I am an experimental physicist, specialised in surface science with a PhD from Cambridge University, Cavendish Laboratory. My main research interest is the development of new scientific instrumentation and methodologies, using molecular beams.
As a PostDoc at TU-Graz, I coordinated an EU NEST project on the development of a new microscope using neutral helium atoms as an imaging probe. January 2008, we published the first images. This lead to a new EU project here in Bergen 2013-2016. The research is continuing with the ultimate aim of developing a nanoscale neutral helium stereo-microscope. My group has also used molecular beam diffraction to characterize oxide surfaces. In 2015 we discovered one of the largest surface reconstructions ever observed on a bulk substrate on α-quartz(0001). In 2021, we were the first group to measure the temperature dependent bending rigidity of a 2D material. This experiment was done using inelastic helium atom scattering. The work continues in a FRIPRO project 2D Material Properties, financed by the Norwegian Research Council. In 2019, together with collaborators I published a theoretical paper extending binary holography to the near field, and showing how this can be used to do mask-based lithography with 1 nm resolution using metastable helium atoms. 2020 we got funded by FET-OPEN to realize this experimentally. I am the project coordinator.
I have extended my interest in scientific methodology to the field of archaeometry, where I have collaborated with conservators and archaeologists to develop identification methods for ancient plant fibers.
Finally, I am applying my knowledge about surfaces at the atomic scale to develop novel smart surfaces and coatings. In 2019, my group published the first ever study of the isophobic properties of graphene. We could demonstrate that fluorinated graphene provides long-lasting ice-inhibition on high humidity. This work is ongoing in an M-ERA.NET project, which I also coordinate.
I am interested in teaching and the development of novel teaching methods. For the last five years, I have been responsible for lecturing the basic physics course in classical mechanics, and I use it as a testing ground for trying out new teaching methods. This led to a recent publication on how students' performance can be improved by including retrieval practice sessions in the lectures. With support from the university we have also investigated how the Covid-19 lock down in 2020 affected students.
For many years, I have been interested in promoting young researchers, phds and postdocs, carrying out workshops on scientific paper writing an publishing at various universities for a total of several hundred students. This led to the publication of the book "Scientific Paper Writing - A Survival Guide", illustrated by Jorge Cham of PhD Comics.
- (2023). Sub-resolution contrast in neutral helium microscopy through facet scattering for quantitative imaging of nanoscale topographies on macroscopic surfaces. Nature Communications.
- (2023). Realistic mask generation for matter-wave lithography via machine learning. Machine Learning: Science and Technology.
- (2023). Phonon-Mediated Quasiparticle Lifetime Renormalizations in Few-Layer Hexagonal Boron Nitride. Nano Letters. 7539-7545.
- (2023). Observation of the boson peak in a two-dimensional material. Nature Physics.
- (2023). Nanodiamond-treated flax: improving properties of natural fibers. Cellulose.
- (2023). Monolithic atom interferometry. Physical Review A (PRA).
- (2023). Fluorescence intensity and fluorescence lifetime measurements of various carbon dots as a function of pH. Scientific Reports.
- (2023). <sup>3</sup>He spin-echo scattering indicates hindered diffusion of isolated water molecules on graphene-covered Ir(111). Frontiers in Chemistry.
- (2022). Variation of bending rigidity with material density: bilayer silica with nanoscale holes. Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP. 17941-17945.
- (2022). Ultrasmooth graphene-coated metal thin films on sapphire grown by thermal laser epitaxy. Thin Solid Films.
- (2022). Problem solving in basic physics: Effective self-explanations based on four elements with support from retrieval practice. Physical Review Physics Education Research.
- (2022). Polycrystalline diamond coating on orthopedic implants: Realization and role of surface topology and chemistry in adsorption of proteins and cell proliferation. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 44933-44946.
- (2022). An atom passing through a hole in a dielectric membrane: Impact of dispersion forces on mask-based matter-wave lithography. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics.
- (2021). True-to-size surface mapping with neutral helium atoms. Physical Review A (PRA).
- (2021). The Covid-19 shutdown: when studying turns digital, students want more structure. Physics Education.
- (2021). Temperature-Dependent Bending Rigidity of AB-Stacked Bilayer Graphene. Physical Review Letters.
- (2021). Solid State Conversion: Microstructuring of Crystalline Al2O3 (Sapphire) by Annealing of Patterned Aluminium Films. Key Engineering Materials. 29-34.
- (2021). Low-energy electron ionization mass spectrometer for efficient detection of low mass species. Review of Scientific Instruments.
- (2021). Large area microwave plasma CVD of diamond using composite right/left-handed materials. Diamond and related materials.
- (2021). Integrating effective learning strategies in basic physics lectures: A thematic analysis. Physical Review Physics Education Research.
- (2021). Graphene and graphene oxide on Ir(111) are transparent to wetting but not to icing. Carbon. 396-403.
- (2020). Retrieval practice of a hierarchical principle structure in university introductory physics: Making stronger students. Physical Review Physics Education Research. 5 pages.
- (2020). Label-free impedance flow cytometry for nanotoxicity screening. Scientific Reports.
- (2020). Is Cross‐Section Shape a Distinct Feature in Plant Fibre Identification? Archaeometry. 216-226.
- (2020). First experimental evidence of hop fibres in historical textiles . Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. 7 pages.
- (2020). 9-Acridinemethanamine and Acridine-9-Carboxaldehyde as Potential Fluorescence Lifetime pH Indicators. Journal of Fluorescence. 901-906.
- (2019). The use of surfactant-filled mesoporous silica as an immobilising medium for a fluorescence lifetime pH indicator, providing long-term calibration stability. RSC Advances. 37241-37244.
- (2019). Nanometer-Resolution Mask Lithography with Matter Waves: Near-Field Binary Holography. Physical Review Applied. 11 pages.
- (2019). A broad-range fluorescence lifetime pH sensing material based on a single organic fluorophore. Journal of Fluorescence. 1125-1131.
- (2018). Work Function-Driven Hot Electron Extraction in a Bimetallic Plasmonic MIM Device. ACS Photonics. 1202-1207.
- (2018). Velocity distributions in microskimmer supersonic expansion helium beams: High precision measurements and modeling. Review of Scientific Instruments. 1-6.
- (2018). Pillars or Pancakes? Self-Cleaning Surfaces without Coating. Nano Letters.
- (2018). Is It Hop? Identifying Hop Fibres in a European Historical Context. Archaeometry.
- (2018). Fluorinated graphene provides long lasting ice inhibition in high humidity. Carbon. 451-456.
- (2018). Fast resolution change in neutral helium atom microscopy. Review of Scientific Instruments. 053702-1-053702-4.
- (2018). Exploring proximity effects and large depth of field in helium ion beam lithography: large-area dense patterns and tilted surface exposure. Nanotechnology. 275301-275306.
- (2018). Centre line intensity of a supersonic helium beam. Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (PRA).
- (2018). Center-line intensity of a supersonic helium beam. Physical Review A (PRA).
- (2018). Bending rigidity of 2D silica. Physical Review Letters. 1-6.
- (2017). Zero-order filter for diffractive focusing of de Broglie matter waves. Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (PRA).
- (2017). Pressure-Driven Gas Flow through Nano-Channels at High Knudsen Number. Journal of Nano Research. 116-127.
- (2017). Optimal design of grid-based binary holograms for matter-wave lithography. Physical Review Applied. 14 pages.
- (2017). Neutral-helium-atom diffraction from a micron-scale periodic structure: Photonic-crystal-membrane characterization. Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (PRA). 7 pages.
- (2017). Light absorption and scattering of 40-170 nm gold nanoparticles on glass substrates. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics.
- (2017). Identifying plant fibre textiles from Norwegian Merovingian Period and Viking Age graves: The Late Iron Age Collection of the University Museum of Bergen. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. 281-285.
- (2017). Flexible thin metal crystals as focusing mirrors for neutral atomic beams. Physical review B (PRB).
- (2017). Atom sieve for nanometer resolution neutral helium microscopy. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics.
- (2017). A theoretical investigation of the optical properties of metal nanoparticles in water for photo thermal conversion enhancement. Energy Conversion and Management. 536-542.
- (2016). Theoretical model of the helium pinhole microscope. Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (PRA). 1-11.
- (2016). Temperature induced color change in gold nanoparticle arrays: Investigating the annealing effect on the localized surface plasmon resonance. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics.
- (2016). Atomic resolution imaging of beryl: an investigation of the nano-channel occupation. Journal of Microscopy. 245-250.
- (2016). Apparatus for measuring pressure-driven transport through channels at high Knudsen numbers. Review of Scientific Instruments.
- (2016). A modified time-of-flight method for precise determination of high speed ratios in molecular beams. Review of Scientific Instruments. 7 pages.
- (2015). Underwater Superoleophobic Sapphire (0001) Surfaces. Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 15333-15338.
- (2015). Focusing of a neutral helium beam with a photon-sieve structure. Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (PRA).
- (2015). A giant reconstruction of α-quartz (0001) interpreted as three domains of nano dauphine twins. Scientific Reports. 1-8.
- (2014). Two dimensional imaging of the virtual source of a supersonic beam: helium at 125 K. Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 4-12.
- (2014). Flax look-alikes: Pitfalls of ancient plant fibre identification. Archaeometry. 951-960.
- (2013). Viking and early middle ages Northern Scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp. Scientific Reports.
- (2013). The Beynon Gabor zone plate: a new tool for de Broglie matter waves and hard X-rays? An off axis and focus intensity investigation. Optics Express. 28483-28495.
- (2013). Optimization of an electron beam lithography instrument for fast, large area writing at 10 kV acceleration voltage. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B.
- (2013). Nanostructuring of free-standing, dielectric membranes using electron-beam lithography. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B. 5 pages.
- (2013). Measuring the localized surface plasmon resonance effect on large arrays (5 mm × 5 mm) of gold and aluminum nanoparticles on borosilicate glass substrates, fabricated by electron beam lithography. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B.
- (2013). Lab-on-a-chip device for fabrication of therapeutic microbubbles on demand. Biomedizinische Technik. 2 pages.
- (2013). Finite-size limitations on quality factor of guided resonance modes in 2D photonic crystals. Optics Express. 23640-23654.
- (2013). Determining the fibrillar orientation of bast fibres with polarized light microscopy: the modified Herzog test (red plate test) explained. Journal of Microscopy. 159-168.
- (2013). A free jet (supersonic), molecular beam source with automatized, 50 nm precision nozzle-skimmer positioning. Review of Scientific Instruments. 10 pages.
- (2012). Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant. Scientific Reports. 4 pages.
- (2012). Focusing of a neutral Helium beam below one micron. New Journal of Physics. 12 pages.
- (2012). Brightness and virtual source size of a supersonic deuterium beam. Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (PRA). 043804-1-043804-10.
- (2011). Particle-wave discrimination in Poisson spot experiments. New Journal of Physics. 13 pages.
- (2010). Free-standing silicon-nitride zoneplates for neutral-helium microscopy. Microelectronic Engineering. 1011-1014.
- (2010). An ellipsoidal mirror for focussing of atoms and molecules. New Journal of Physics.
- (2010). A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: Flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. Ultramicroscopy. 1192-1197.
- (2009). Poisson's spot with molecules. Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (PRA).
- (2009). Field ionization of helium in a supersonic beam: Kinetic energy of neutral atoms and probability of their field ionization. Ultramicroscopy. 413-417.
- (2008). Vibrational excitations of glass observed using helium atom scattering. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter.
- (2008). Surface dynamics measurements of silica glass. Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. 9 pages.
- (2008). Surface Dynamics Measurements of Silica Glass. Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics.
- (2008). Surface Debye temperature of alpha-quartz (0001). Surface Science. 1080-1083.
- (2008). Neutral Atom and Molecule Focusing Using a Fresnel Zone Plate. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B. 2374-2379.
- (2008). Low-energy surface phonons on alpha-quartz (0001). Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics.
- (2008). Imaging with neutral atoms - a new matter-wave microscope. Journal of Microscopy. 1-5.
- (2008). Field ionization of free helium atoms: Correlation between the energy of ionized atoms and probability of their field ionization. Applied Surface Science. 4365-4369.
- (2008). Comparison of a new neuromuscular transmission monitor compressomyograph with mechanomyograph. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 344-350.
- (2008). Anomalous phonon behavior: Blueshift of the surface boson peak in silica glass with increasing temperature. Physical Review Letters. 4 pages.
- (2008). An Optical Profilometer for Characterizing Complex Surfaces under High Vacuum Conditions. Precision engineering. 182-185.
- (2007). The structure of the alpha-quartz (0001) surface investigated using helium atom scattering and atomic force microscopy. Surface Science. 4407-4411.
- (2007). Observation of the boson peak at the surface of vitreous silica. Physical Review Letters.
- (2007). Direct Images of the Virtual Source in a Supersonic Expansion. Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 12620-12628.
Selected Recent Publications
S. D. Eder, S. K. Hellner, S. Forti, J. M. Nordbotten, J. R. Manson, C. Coletti, and B. Holst, Temperature-Dependent Bending Rigidity of AB-Stacked Bilayer Graphene. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2021, 127 266102
Holst, B. et al. Material properties particularly suited to be measured with helium scattering: selected examples from 2D materials, van der Waals heterostructures, glassy materials, catalytic substrates, topological insulators and superconducting radio frequency materials. Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics 2021: 23, 7653-7672
Gjerde, Vegard; Holst, Bodil; Kolstø, Stein Dankert. Retrieval Practice of a Hierachical Principle Structure in University Introductory Physics: Making Stronger Students. Physical Review Physics Education Research 2020; 16, 013103
Nesse, Torstein; Simonsen, Ingve; Holst, Bodil. Nanometer-Resolution Mask Lithography with Matter Waves: Near-Field Binary Holography. Physical Review Applied 2019; 11, 024009 (editors' suggestion) https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.024009
Büchner, Christin; Eder, Sabrina Daniela; Nesse, Torstein; Kuhness, David; Schlexer, Philomena; Pacchioni, Gianfranco; Manson, Joseph R.; Heyde, Markus; Holst, Bodil; Bending rigidity of 2D silica Physical Review Letters 2018; 120, 1-6
Akhtar, Naureen; Anemone, Gloria; Farias, Daniel; Holst, Bodil. Fluorinated graphene provides long lasting ice inhibition in high humidity. Carbon 2018;141. s451-456 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2018.09.008
Akhtar, Naureen; Thomas, Peter James; Svardal, Benny; Almenningen, Stian; De Jong, Edwin; Magnussen, Stian; Onck, Patrick R; Fernø, Martin; Holst, Bodil. Pillars or Pancakes? Self-Cleaning Surfaces without Coating. Nano letters 2018; 141, 7509-7514 https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b02982
Eder, Sabrina Daniela; Flatabø, Ranveig; Ravn, Anders K; Samelin, Bjørn; Greve, Martin Møller; Reisinger, Thomas; Holst, Bodil. Fast resolution change in neutral helium atom microscopy. Review of Scientific Instruments 2018; 89, 053702 (editors' pick) https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5029385
Valluvar Oli, Arivazhagan; Schmitz, F.D.; Vullum, Per Erik; Van Helvoort, Antonius; Holst, Bodil. Atomic resolution imaging of beryl: an investigation of the nano-channel occupation. Journal of Microscopy 2017 ; 265, 245-250 https://doi.org/10.1111/jmi.12493
Lukešová, Hana; Salvador Palau, Adria; Holst, Bodil. Identifying plant fibre textiles from Norwegian Merovingian Period and Viking Age graves: The Late Iron Age Collection of the University Museum of Bergen. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 2017; 13, 281-285 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.03.051 - Highlighted in Nature Materials: https://www.nature.com/articles/nmat4950
Scientific Paper Writing: A Survival Guide, Illustrated by Jorge Cham (Phd Comics): https://www.amazon.com/Scientific-Paper-Writing-Survival-Guide-ebook/dp/B019ZI93XM
Surface Science Techniques, Springer Series in Surface Sciences, G. Bracco, B. Holst ed. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783642342424
Ongoing, externally funded projects:
2D Material Properties - NFR FRIPRO
Prevention of Erosion on Off-Shore Wind Turbine Blades - Equinor sponsored project (Akademiavtalen)
ISOS: Multifunctional icephobic, robust, lightweight and transparent coatings for windows and lenses - M-ERA.NET sponsored Project
PAFYS: Princippbaseret aktiv undervisning for sterkere fysikk- og ingeniørstudenter - DIKU sponsored project
2019 Appointed Chair of the Kavli Prize Committee in Nanoscience for 2019 - 2024.
2018 Elected to the Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences
2015 Elected to the Royal Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters
2007 Trond Mohn Research Foundation Recruitment Grant
2000 Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Fellowship
1999 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions Research Fellowship