Linda Gröning's picture
  • E-maillinda.groning@uib.no
  • Phone+47 55 58 96 35
  • Visitor Address
    Magnus Lagabøtes plass 1
    5010 Bergen
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7806
    5020 Bergen

Linda Gröning is a Professor in Criminal Law at the University of Bergen, Norway.

Gröning is also the Chair of the Norwegian Criminal Law Commission, has a part time position as a senior researcher at the Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology at Haukeland University Hospital, and is a Honorary Professor at De Montfort University Law School in England.

Scientific autobiography

Gröning completed her Ph.D. thesis at the Faculty of Law in Lund, Sweden in 2008. She was recruited to the University of Bergen as a postdoctoral researcher in 2009, and and was in 2013 appointed professor of criminal law. The main themes of her research are the functionality of the criminal justice system and criminal liability, responsibility and punishment.

Gröning served on the law commission tasked with reforming the Norwegian criminal insanity rules and systems in response to the 22 July 2011 / Anders Breivik case, which resulted in significant law reform. Since 2019 she leads the permanent expert commission on criminal law reforms in Norway.

Gröning is involved in the education for forensic psychiatrists in Norway, and has provided special education for all Norwegian judges in criminal insanity law. She has also been awarded several grants from the Research Council of Norway for large research projects.

She is currently focusing on the legal doctrine of criminal insanity, and how this doctrine is related to mental disorders, with emphasis on comparative research. She is also researching assessments about children's criminal insanity and violence risk.

Linda Gröning is widely used as a speaker at conferences and seminars, and as an expert in the media. Below you will find selected outreach contributions (for a full overview, see Publications).

Invited lectures / key-notes

  • ‘Responsibility and Risk: Mental Disorder in Criminal Law’. Utrecht University, Utrecht/Netherlands, 2023.
  • ‘Criminal insanity in Norway post 22 July: Controversies and legal reforms’. Leicester De Montfort Law School/England, 2019.
  • ‘Research on legal concepts about mental disorders’. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm/Sweden, 2019.
  • ‘Mental disorder and violence: A criminal law perspective. 11th European congress on violence in clinical psychiatry, Lillestrøm/Norway, 2019.
  • ‘Criminal responsibility in a lifetime perspective’, 13th Nordic Symposium on Forensic Psychiatry, Gothenburg/Sweden, 2019.

Media coverage

Recorded lectures


Linda Gröning has wide experience with teaching and supervision of graduate students, doctoral students, post doctoral fellows and professional practitioners.


Today she has four PhD- students under supervision and is mentoring two postdoctoral researchers:

  • Martin Minderstrømmen (PhD, UiB): The concept of danger and compulsory psychiatric treatment.
  • Lucie Margot Ducarre (PhD, UiB): The right to education of autistic children.
  • Kari Øverland (Stipendiat, Helse Bergen/UiB): The child premise in experts assessments about children's criminal insanity and violence risk.
  • Natalia Tesli (PhD, UiO): Imaging violence in severe mental discorders; clinical relevance in the interface betweeen law and neuroscience. (Main supervisor: Unn K. Haukvik)
  • Stephen Mathis (Postdoc, UiB): The philosophical dimension of criminal insanity.
  • Daniil Butenko (Postdoc, Helse Bergen): The medical dimension of criminal insanity.


Faculty of Law, University of Bergen:

  • Course leader, PHDJUR903: Empirical perspectives in legal science
  • Teacher, JUS241: Criminal Law. 

Competence Center in Forensic Psychiatry:


Gröning has previously been the course leader of the PhD-course 'Perspectives on Law and Legal Science' together with professor Jørn Jacobsen at the UiB. From 2002 - 2009 Gröning was teaching criminal law, criminal procedure, international and European criminal law and European human rights law at Faculty of Law/University of Lund/Sweden.

Linda Gröning is the author and editor of a number of articles, book sections and books. Here you will find an overview of her publications sorted by category.

  • Show author(s) (2011). EU, konstitution, institution, jurisdiktion, 2 uppl. Liber AB.
  • Show author(s) (2010). EU: Konstitution, institution, jurisdiktion. Liber.
Academic article
  • Show author(s) (2023). Identifying deficits in Ukrainian law: Forensic psychiatry misuse in proceedings of administrative offenses. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Criminal insanity in Bulgaria and Norway: Analysing the prospect of a common approach. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Strafferettslig utilregnelighet: regelavklaring og rolleavklaring. Jussens venner. 399-441.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Strafferettslig utilregnelighet ved psykisk utviklingshemming – en diskusjon om regelen og praktiseringen av den. Tidsskrift for strafferett. 214-237.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Remodelling criminal insanity: Exploring philosophical, legal, and medical premises of the medical model used in Norwegian law. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Lovkommentar til straffeloven kapittel 25: Voldslovbrudd mv. Karnov lovkommentarer.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Utilregnelighet hos barn mellom 15 og 18 år: Utfordringer og muligheter. Tidsskrift for strafferett. 3-19.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Straffeloven kapittel 25: Voldsforbrytelsene. Karnov lovkommentarer.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Has Norway abandoned its medical model? Thoughts about the criminal insanity reform post 22 July. Criminal law review. 191-202.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Bruk av forvaring og sikring overfor barn 1965–2020: Tidsubestemt frihetsberøvelse av barn i et utviklingsperspektiv. Tidsskrift for strafferett. 246-272.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Constructing criminal insanity: The roles of legislators, judges and experts in Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands. New Journal of European Criminal Law. 390-410.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Criminal Insanity, Psychosis and Impaired Reality Testing in Norwegian Law. Bergen Journal of Criminal Law & Criminal Justice (BJCLCJ). 27-59.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Intoxication and self-induced criminal incapacity in Norwegian law. Bergen Journal of Criminal Law & Criminal Justice (BJCLCJ). 68-91.
  • Show author(s) (2017). I huvudet på en maratonlöpare. Reflektioner om straffansvarets biologiska förutsättningar. Tidskrift utgiven av juridiska föreningen Finland. 629-636.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Rehabilitation in Principle and Practice: Perspectives of Inmates and Officers. Bergen Journal of Criminal Law & Criminal Justice (BJCLCJ). 184-2012.
  • Show author(s) (2016). An efficient anticorruption sanctions regime. The case of the World Bank. The Chicago Journal of International Law. 523-552.
  • Show author(s) (2015). Tilregnelighet og utilregnelighet: begreper og regler. Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab. 112-148.
  • Show author(s) (2015). Ja, lovbrytere bør ha fri vilje! Til Espen Schaanning om grunnlaget og utformingen av utilregnelighetsreglene. Arr - Idéhistorisk tidsskrift. 117-128.
  • Show author(s) (2014). Kriminell lavalder - noen utgangspunkter. Tidsskrift for strafferett. 314-332.
  • Show author(s) (2014). Education for foreign inmates in Norwegian prisons: A legal and humanitarian perspective. Bergen Journal of Criminal Law & Criminal Justice (BJCLCJ). 141-163.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Straffrättssystemets funktion vid familjevåldsbrott mot barn: problem, utgångspunkter, perspektiv och svar. Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab. 369-383.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Straffgenomföring som en del av straffrättssystemet: Principförklaring av fängelsestraffets innehåll. Tidsskrift for Rettsvitenskap. 146-195.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Familjevåld i gränssnittet mellan straffrätten och barnevernsrätten: Om offentliga myndigheters rätt och plikt att anmäla av brott. Tidsskrift for strafferett. 37-63.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Familjevåld i gränssnittet mellan straffrätten och barnevernsrätten : om offentliga myndigheters rätt och plikt att anmäla brott. Tidsskrift for strafferett. 37-63.
  • Show author(s) (2012). Towards a Theory of the Criminal Justice System. Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab. 27-46.
  • Show author(s) (2010). A criminal justice system or a system deficit : notes on the system structure of the EU criminal law. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice. 115-137.
  • Show author(s) (2009). Lissabonfördraget och frågan om EU-straffrättens syfte. Retfærd. Nordisk Juridisk Tidsskrift. 22-47.
  • Show author(s) (2023). The relevance of mental disorders for criminal accountability: concepts, norms and science.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Psykisk utviklingshemming, IQ og strafferettslig utilregnelighet.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Perspectives on the responsibility doctrine in criminal law.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Comment on criminal justice assessment - Impunity in Mexico.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Vurderinger av psykisk sykdom, utilregnelighet og voldsrisiko for barn.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Strafferettslig utilregnelighet.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Status for forensic psychiatry.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Insanity, Mental disorder and Crime.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Criminal Insanity in Norwegian Law.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Straffrättslig kompetens på EU-nivå.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Reaksjonssystemet i grensesnittet mellom behandling, straff og samfunnsvern.
  • Show author(s) (2013). En inkluderende strafferett? Straff og straffegjennomføring fra strafferettens perspektiv.
Popular scientific lecture
  • Show author(s) (2021). Ti år etter 22 juli saken: Utfordringer for jussen og rettsvitenskapen. .
  • Show author(s) (2021). Kvinner i fengsel - stopper likestillingen bak murene?
  • Show author(s) (2021). Criminal Insanity - Medical. Philosophial and Legal Perspectives.
  • Show author(s) (2011). Straffets föremål och straffrättsystemets innehåll:Tankar från straffrättsvetenskapens horisont.
  • Show author(s) (2011). Straffets föremål och straffgenomföring: Frågan om utbildning i fängelset.
Academic lecture
  • Show author(s) (2023). Strafferettslig tilregnelighet – rettspraksis etter lovendringen.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Criminal insanity, risk and mental disorder: Norwegian law and beyond.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Limits of autonomy? reflections about criminal law’s treatment of intellectually disabled persons.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Barnekonvensjonen i norsk rett: Barn som tiltalt.
  • Show author(s) (2015). Insanity rules in the Nordic Countries.
  • Show author(s) (2015). Begrunnelser for straff.
  • Show author(s) (2015). Barns Skyldevne.
  • Show author(s) (2014). The rules on legal insanity: a debate.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Familjevåldsbrott mot barn.
  • Show author(s) (2013). A Criminal Law Perspective: Mental order as an excuse.
  • Show author(s) (2012). Vold i nære relasjoner fra strafferettens perspektiv.
  • Show author(s) (2012). Unity trough science? A common comparative framework for transnational criminal law.
  • Show author(s) (2012). Towards a Theory of the Criminal Justice System?
  • Show author(s) (2012). Straffegjennomføring fra strafferettens perspektiv.
  • Show author(s) (2012). Politisering av strafferetten.
  • Show author(s) (2012). Politisering av strafferetten.
  • Show author(s) (2012). Hvem har skyldevne?: (U)tilregnelighetsreglene i dag og i fremtiden.
  • Show author(s) (2010). “Security, Justice and the Criminal Justice System”.
  • Show author(s) (2010). Restorative Justice in Criminal Law: Introduction.
  • Show author(s) (2010). Problems of contemporary criminal law.
  • Show author(s) (2010). Nationell eller transnationell straffrättsvetenskap?
  • Show author(s) (2010). Internasjonalisering av strafferetten; lovgjeving og strafferettsvitskap.
Academic anthology/Conference proceedings
  • Show author(s) (2016). Rettsfølelsen i strafferettssystemet – perspektiver fra teori og praksis. Gyldendal Juridisk.
  • Show author(s) (2012). Restorative Justice and Criminal Justice. Santérus Academic Press Sweden.
Academic monograph
  • Show author(s) (2023). Frihet, forbrytelse og straff : en systematisk fremstilling av norsk strafferett.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Forbrytelser i utvalg : straffelovens regler om voldsforbrytelser, seksualforbrytelser, formuesforbrytelser og narkotikaforbrytelser. .
  • Show author(s) (2019). Frihet, forbrytelse og straff : En systematisk fremstilling av norsk strafferett.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Frihet, forbrytelse og straff. En systematisk fremstilling av norsk strafferett.
  • Show author(s) (2015). Frihet, forbrytelse og straff. En systematisk framstilling av norsk strafferett. Foreløpig versjon av del I og II.
Non-fiction book
  • Show author(s) (2013). Det europeiska projektet. Liber.
  • Show author(s) (2012). Det Europeiska projektet: politik och juridik – historia och framtid. Liber.
Feature article
  • Show author(s) (2022). Utilregnelighet er ingen diagnose. Aftenposten (morgenutg. : trykt utg.).
  • Show author(s) (2018). Utilregnelighet til besvær – igjen. Morgenbladet.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Helsehjelp som straffereaksjon. Morgenbladet.
  • Show author(s) (2018). De sakkyndiges rolle i straffesaker. Morgenbladet.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Det norske kontrollregimet. Klassekampen.
  • Show author(s) (2012). Lovgjeving i terrorens tidsalder. Hubro. Magasin for Universitetet i Bergen.
Doctoral dissertation
  • Show author(s) (2019). A Framework for Criminalization. Debating the aims of punishment and the behavioural model of the criminal law.
  • Show author(s) (2023). – Mange som bør ha straff, burde ikke vært i fengsel.
  • Show author(s) (2022). – Dro ut proppen for å dømme barn til forvaring.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Forskere mener jussen trenger bedre forståelse av utilregnelighet.
  • Show author(s) (2022). 183 saker gjenåpnet på grunn av utilregnelighet.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Utilregnlig.
Programme management
  • Show author(s) (2022). Rett og Slett #31: Varsku etter nye utilregnelighetsregler.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Rett og Slett #29: Kongsberg-drapene og psykiske lidelser.
Programme participation
  • Show author(s) (2022). Bidrar strängare straff till färre brott?
Academic chapter/article/Conference paper
  • Show author(s) (2024). Neuroscience.
  • Show author(s) (2024). Mental Illness and Criminal Responsibility.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Barn i straffesaker: skyldevne og reaksjonsvalg. 24 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Patient autonomy and criminal law: A Norwegian perspective.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Criminal insanity in Norwegian Law. 315 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Styrket lovskrav – bare i Høyesterett? Et kritisk perspektiv på utviklingen i straffelovgivningen. -117 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Barnerett, strafferett eller barnestrafferett? Tanker om barneperspektivets økende rolle i strafferetten. 10 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Utilregnelighetsreglenes moderne historie. 26 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Juridiske perspektiv på endringer i fengselspopulasjonen. 17 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Fornuftig tvil eller tvilsom fornuft? Tvil, sakkyndighet og bevisvurdering i utilregnelighetssaker. 13 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Criminal justice and detention. 35 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Penal Ideology and Prison Architecture. 18 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Er de norske utilregnelighetsreglene i strid med rettsfølelsen? 19 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Sjuk, frisk och farlig: straffrättens reaktionssystem i gränssnittet mellan straff, vård och samhällsskydd. 13 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2012). Security, Justice and the Criminal Justice System: Remarks on EU Criminal Law. 23 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2012). Introduction: Restorative Justice and the Criminal Justice System. 11 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2011). Straffrätten i verkligheten eller som verkligheten: Reflektioner kring straffrättsdogmatikens empiriska förankring. 13 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2010). Criminal Law Science and Transnational Criminal Law: Reflections on the Role for Comparative Research. 22 pages.
Academic literature review
  • Show author(s) (2018). Imaging violence in schizophrenia: A systematic review and critical discussion of the MRI literature. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 1-10.
  • Show author(s) (2012). Introduction: Restorative Justice and the Criminal Justice System. 9-19.
Popular scientific chapter/article
  • Show author(s) (2016). Psykopati i retten: straffansvar, straff og tvungen behandling. 161-185.
Article in business/trade/industry journal
  • Show author(s) (2023). Long term outcomes and causal modelling of compulsory inpatient and outpatient mental health care using Norwegian registry data: Protocol for a controversies in psychiatry research project. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Hvordan skal vi avgjøre om alvorlig sinnslidelse innebærer utilregnelighet? Refleksjoner om lovforslaget i Prop. 154 L (2016-2017). Bergen Journal of Criminal Law & Criminal Justice (BJCLCJ). 77-85.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Bærekraftig utvikling og fast eiendom: Tanker om fengselsbygg . 615-632. In:
    • Show author(s) (2023). Fakultetsbyggjar, vestlending og verdsborgar: Festskrift til Ernst Nordtveit 70 år. Cappelen Damm Akademisk.
  • Show author(s) (2014). Rettslige grunnprinsipper, folkerettslige forpliktelser og norsk lovgivning. 31-47. In:
    • Show author(s) (2014). Innsatte fra Litauen, Polen og Nigeria: Utdanning, arbeid og kompetanse. .

More information in national current research information system (CRIStin)

Linda Gröning is an experienced project manager of large research projects, and is also involved as a collaborator in several interdiciplinary research projects.

Principal Investigator:

Project Affiliate:

Previous projects: