research topics:

  • Describe and qualify the dynamics and diversity of viral communities and their effects on the host community in natural and experimental ecosystems.
  • Generate new knowledge of two mortality mechanisms causing lysis of marine phytoplankton: viral infection and programmed cell death (PCD), and explore relations between them.
  • Identify viral genes that may play important roles in the metabolic processes of their hosts, increasing both the host and the phage fitness in these environments (co-evolution).
  • Uncovering the keys to success of viruses in extreme marine environments like Arctic deep-sea hydrothermal vent and methane seeps systems.
Journal articles
  • Johannessen, Torill Vik; Larsen, Aud; Bratbak, Gunnar; Pagarete, António; Edvardsen, Bente; Egge, Elianne Dunthorn; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 2017. Seasonal dynamics of haptophytes and dsDNA algal viruses suggest complex virus-host relationship. Viruses. 9. doi: 10.3390/v9040084
  • Ruiz Martinez, Eliana; Oosterhof, Monique; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Larsen, Aud; Pagarete, António. 2017. Emerging interaction patterns in the Emiliania huxleyi-EhV system. Viruses. 9:61: 1-14. doi: 10.3390/v9030061
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Pree, Bernadette; Larsen, Aud; Våge, Selina; Tøpper, Birte; Töpper, Joachim Paul; Thyrhaug, Runar; Thingstad, T. Frede. 2017. The Response of Heterotrophic Prokaryote and Viral Communities to Labile Organic Carbon Inputs Is Controlled by the Predator Food Chain Structure. Viruses. 9. doi: 10.3390/v9090238
  • Paulsen, Maria Lund; Doré, Hugo; Garczarek, Laurence; Seuthe, Lena; Müller, Oliver; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Bratbak, Gunnar; Larsen, Aud. 2016. Synechococcus in the Atlantic Gateway to the Arctic Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science. 3:191. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2016.00191
  • Pitta, Paraskevi; Nejstgaard, Jens Christian; Tsagaraki, Tatiana; Zervoudaki, Soultana; Egge, Jorun Karin; Frangoulis, Constantin; Lagaria, Anna; Magiopoulos, Iordanis; Psarra, Stella; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Skjoldal, Evy Foss; Tanaka, Tsuneo; Thyrhaug, Runar; Thingstad, T. Frede. 2016. Confirming the "rapid phosphorus transfer from microorganisms to mesozooplankton in the eastern mediterranean sea" scenario through a mesocosm experiment. Journal of Plankton Research. 38: 502-521. doi: 10.1093/plankt/fbw010
  • Egge, Elianne Sirnæs; Johannessen, Torill Vik; Andersen, Tom; Eikrem, Wenche; Bittner, Lucie; Larsen, Aud; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Edvardsen, Bente. 2015. Seasonal diversity and dynamics of haptophytes in the Skagerrak, Norway, explored by high-throughput sequencing. Molecular Ecology. 24: 3026-3042. doi: 10.1111/mec.13160
  • Gallot-lavallée, Lucie; Pagarete, António; Legendre, Matthieu; Santini, Sebastien; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Bratbak, Gunnar; Claverie, Jean-Michel. 2015. The 474-kilobase-pair complete genome sequence of CeV-01B, a virus infecting Haptolina (Chrysochromulina) ericina (Prymnesiophyceae). Genome Announcements. 3: 1-2. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.01413-15
  • Johannessen, Torill Vik; Bratbak, Gunnar; Larsen, Aud; Ogata, Hirotaka; Egge, Elianne Sirnæs; Edvardsen, Bente; Eikrem, Wenche; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 2015. Characterisation of three novel giant viruses reveals huge diversity among viruses infecting Prymnesiales (Haptophyta). Virology. 476: 180-188. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2014.12.014
  • Pagarete, António; Grébert, Théophile; Stepanova, Olga; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Bratbak, Gunnar. 2015. Tsv-N1: A novel DNA algal virus that infects tetraselmis striata. Viruses. 7: 3937-3953. doi: 10.3390/v7072806
  • Storesund, Julia Endresen; Erga, Svein Rune; Ray, Jessica Louise; Thingstad, T. Frede; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 2015. Top-down and bottom-up control on bacterial diversity in a western Norwegian deep-silled fjord. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 91:fiv076. doi: 10.1093/femsec/fiv076
  • Pagarete, António; Kusonmano, Kanthida; Petersen, Kjell; Kimmance, Susan A.; Martínez Martínez, Joaquin; Wilson, William H.; Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Allen, Michael J.; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 2014. Dip in the gene pool: Metagenomic survey of natural coccolithovirus communities. Virology. 466-467: 129-137. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2014.05.020
  • Ray, Jessica Louise; Haramaty, Liti; Thyrhaug, Runar; Fredricks, Helen F.; Van Mooy, Benjamin A.S.; Larsen, Aud; Bidle, Kay D.; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 2014. Virus infection of Haptolina ericina and Phaeocystis pouchetii implicates evolutionary conservation of programmed cell death induction in marine haptophyte-virus interactions. Journal of Plankton Research. 36: 943-955. doi: 10.1093/plankt/fbu029
  • Thingstad, Tron Frede; Våge, Selina; Storesund, Julia Endresen; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Giske, Jarl. 2014. A theoretical analysis of how strain-specific viruses can control microbial species diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 111: 7813-7818. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1400909111
  • Pagarete, Antonio; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T.; Johannessen, Torill Vik; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Thingstad, Tron Frede; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 2013. Strong seasonality and interannual recurrence in marine myovirus communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 79: 6253-6259. doi: 10.1128/AEM.01075-13
  • Pagarete, Antonio; Lanzén, Anders; Puntervoll, Pål; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Larsen, Aud; Larsen, Jens Borggaard; Allen, Michael J; Bratbak, Gunnar. 2013. Genomic sequence and analysis of EhV-99B1, a new coccolithovirus from the Norwegian fjords. Intervirology. 56: 60-66. doi: 10.1159/000341611
  • Tøpper, Birte; Thingstad, Tron Frede; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 2013. Effects of differences in organic supply on bacterial diversity subject to viral lysis. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 83: 202-213. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2012.01463.x
  • Heldal, Mikal; Norland, Svein; Erichsen, Egil Severin; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Larsen, Aud; Thingstad, Tron Frede; Bratbak, Gunnar. 2012. Mg2+ as an indicator of nutritional status in marine bacteria. The ISME Journal. 6: 524-530. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2011.130
  • Ray, Jessica Louise; Dondrup, Michael; Modha, Sejal; Steen, Ida Helene; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Clokie, Martha. 2012. Finding a needle in the virus metagenome haystack - micro-metagenome analysis captures a snapshot of the diversity of a bacteriophage armoire. PLoS ONE. 7. 13 pages. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034238
  • Ray, Jessica Louise; Tøpper, Birte; An, Shu; Silyakova, Anna; Spindelbøck, Joachim; Thyrhaug, Runar; DuBow, Michael; Thingstad, Tron Frede; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 2012. Effect of increased pCO2 on bacterial assemblage shifts in response to glucose addition in Fram Strait seawater mesocosms. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 82: 713-723. Published 2012-08-06. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2012.01443.x
  • Fahlgren, C; Bratbak, Gunnar; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Thyrhaug, Runar; Zweifel, Ulla Li. 2011. Diversity of airborne bacteria in samples collected using different devices for aerosol collection. Aerobiologia. 27: 107-120. doi: 10.1007/s10453-010-9181-z
  • Goldsmith, Dawn B.; Crosti, Giuseppe; Dwivedi, Bhakti; McDaniel, Lauren D.; Varsani, Arvind; Suttle, Curtis A.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Breitbart, Mya. 2011. Development of phoH as a Novel Signature Gene for Assessing Marine Phage Diversity. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 77: 7730-7739. doi: 10.1128/AEM.05531-11
  • Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ray, Jessica Louise; Toyoda, Kensuke; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Nagasaki, Keizo; Bratbak, Gunnar; Claverie, Jean-Michel. 2011. Two new subfamilies of DNA mismatch repair proteins (MutS) specifically abundant in the marine environment. The ISME Journal. 5: 1143-1151. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2010.210
  • Van der Meeren, Terje; Brunvold, Laila; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Bergh, Øivind; Castberg, Tonje; Thyrhaug, Runar; Mangor-Jensen, Anders. 2011. Water quality and microbial community structure in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) cultures. Aquaculture. 316: 111-120. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.03.016
  • Tøpper, Birte; Larsen, Aud; Thingstad, Tron Frede; Thyrhaug, Runar; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 2010. Bacterial community composition in an Arctic phytoplankton mesocosm bloom: the impact of silicate and glucose. Polar Biology. 33: 1557-1565. doi: 10.1007/s00300-010-0846-4
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Gomez-Consarnau, Laura; Pinhassi, Jarone; Riemann, Lasse; Malits, Andrea; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Gasol, Josep M.; Thingstad, T. Frede. 2009. Viral control of bacterial biodiversity - evidence from a nutrient-enriched marine mesocosm experiment. Environmental Microbiology. 11: 2585-2597. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.01983.x
  • Larsen, Jens Borggaard; Larsen, Aud; Bratbak, Gunnar; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of members of the Phycodnaviridae virus family, using amplified fragments of the major capsid protein gene. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74: 3048-3057. doi: 10.7128/AEM.02548-07
  • Larsen, Jens Borggaard; Larsen, Aud; Thyrhaug, Runar; Bratbak, Gunnar; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 2008. Response of marine viral populations to a nutrient induced phytoplankton bloom at different pCO2 levels. Biogeosciences. 5: 523-533.
  • Monier, Adam; Larsen, Jens Borggaard; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Bratbak, Gunnar; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Ogata, Hiroyuki. 2008. Marine mimivirus relatives are probably large algal viruses. Virology Journal. 5. 8 pages. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-5-12
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 2008. Burden or benefit? Virus-host interactions in the marine environment. Research in Microbiology. 159: 374-381. doi: 10.1016/j.resmic.2008.04.013
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Brunvold, Laila; Magnesen, Thorolf; Bergh, Øivind. 2008. Monitoring the opportunistic bacteria Pseudoalteromonas sp. LT-13 in a great scallop, Pecten maximus hatchery. Aquaculture. 276: 14-21. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.02.007
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Clokie, Martha; Mann, Nicholas H. 2008. Photosynthetic genes in viral populations with a large genomic size range from Norwegian coastal waters. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 63: 2-11. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2007.00400.x
  • Thingstad, T. Frede; Bellerby, Richard; Bratbak, Gunnar; Børsheim, Knut Yngve; Egge, Jorun Karin; Heldal, Mikal; Larsen, Aud; Neill, Craig Chandler; Nejstgaard, Jens Christian; Norland, Svein; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Skjoldal, Evy Foss; Tanaka, Tsuneo; Thyrhaug, Runar; Tøpper, Birte. 2008. Counterintuitive carbon-to-nutrient coupling in an Arctic pelagic ecosystem. Nature. 455: 387-391. Published 2008-09-18. doi: 10.1038/nature07235
  • Brunvold, Laila; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Mikkelsen, Helene; Welde, Eirik; Bleie, Hogne; Bergh, Øivind. 2007. Characterisation of bacterial communities associated with intensively reared cod (Gadus morhua) larvae using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Aquaculture. 272: 319-327. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.08.053
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Larsen, Aud. 2006. Seasonal variations in virus-host populations in Norwegian coastal waters: Focusing on the cyanophage community infecting marine Synechococcus spp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 72: 4610-4618. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00168-06
  • Brussaard, Corina P.D.; Noordeloos, A.A.M.; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Heldal, Mikal; Bratbak, Gunnar. 2004. Discovery of a dsRNA virus infecting the marine photosynthetic protist Micromonas pusilla. Virology. 319: 280-291.
  • Kurabachew, M; Enger, O; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Skuce, R; Bjorvatn, Bjarne. 2004. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for genus-, group- and species-specific detection of mycobacteria. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease. 49: 99-104.
  • Larsen, Aud; Flaten, Gro Anita Fonnes; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Castberg, Tonje; Thyrhaug, Runar; Erga, Svein Rune; Jacquet, Stephan; Bratbak, Gunnar. 2004. Spring phytoplankton bloom dynamics in Norwegian coastal waters: Microbial community succession and diversity. Limnology and Oceanography. 49: 180-190.
  • Larsen, Aud; Flaten, Gro Anita Fonnes; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Castberg, Tonje; Thyrhaug, Runar; Erga, Svein Rune; Jacquet, Stephan; Bratbak, Gunnar. 2004. Spring phytoplankton bloom dynamics in Norwegian coastal waters: Microbial community succession and diversity. Limnology and Oceanography. 49: 180-190.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Magnesen, Thorolf. 2004. Produksjon av kamskjellyngel. Vekk med antibiotika og opp med overlevelsen. Norsk Fiskeoppdrett. 59-61.
  • Kurabachew, Mekonnen; Enger, Øivind; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Lemma, Eshetu; Bjorvatn, Bjarne. 2003. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis in the differentiation of related species of mycobacteria. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 55: 83-90.
  • Kurabachew, Mekonnen; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Enger, Øivind; Bjorvatn, Bjarne. 2003. Sequence analysis in the 23S rDNA region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and related species. Journal of Microbial Methods. 54: 373-380.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 2003. Vennlige Virus. Bergens Tidende. Published 2003-12-17.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Magnesen, Thorolf. 2003. Characterization of the bacterial community associated with early stages of great scallop (Pecten maximus) using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 302-311.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Magnesen, Thorolf; Torkildsen, Lise; Bergh, Øivind. 2003. Characterisation of bacterial communities associated with early life stages of cultured Great Scallop, Pecten maximus using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 26: 302-311.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Skjoldal, Evy Foss; Bratbak, Gunnar. 2003. Virioplankton community structure along a salinity gradient in a solar saltern. Extremophiles. 7: 347-351.
  • Øvreås, Lise; Bourne, David; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Casamayor, Emilio; Benlloch, Susana; Goddard, Victoria; Smerdon, Gary; Heldal, Mikal; Thingstad, Tron Frede. 2003. Response of bacterial and viral communities to nutrient manipulations in seawater mesocosms. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 31: 109-212.
  • Castberg, Tonje; Thyrhaug, Runar; Larsen, Aud; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Heldal, Mikal; van Etten, J.L.; Bratbak, Gunnar. 2002. Isolation and characterization of a virus that infects Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 38: 767-774.
  • Castberg, Tonje; Larsen, Aud; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Brussaard, Corina P. D.; Egge, Jorun Karin; Heldal, Mikal; Thyrhaug, Runar; Van Hannen, Eric; Bratbak, Gunnar. 2001. Microbial population dynamics and diversity during a bloom of the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Marine Ecology Progress Series. 221: 39-46.
  • Larsen, Aud; Castberg, Tonje; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Brussaard, Corina P. D.; Egge, Jorun Karin; Heldal, Mikal; Paulino, Ana; Thyrhaug, Runar; Van Hannen, Eric; Bratbak, Gunnar. 2001. Population dynamics and diversity of phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses in a seawater enclosure. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 221: 47-57.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Heldal, Mikal; Castberg, Tonje; Thyrhaug, Runar; Bratbak, Gunnar. 2001. Isolation and characterization of two viruses with large genome size infecting Chrysochromulina ericina (Prymneriophyceae) and Pyramimonas orientalis (Prasinophyceae). Virology. 290: 272-280.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Torsvik, Vigdis; Enger, Øivind. 2001. Influence of long-term heavy-metal contamination on microbial communities in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 33: 287-295.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Enger, Øivind; Torsvik, Vigdis Lid. 1999. Abundance and diversity of Archaea in heavy-metal contaminated soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 65: 3293-3297.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Torsvik, Vigdis Lid; Enger, Øivind; Daae, Frida Lise; Castberg, Tonje; Hahn, Dittmar. 1999. Analysis of bacterial communities in heavy metal contaminated soils at different levels of resolution. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 30: 237-251.
  • Chatzinotas, Antonis; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Schönhuber, Wilhelm; Amann, Rudolf; Daae, Frida Lise; Torsvik, Vigdis Lid; Zeyer, Josef; Hahn, Dittmar. 1998. Analysis of broad-scale differences in microbial community composition of two pristine forest soils. Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 21: 579-587.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Enger, Øivind; Torsvik, Vigdis Lid. 1998. Rapid method for fluorometric quantification of DNA in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 30: 265-268.
  • Torsvik, Vigdis Lid; Daae, Frida Lise; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Øvreås, Lise. 1998. Novel techniques for analysing microbial diversity in natural and perturbed environments. Journal of Biotechnology. 64: 53-62.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Enger, Ø. 1996. High frequency transfer of a broad host range plasmid present in an atypical strain of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 24: 71-75.
  • Andersen, S. R.; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 1994. Distribution of tetracycline resistant determinants among Gram... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 60: 908-912.
  • Enger, Ø.; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 1994. Immunomagnetic beads as a tool in conjugation experiments. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 19: 111-115.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 1994. Spredning av antibiotikaresistens blandt bakterier fra ... Miljøvirkninger ved havbruk.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Enger, Ø. 1994. Transfer in Marine sediments of the naturally occuring plasmid pRAS1 encoding multiple antibiotic resistance. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 60.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 1993. Transfer and maintenance of the plasmid RP4 in marine sediments. Microbial Releases.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Torsvik, Vigdis Lid; Goksøyr, J. 1992. Transferable drug resistance in bacteria isolated from fish farm sedime ents. Canadian journal of microbiology (Print). 42: 1061-1065.
Reports and theses
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 1994. Conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in marine sediments. Dr.thesis. UiB-MatNat: institutt for mikrobiologi.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Torsvik, Vigdis Lid; Goksøyr, J. 1994. Miljøeffekter ved utsetting av mikroorganismer. Dir. for naturforvaltning, BTEK 69404. UiB-MatNat: Institutt for mikrobiologi.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Torsvik, Vigdis Lid; Goksøyr, J. 1994. Miljøeffekter ved utsetting av mikroorganismer. SFT, 93513. UiB-MatNat: Institutt for mikrobiologi.
Book sections
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Short, Steven M.; Schroeder, Declan C. 2010. Fingerprinting aquatic virus communities. Chapter 2, pages 9-18. In:
    • Wilhelm, Steven W.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Suttle, Curtis A. 2010. Manual of aquatic viral ecology. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. ISBN: 0000000000000.
  • Sandaa, Ruth-Anne. 2009. Viral pool, environmental. -, pages 553-567. In:
    • Schaechter, Moselio. 2009. Encyclopedia of microbiology, volume 3. Elsevier. 3944 pages. ISBN: 978-0-12-373944-5.
  • Torsvik, Vigdis; Daae, Frida L.; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Øvreås, Lise. 2000. Molecular biology and genetic diversity of microorganisms. 43-57. In:
    • Seckbach, Joseph. 2000. Journey to diverse microbial worlds.

More information in national current research information system (CRIStin)

 

1.Sandaa, R.-A., V. Torsvik, J. Goksøyr. 1992. Transferable drug resistance in bacteria from fish-farm sediments. Can. J. Microbiol. 38:1061-1065.

2.Sandaa, R.-A. 1993. Transfer and maintenance of the plasmid RP4 in marine sediments. Microb. Releases. 2:115-119.

3.Enger, Ø., R.-A. Sandaa. 1994. Immunomagnetic beads as a tool in conjugation experiments. J. of Microb. Meth. 19:111-115.

4.Sandaa R.-A., and Ø. Enger. 1994. High frequency transfer of a broad host range plasmid indigenous to the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. Dis. Aquat. Org. 24:71-75.

5.Sandaa, R.-A., and Ø. Enger. 1994. Transfer of a naturally occurring plasmid in  Aeromonas salmonicida 718 in unsterile marine sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 4234-4238.

6.Andersen, S.R., R.-A. Sandaa. 1994. Distribution of tetracycline resistance determinants among gram-negative bacteria isolated from polluted and unpolluted marine sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:908-912.

7.Sandaa, R-A., Ø. Enger, and V. Torsvik. 1998. Rapid method for fluorometric quantification of bacterial DNA in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 30:265-268.

8.Torsvik, V., F.L. Daae, R.-A. Sandaa, and L. Øvreås. 1998. Review. Novel Techniques for analysing microbial diversity in natural and pertutibed environments. J  Biotech 64:53-62

9.Chatzinotas A., R.-A. Sandaa, D. Hahn, W. Schönhuber, F.L. Daae, V. Torsvik, J. Zeyer, and R. Amann. 1998. Analysis of Broad-scale Differences in Microbial Community Compositions of Two Pristine Forest Soils. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 21:579-587

10.  Sandaa, R-A., V. Torsvik, Ø. Enger, F.L. Daae, T. Castberg and D. Hahn. 1999. Analysis of bacterial communities in heavy metal contaminated soils at different levels of resolution. FEMS Microb. Ecol. 30:237-251.

11.  Sandaa, R-A., Ø. Enger, and V. Torsvik. 1999. Abundance of Archaea in Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:3293-3297

12.  Torsvik, V., F.L. Daae, R.-A. Sandaa and L. Øvreås. 2000. Molecular Biology and genetic diversity of microorganisms. In: Journey to diverse Microbial world: Adaptation to exotic environments. J. Seckbach (Ed.) Kluwer Academic Publishers. the Netherlands. pp 43-57.

13.  Sandaa, R.-A., V. Torsvik and Ø. Enger. 2001. Influence by long term heavy metal contamination on microbial communities in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 33:287-295.

14.  Larsen, A., T. Castberg, R.-A. Sandaa, C. Brussaard, J. Egge, J., M. Heldal, A. Paulino, R. Thyrhaug, E. van Hannen, and G. Bratbak. 2001. Population dynamics and diversity of phytoplankton, bacteria and virus in a seawater enclosure. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 221: 47-57.

15.  Castberg, T, A. Larsen,  R-A Sandaa, C.P.D  Brussaard,  J. Egge, M. Heldal, R. Thyrhaug,  E. van Hannen, G. Bratbak. 2001. Microbial population dynamics and diversity during blooms of the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 221:39-46.

16.  Smalla K., E. Krogerrecklenfort, H. Heuer, W. Dejonghe, E. Top, M. Osborn, J. Niewint, C. Tebbe, M. Barr, M. Bailey, A. Greated, C. Thomas, S. Turner, P. Young, D. Nikolakopoulou, A. Karagouni, A. Wolters, J. D. van Elsas, K. Drønen, R. Sandaa, S. Borin, J. Brabhu, E. Grohmann and P. Sobecky. 2000. PCR-based detection of mobile genetic elements in total community DNA. Microbiol. 146:1256-1257

17.  Sandaa, R.-A., M. Heldal, T. Castberg, R. Thyrhaug and G. Bratbak. 2001. Isolation and characterization of two viruses with large genom size infecting Chrysochromulina ericina (Prymnesiophyceae) and Pyramimonas orientalis (Prasinophyceae). Virol. 290:272-280

18.  Castberg, T, R. Thyrhaug,  A. Larsen, R-A.  Sandaa, M. Heldal, G. Bratbak. 2002. Isolation and characterization of virus infecting Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyceae). Phycol. 38:767-774

19.  Øvreås, L., D. Bourne, R-A. Sandaa, E. O. Casamayor, S. Benlloch, V. Goddard, G. Smerdon, M. Heldal, T. F. Thingstad. 2003. Response of bacterial and viral communities to nutrient manipulations in seawater mesocosms. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 31: 109–121

20.  Sandaa R-A., T. Magnesen, L. Torkildsen, Ø. Bergh. 2003. Characterisation of bacterial communities associated with early life stages of cultured Great Scallop, Pecten maximus using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 26:302-311

21.  Sandaa, R-A., E. Skjoldal, G. Bratbak. 2003. Virioplankton community structure along a salinity gradient in a solar saltern. Extremophiles. 7:347-351,

22.  Kurabachew M.D., Ø. Enger, Sandaa, R-A., B. Bjorvatn. 2003. Sequence analysis in the 23SDNA region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and related species. J. Microbiol. Methods. 54:373-380

23.  Kurabachew M.D., Sandaa, R-A., Ø. Enger, B. Bjorvatn. 2003. Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) in the differentiation of related species of Mycobacteria. J. Microbiol. Methods. 55: 83-90.

24.  Larsen, A., G.A .Fonnes, R-A. Sandaa, T. Castberg, R .Thyrhaug, S.E. Erga, S. Jacquet, and G. Bratbak. 2004. Spring phytoplankton bloom in Norwegian coastal waters: Microbial community dynamics, succession and diversity. Limn. Oceanog.  49:180-190

25.  Brussaard, C.P.D, R-A. Sandaa, G. Bratbak. 2004. The discovery of a novel algal virus type infection of the phytoplankter Micromonas pusilla by a double stranded RNA reovirus. Virol. 319:280-291

26.  Kurabachew M.D., Ø. Enger, R-A. Sandaa, R.  Skuce  and B. Bjorvatn. 2004. Multiplex PCR assay for the detection of mycobacteria and species identification of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 49:99-104.

27.  Sandaa R-A., A. Larsen. 2006. Seasonal variations in viral-host populations in Norwegian coastal waters: Focusing on the cyanophage community infecting marine Synechococcus species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:4610-4618.

28.  Brunvold, L, R-A. Sandaa, H. Bleie, D. Herke, A.B. Olsen,  H. Mikkelsen, E. Welde, A. Nerland, and Ø. Bergh. 2007.  Characterisation of bacterial communities associated with intensively reared cod (Gadus morhua) larvae using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE).  Aquaculture, 272: 319-327

29.  Sandaa R-A., M. Clokie, N. Mann. 2008. Photosynthetic genes in viral populations within a huge genomic size range, isolated from Norwegian coastal waters.  FEMS Microb. Ecol. 63:2-11

30.  Sandaa, R-A., L. Brunvold,  T. Magnesen, and Ø. Bergh. 2008.  Monitoring opportunistic bacteria in a hatchery for great scallop, Pecten maximus by means of Denaturing Gradient Gel Elecrophoresis (DGGE). Aquaculture 276:14–21.

31.  Monier A., J. Borggaard Larsen, R-A. Sandaa, G. Bratbak, J-M. Claverie, H. Ogata. 2008. Marine mimivirus relatives are probably large algal viruses. Virol. J. 5:12

32.  Larsen, J.B., A. Larsen, R. Thyrhaug, G. Bratbak, and R-A. Sandaa. 2008. Marine viral populations detected during a nutrient induced phytoplankton bloom at elevated pCO2 levels. Biogeosciences 5: 523–533

33.  Larsen, J.B. A. Larsen, G. Bratbak, and R.-A. Sandaa. 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of members of the Phycodnaviridae virus family using amplified fragments of the major capsid protein gene. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.  74:3048-3057.

34.     Sandaa, R-A. 2008. Review. Burden or Benefit-viral –host interaction in the marine environment. Review in Research in Microbiology, 159, 374-381.

35.     Thingstad TF, R.G.J. Bellerby, G. Bratbak, K.Y. Børsheim, J.K. Egge, M. Heldal, A. Larsen, C. Neill, J. Nejstgaard, S. Norland, R-A. Sandaa, E.F. Skjoldal, T. Tanaka, R. Thyrhaug, B. Töpper. 2008. Counterintuitive food web response to organic carbon enrichment in anarctic pelagic ecosystem.  Nature,  455:387-390

36.  Sandaa, R-A.  2009. Viral pool, environmental. In: Encyclopedia in Microbiology, third edition, Ed: Moselio Schaechter, Section: Environmental Microbiology and Ecology.  pp 553-567. Elsevier Ltd.   

37.  Sandaa, R-A., S. Short, D. Schröder.  2009, Fingerprinting aquatic virus communities. In: Methods in Aquatic Viral Ecology.  American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.,   Chapter 2, pp 9–18.

38.  Sandaa, R.-A., L. Gomez-Consarnau, J. Pinhassi, L. Riemann, A. Malits, M. Weinbauer, P.A. Gasol,  and T. F. Thingstad. 2009. Viruses control of bacterial biodiversity - Linkages between viral and bacterial community structure in a nutrient enriched mesocosm experiment. Environmental Microbiology, 11:2585-2595.

39.  Birte Töpper, Aud Larsen, Tron Frede Thingstad, Runar Thyrhaug & Ruth-Anne Sandaa. 2010.Dynamics in bacterial community composition during an Arctic phytoplankton mesocosm bloom. Polar Biology, 33:1557–1565.

40.  Fahlgren, C., Bratbak, G., Sandaa, R-A., Thyrhaug, R., Zweifel, U.L. 2010. Diversity of airborne bacteria in samples collected by use of different devices for aerosol collection. Aerobiologia 1:14.

41.  van der Meeren T, Brunvold, L., Sandaa, R-A., Bergh, Ø., Castberg, T.,Thyrhaug, R., Mangor-Jensen, A.  2011. Water quality and microbial community structure in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) cultures. Aquaculture International, 316:111-120.

42.  Ogata, H., Ray, J., Toyoda, K., Sandaa, R.-A, Nagasaki K, Bratbak, G.,  Claverie, J.M. 2011. Girus-encoded MutS subfamilies abundant in the marine environment. ISME journal, 1-9.

43.  Goldsmith, Crosti, Varsani, McDaniel, Dwivedi, Carlson, Suttle, Weinbauer, Sandaa, Breitbart.2011.  Pho Regulon Genes in Phage: Development of a Novel Signature Gene for Assessing Marine Phage Diversity. Appl. Microb. Ecol,77:7730-7739

44.  Heldal, M, Norland, S, Erichsen, E.S., Sandaa, R.-A.Larsen, A., Thingstad, F. and Bratbak, G. 2011. Mg2+ as an indicator of nutritional status in marine bacteria, ISME Journal, 1–7.

45.  Modha, S. Ray, J., Dondrup, M., Steen, I. H., Sandaa, R.-A. and Clokie, M.. Finding the needle in the  metagenomic viral haystack -  Micro-metagenome analysis captures a snapshot of the evolution of a bacteriophage armoire, submitted to PLoS One

Molecular Microbial ecology.

  • Micropolar
  • Microbial network organisation (MINOS)
  • Diversity and dynamics of marine Haptophytes (HAPTODIV)
  • Research groups