Comparative Energy law - Renewable energy and energy market
10 ECTS Credits
Level of Study
Autumn. Exams are held autumn and spring.
Place of Instruction
Bergen Law Faculty
Objectives and Content
Goals and content:
The course will provide the students with knowledge on the rules governing production of energy from non-fossil sources (hydro, wind, waves, solar, geo and nuclear) and transportation and marketing of energy. The course will have an international and comparative perspective with emphasis on the regulation in Scandinavia, EU, USA and Australia. The regulation of petroleum production will not be covered in this course.
Energy law is an important discipline as energy production and distribution is pivotal to the functioning of the society and economic and social development. All major countries have in the last decades reformed their energy legislation according to new policy. A development from public or semi-public producers and distributors of energy with legal monopolies to privatization and market-organisation has taken place in most countries the last decades.
The course will give insight in basic principles for resource management, the relation between public interest and business and modern market instruments. Energy law is also at the very centre of environmental law and the question of sustainable development. The World is facing a great challenge in producing enough energy in a manner that does not lead to global warming and climate change.
The course concentrates on alternatives to fossil fuel and on the systems for effective distribution and use of energy.
The course will concentrate on basic principles and regulation systems. Central themes are:
- Concession systems for energy production
- Safety regulation
- EU-directives for Natural gas market and Electricity market analysed and compared with parallel regulation other countries.
- The legal instruments for opening of the energy market for competition through access to transport systems and competition regulation
- The dominating legal models and for organisation of energy markets (oil, natural gas and electricity)
- Environmental aspects of energy production and distribution. Impact of climate regulation and establishment of a carbon market on energy marketing.
The students shall at the end of the course have obtained knowledge on
- The fundamental problems, concepts and principles of energy law
- Have good knowledge and understanding of the regulatory systems for electricity production, from renewable resources, such as concession regulation, access to energy resources, safety regulation and environmental regulation.
- Know the regulation of transport and market access for energy, such as third party access to transportation systems, unbundling, system operator's role.
- Know the organization and regulation of markets for oil, natural gas and electricity
- Understand the relation between energy regulation and the carbon market and climate regulation
- Identify and solve legal problems in energy production, distribution and marketing
Required Previous Knowledge
Bachelor in law or equivalent (three years of legal studies)
Good level of English
Recommended Previous Knowledge
Three years of legal studies
Access to the Course
The course is available for the following students:
- Admitted to the integrated master programme in law
- Admitted to the two-year master programme in law
- Granted admission to elective courses at the Faculty of Law
- Granted additional right to study following completed master degree in law at UiB
- Exchange students at the Faculty of Law
The pre-requirements may still limit certain students' access to the course
Teaching Methods and Extent of Organized Teaching
Compulsory Assignments and Attendance
During the course the students shall write a final paper of maximum 2000 words on a subject provided by the course supervisor. The paper must be approved before the student can sit the exam.
Forms of Assessment
Exam each semester.
Four hour digital school exam.
Information about digital examination can be found here:
Question paper: English
Answer paper: English
Examination Support Material
Support materials allowed during exam:
See section 3-5 of the Supplementary Regulations for Studies at the Faculty of Law at the University of Bergen.
In addition: Collection of relevant material supplied by the Faculty of Law
Special regulations about dictionaries:
- According to the Regulations for Studies, one dictionary is permitted support material during the examination. Bilingual dictionaries containing for example both Norwegian-English and English-Norwegian are considered as one dictionary.
- Bilingual dictionaries to/from the same two languages - for example Norwegian-English/English-Norwegian - in two different volumes are also considered as one dictionary (irrespective of publisher or edition).
- Dictionaries as described above cannot be combined with any other types of dictionaries.
- Any kind of combination which makes up more than two physical volumes is forbidden.
In case a student has a special need for any other combination than the above mentioned, such combination has to be clarified with/approved by the course coordinator minimum two weeks before the exam. Students who have not been granted permission to have a special combination minimum two weeks before the exam will be subject to the usual regulations (Section 3-5) about examination support materials.
A - E for passed, F for failed.
Exam each semester.
According to administrative arrangements for evaluating courses at the Faculty of Law.
Professor Ernst Nordtveit.