Longitudinal studies in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), cognitive functioning and cortisol profiles.
Hammar is head of the node Bergen Mood and Cognitive Function Group (MCF) with several doctoral candidates been working with issues dealing with major depression, cognitive functioning and longitudinal studies. Data collection has been conducted in three large main studies and Hammar is the principal investigator for all projects included in these studies.
All investigations include a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, consisting of both experimental and standardized tests, cortisol measurements with dexamethasone, self-reports concerning cognitive functioning, quality of life, working capacity, coping strategies, ruminative style and dysfunctional attitudes. Some patients have been investigated with fMRI.
The first study is a literature of the longest follow-up studies within a group of patients who suffer from recurrent depression and examining cognitive functioning over a 10 year period.
The other main project is a longitudinal study that included patients with recurrent depression.
The third major project is one of the first worldwide to collect a patient group of first episode depressed patients and follow them over time.
Several findings are generated from these data and materials published in international journals (see publication list).
Another major project is currently collecting data from patients in remission.
Further, we are currently conducting a 5-year follow-up on the first episode patient group.
Hammar is also a partner in various projects that examine children with autism, patients with anxiety, bipolar patients receiving ECT treatment, biological markers in adolescents who survived the Utøya massacre.
Since 1997 I have been a lecturer at the Professional studies in Psychology at UiB, including both biological psychology and neuropsychological courses (including master’s and bachelor’s level), as well as several other teaching activities. I have also been lecturing in psychological courses for the Master’s training in Logopedy at UiB between 2001-2010.000
- 2021. First-Episode Patients Report Cognitive Difficulties in Executive Functioning 1 Year After Initial Episode of Major Depressive Disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 1-10.
- 2021. Examining the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status validity indices in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The Clinical Neuropsychologist. 1-18.
- 2021. An open pilot study of an internet-delivered intervention targeting self-perceived residual cognitive symptoms after major depressive disorder. Applied neuropsychology: Adult. 1-11.
- 2020. The incidence of dental fracturing in electroconvulsive therapy in Sweden. Journal of ECT. 168-171.
- 2020. The effect of pulse width on subjective memory impairment and remission rate 6 months after electroconvulsive therapy. Journal of ECT. 272-278.
- 2020. Electroconvulsive therapy in depression: Improvement in quality of life depending on age and sex. Journal of ECT. 242-246.
- 2020. Anterior cingulate gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations and electroconvulsive therapy. Brain and Behavior. 1-11.
- 2020. A pilot study of cognitive remediation in remitted major depressive disorder patients. Applied neuropsychology: Adult. 1-11.
- 2020. A longitudinal 5-year follow-up study of cognitive function after first episode major depressive disorder: Exploring state, scar and trait effects. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 1-12.
- 2020. A Longitudinal Comparison Between Depressed Patients Receiving Electroconvulsive Therapy and Healthy Controls on Specific Memory Functions. The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders (PCC).
- 2019. The importance of clinical normative data for conceptualizing neuropsychological deficits in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Applied neuropsychology: Adult. 1-10.
- 2019. Rehospitalization of Postpartum Depression and Psychosis After Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Population-Based Study With a Matched Control Group. Journal of ECT. 264-271.
- 2019. Physical exercise augmented cognitive behaviour therapy for older adults with generalised anxiety disorder (PEXACOG): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 1-14.
- 2019. Parental predictors of children’s executive functioning from ages 6 to 10. British Journal of Developmental Psychology. 410-426.
- 2019. Norms matter: U.S. normative data under-estimate cognitive deficits in Norwegians with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The Clinical Neuropsychologist. 1-18.
- 2019. Facing recovery: Emotional bias in working memory, rumination, relapse, and recurrence of major depression; an experimental paradigm conducted five years after first episode of major depression. Applied neuropsychology: Adult. 1-13.
- 2019. Electroconvulsive therapy in bipolar depression ? effectiveness and prognostic factors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 196-204.
- 2019. Cognitive enhancement therapy for mood disorders: A new paradigm? Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry (Print). 1148-1150.
- 2017. Subjective memory immediately following electroconvulsive therapy. Journal of ECT. 96-103.
- 2016. Striatal hypoactivation and cognitive slowing in patients with partially remitted and remitted major depression. PsyCh Journal. 191-205.
- 2015. Effects of ECT in treatment of depression: Study protocol for a prospective neuroradiological study of acute and longitudinal effects on brain structure and function. BMC Psychiatry. 10 pages.
- 2015. Cognitive functioning and cortisol profiles in first episode major depression. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 379-383.
- 2015. Brain MR spectroscopy in autism spectrum disorder—the GABA excitatory/inhibitory imbalance theory revisited. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 1-12.
- 2013. Visual memory performance in patients with major depression: a 9-month follow-up. Applied Neuropsychology. 192-196.
- 2013. Verbal memory functioning in recurrent depression during partial remission and remission. Frontiers in Psychology.
- 2013. The relationship between residual symptoms of depression and emotional information processing. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 233-239.
- 2013. Subjective sleep quality in relation to inhibition and heart rate variability in patients with panic disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders. 152-155.
- 2013. Neurocognitive profiles in treatment-resistant bipolar I and bipolar II disorder depression. BMC Psychiatry.
- 2013. Intracranial arachnoid cysts: impairment of higher cognitive functions and postoperative improvement. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders. 10 pages.
- 2013. Health-related quality of life in recurrent major depressive disorder-A 10-year follow-up study. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 339-343.
- 2013. Emotional information processing in major depression remission and partial remission: faces come first. Applied Neuropsychology. 110-119.
- 2013. Cognitive functioning and cortisol suppression in recurrent major depression. PsyCh Journal. 167-174.
- 2013. Cognitive function in first episode major depressive disorder: Poor inhibition and semantic fluency performance. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. 515-530.
- 2013. A follow-up study of first episode major depressive disorder. Impairment in inhibition and semantic fluency – potential predictors for relapse? Frontiers in Psychology.
- 2012. The relationships among heart rate variability, executive functions, and clinical variables in patients with panic disorder. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 269-275.
- 2012. Information processing in patients with first episode major depression. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 445-449.
- 2012. Information processing in first episode depression. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 445-449.
- 2012. Effortful information processing in patients with major depression - A 10-year follow-up study. Psychiatry Research. 420-423.
- 2011. Testing the cognitive effort hypothesis of cognitive impairment in major depression. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 74-80.
- 2011. Prolonged Impairment in Inhibition and Semantic Fluency in a Follow-up Study of Recurrent Major Depression. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology. 677-686.
- 2011. Patients with major depression show intact memory performance- given optimal conditions. Applied Neuropsychology. 191-196.
- 2011. Is impairment in cognitive inhibition in the acute phase of major depression irreversible? Results from a 10-year follow-up study. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. 141-150.
- 2010. Go/NoGo performance in boys with Tourette Syndrome. Child Neuropsychology: A Journal of Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence. 162-168.
- 2010. Enduring cognitive dysfunction in unipolar major depression: A test-retest study using the Stroop paradigm. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 304-308.
- 2009. Cognitive functioning in major depression - a summary. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 7 pages.
- 2007. Increased parietal and frontal activation after remission from recurrent major depression: A repeated fMRI study. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 147-160.
- 2007. Functional brain asymmetry, attentional modulation, and interhemispheric transfer in boys with Tourette syndrome. Neuropsychologia. 767-774.
- 2006. Reduced white matter connectivity in the Corpus Callosum of children with Tourette syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 1013-1022.
- 2005. Frequency and characteristics of recurrent major depressed patients with inimpaired executive functions. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. 36-44.
- 2004. Brain localization of attentional control in different age groups by combining functional and structural MRI. NeuroImage. 912-919.
- 2003. Selective impairment in effortful information processing in major depression. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. 954-959.
- 2003. Major depression and cognitive dysfunction. An experimental study of the cognitive effort hypothesis. Presentasjon av sammendrag av doktorgradsavhandling. Nevropsykologi : Medlemsblad for Norsk Nevropsykologisk Forening. 18-19.
- 2003. Long-lasting cognitive impairment in unipolar major depression. A 6 month follow-up study. Psychiatry Research. 189-196.
- 2003. Automatic and effortful information processing in unipolar major depression. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 409-413.
- 2000. The significance of personality in pain from gallbladder stones. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. 759-764.
- 2000. The significance of personality in pain from gallbladder stone. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. 759-764.
- 2009. Nevropsykologiske problemstillinger innenfor de logopediske fagfeltet- Bredde og spesifisitet.
- 2019. Physical exercise augmented cognitive behaviour therapy for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder – scientific rationale, study protocol, and preliminary findings for the Pexacog trial.
- 2018. Augmenting CBT with physical exercise intreatment of generalised anxiety disorder in holder adults – results from a pilot study.
- 2010. Go/NoGo performance in boys with Tourette syndrome.
- 2010. Depression and information processing - is emotional visual search an appropriate paradigm?
- 2009. Kognitiv fungering over tid hos alvorlig deprimerte pasienter.
- 2008. Emotional information processing in major depressive disorder.
- 2005. Egentlig depression och kognitiv dysfunktion.
- 2005. Depresjon og kognitiv funksjon.
- 2003. Long-lasting cognitive dysfunction in M.D.
- 2002. Attentional deficit in patients with major depression.
- 2001. Attentional deficits in patients with major depression.
- 2017. Cognitive and affective remediation training for mood disorders. Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry (Print). 317-319.
- 2002. Kvinner oftest deprimert. Bergens Tidende.
- 2002. Beskrivelse av et undervisningsopplegg for skrivetreningsseminar. UPED-skrift.
- 2003. Major depression and cognitive dysfunction - An experimental study of the cognitive effort hypothesis (doktorgradsavhandling).
- 2011. Depresjon på annonseplass.
- 2010. Deprimerte svekket over tid.
- 2008. Studentradio UiB: Om Eksamensangst.
- 2003. Alvorlig deprimerte pasienter sliter med konsentrasjon og oppmerksomhet, lenge etterat de ikke føler seg nedfor lengre.
- 2012. The neurocognitive profile in depressed therapy resistant bipolar disorder inpatients. Bipolar Disorders. 91-91.
- 2020. Retention Memory is Broadly Normal in Young People with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders .
- 2020. Retention Memory is Broadly Normal in Young People with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder.
- 2019. ResDep: Internet-delivered remediation program for cognitive residual symptoms after major depressive disorder.
- 2019. Examining the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status Effort Index in People with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.
- 2019. Examining Perceived Executive Functioning and Objectively Measured Cognition in People with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.
- 2018. The Importance of Clinical Reference Values for Conceptualizing Neuropsychological Deficits in People with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.
- 2018. Norms Matter: US Normative Data Under-Estimates Cognitive Deficits in Norwegians with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.
- 2018. Emotional Working Memory and Depression.
- 2012. The relationships among heart rate variability, executive functions, and clinical variables in patients with panic disorder.
- 2011. Normalized Cognitive Impairment In Effortful Processing In Major Depressive Disorder- Results From A Ten Year Follow Up Study.
- 2010. Go/NoGo performance in Boys with Tourette Syndrome.
- 2009. Prolonged cognitive impairment may play a significant role for mental health functioning in Major Depressive Disorder - results from a follow up study.
- 2009. Executive functioning in recurrent major depression - investigated using the Delis Kaplan Executive function system.
- 2009. Emotional regulation in children with ADHD - a longitudinal study.
- 2001. Effortful information processing in patients with major depresseion.
- 2001. Attentional orienting in a patient with an extensive right hemisphere lesion.
- 2006. Et longitudinelt forskningsprosjekt vedrørende alvorlig depresjon og kognitive funksjoner ved Universitetet i Bergen. Nevropsykologi : Medlemsblad for Norsk Nevropsykologisk Forening. 47-49.
Cognitive function and emotional information processing in recurrent MDD- PhD- project
The National Program for Integrated Clinical Specialist and PhD-training for Psychologists, Norway
Major depression, cognitive function and cortisol- including PhD project
Research Council of Norway
fMRI study Depression and function
Helse Vest, Mood Net, Norway
Cognitive function and emotional information processing in first episode MDD
Helse Vest, Mood Net, Norway
Cognitive function in recurrent MDD- a 8-10 year follow up
Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen
Cognitive functioning in first episode MDD patients- a five year follow-up
Helse Vest, MoodNet
The neurocognitive profile in remitted MDD patients
Helse Vest, Mood Net, Strategic funds
Longitudinal studies of major Depression Disorder and cognitive functioning and emotional information processing: predictors for relapse?- PhD project
Research Council of Norway
2006 Specialist in Clinical Neuropsychology (NPF)
2003 PhD/Dr. psychol, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway. Title of thesis: Major depression and cognitive dysfunction- An experimental study of the cognitive effort hypothesis. Supervisor: Professor Kenneth Hugdahl.
1996 Cand. psychol, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen (UiB), Norway
ACADEMIC AND SCIENTIFIC POSITIONS
2012 - Professor in Clinical neuropsychology, Department of Biological and Medical Psychology (IMBP), UiB, Norway
2003- 20% Clinical position at The Division of Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital
2003-2012 Associate professor in Clinical neuropsychology, IMBP, UiB, Norway
2002 Assistant professor, Section for Clinical Neuropsychology, IMBP, UiB, Norway
1998-1999 Specialpsychologist, Section for Rehabilitation, Neurological Division, Haukeland University Hospital
1993-1996 50% Research assistant, IMBP, UiB, Norway
2013-2017 Faculty board member, Faculty of Psychology, UiB, Norway
2013–present Head of Clinic, Neuropsychological Polyclinic, UiB, Norway
2011-present Board Member, MoodNet, Regional Research Network on Mood Disorders, Helse Vest, Norway
2008-2009 Head of Clinic, Neuropsychological Polyclinic, UIB, Norway
2006-2008 Faculty board member, Faculty of Psychology, UiB, Norway
2006-2007 Head of department, IMBP, UiB, Norway
1999-2006 Member of the Faculty Committee for Research and PhD training, Faculty of Psychology, UiB, Norway