• E-mailDavid.Sam@uib.no
  • Phone+47 55 58 32 15+47 918 72 815
  • Visitor Address
    Christiesgt. 12
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7807
    5020 BERGEN
  • David Lackland SAM is a professor of cross-cultural psychology at the University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.  Sam obtained a B. Sc. (Honors) degree in psychology from the University of Ghana, before migrating to Norway as a student, where he completed his PhD.  Sam divides his position at the University of Bergen between the Department of Psychosocial Science (Faculty of Psychology) and the Centre for International Health, Global health and Primary Health Care (Faculty of Medicine). He teaches courses in cross-cultural psychology, medical anthropology and cultural psychiatry. His research interests include psychology of acculturation, and the role of culture in health. Sam has published extensively on young immigrants’ psychological adaptation in general, and from a cross-cultural comparative perspective.  Sam was co-editor of two books on acculturation (in 2006), and a co-author of the 3rd edition of Cross-cultural psychology: Research and applications, published by Cambridge University Press, 2011.  His 2016 book:  the 2nd edition of the Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology, received the 2017 outstanding book award from the International Academy for Intercultural Research (IAIR). He co-edited with John W. Berry the 4-volume anthology on Cross-cultural psychology, published in 2018 by Routledge.  Sam was Deputy Secretary General of the International Association for Cross-cultural Psychology (IACCP) and is a fellow of the International Academy of Intercultural Relations (IAIR).



  • Psychological adaptation of ethnocultural youths
  • Cross-cultural studies on immigrants, refugees and international students
  • Intercultural relations
  • Values and social beliefs
  • Culture and health
  • Migration and health
  • Factors influencing hazardous emigration from Africa
  • Civic and political
  • Cyberbullying from cross-cultural perspective
  • Determinants of inclusive integration

Google scholar citation index

Latest books:  

David L. Sam & John W. Berry (Eds), (2017) Routledge Major Reference Works: Cross-Cultural Psychology—Critical Concepts in Psychology in Four Volumes. Vol 1: Theory and Method; Vol 2:  Basic Processes I – Development, Social and Personality; Vol 3: Basic Processes II – Cognition, Perception, Emotions, Language and Acculturation and Vol 4: Applied issues.  Routledge: Oxford, UK.  www.routledge.com/9781138848375

Sam, D. L. & Berry, J. W. (2016). The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology, 2nd edition. 


Selected latest publications

Sam,  D.  L.,  (2012).  Psychology  of  acculturation:  New  advances  and  future     directions.International Journal of Psychology. 47: 221-221.

Sam, D. L., & Horenczyk, G. (2012). Immigrant youth adaptation in context.  In C. Gracia  Coll). The impact of immigration on children’s development. Contributions to Human Development, 24, 64 – 76

Leung, K Y; Lam, B. C.P.; Bond, M. H., Conway, L. G., Gornick, LJ., Amponsah, B. Boehnke, K., Dragolov, G., Burgess, S. M; Golestaneh, M.B, Holger, Hofer, Jan; Espinosa, A del C.  D; Fardis, M., Ismail, R. Kurman, J; Lebedeva, N., Tatarko, A N.; Sam, David Lackland; Teixeira, M. L. M., Yamaguchi, S., Fukuzawa, Ai, Zhang. J. Zhou, F. (2012) Developing and evaluating the social axioms survey in eleven countries: its relationship with the five-factor model of personality. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 43.(5) 833-857

Kunst, J. R., Tajamal, H., Sam, D. L., & Ulleberg, P. (2012). Coping with Islamophobia: The effects of religious stigma on Muslim minorities' identity formation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(4), 518-532. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.12.014

Kunst, J. R., Sam, D. L., & Ulleberg, P. (2013). Perceived Islamophobia: Scale development and validation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37(2), 225-237. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2012.11.001

Kunst, J. R., & Sam, D. L. (2013). Relationship between perceived acculturation expectations and Muslim minority youth’s acculturation and adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2013.04.007

Kunst, J. R., & Sam, D. L. (2013) Expanding the margins of identity: A critique of marginalization in a globalized world. International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation,

Sam, D. L., Jasinskaja-Lathi, Horenczyk, G., & Vedder, P. (2013). Migration and integrations: Some psychological perspectives on mutual acculturation. Zeitschrifts für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology. Zeitschrifts für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 221. 203-204

Horenczyk, G., Jasinskaja-Lahti., Sam, D. L. & Vedder, P. (2013). Mutuality in acculturation: Analysis and integration of models. Zeitschrifts für Psychologie/Journal of  Psychology, 221, 205 - 213

Berry, J. W & Sam, D.L. (2013). Accommodating cultural diversity and achieving equity: An Introduction to psychological dimensions of multiculturalism. European Psychologist 18. 151-157

Kunst, J. R. & Sam, D. L., (2013) Expanding the margins of identity: A critique of marginalization in a globalized world. International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation 2, 225 -241

Kunst, J. R., & Sam, D. L., (2014) “It’s on Time That They Assimilate” – Differential acculturation expectations towards first and second generation immigrants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 39, 188-195

Spjeldnæs, I. O., Moland, K-M., Harris, J & Sam, D. L. (2013). Responsible mothering in Limpopo, South Africa: Perspectives of adolescents.  Psychology & Society

Kunst, J R.; Thomsen, L., & Sam, D. L. (2014). Late Abrahamic reunion? Religious fundamentalism negatively predicts dual Abrahamic group categorization among Muslims and Christians. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 337 -348

Bye, H. H., Horverak, J. G., Sandal, G. M., Sam, D. L., & van de Vijver, F. J.R. (2014). Cultural fit and ethnic background in the job interview. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 14, 7 - 26

Iversen, V. C., Sam, D. L., & Helvik, A-S (2014) Psychological distress and perceived health in inmates in Norwegian prisons. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 42, 171 – 176

Sandal, G. M., van de Vijver, F. J.R., Bye, H. H., Sam, D. L., Amponsah, B., Cakar, N., Franke, G. H., Ismail, R., Kjellsen, K., Kosic, A., Leontieva, A. M., Shahrnaz, Sun., & Tien-Lun, C. (2014). Intended Self-Presentation Tactics in Job Interviews: A 10-Country    Study.Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 45: 939-958. doi: 10.1177/0022022114532353

Spjeldnæs,  I.  O.,  Moland,  K-M.,  Harris,  J  &  Sam,  D. L.  (2014).  Responsible  mothering in Limpopo, South Africa: Perspectives of adolescents. 6 (2), 57 – 77

Kunst, J. R., Thomsen, L., Sam, D. L., & Berry, J. W., (2015). “We Are in This Together”: Common Group Identity Predicts Majority Members’ Active Acculturation Efforts to Integrate Immigrants. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. doi: 10.1177/0146167215599349

Sam, D. L., Tetteh, D. K., Amponsah, B (2015). Satisfaction with life and psychological symptoms among International students in Ghana and  their  correlates.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 49, 156-167;

Sam, D. L. (2015). Acculturation. In. In: James D. Wright (editor-in-chief), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edition, Vol X.  Oxford:  Elsevier, pp. 68 – 74. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.24034-8

Sam, D. L., (2016) Heart and mind. In Hua, Z., & Komisarof, A. (eds). Crossing Boundaries and Weaving Intercultural Work, Life and Scholarship in Globalizing Universities, pp. 67 - 77) London: Routledge

Jamaludin, N. L., Sam, D. L., Sandal, G. M., & Adam, A. A. (2016). The influence of perceived discrimination, orientation to mainstream culture and life satisfaction on destination-loyalty intentions: the case of international students. Current Issues in Tourism, 1-16.  DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2015.1119102

Jamaludin, N. L., Sam, D. L., Sandal, G. M., & Adam, A. A. (2016). . Personal values, subjective well-being and destination-loyalty intention of international students. SpringerPlus20165:720 DOI: 10.1186/s40064-016-2439-3

Aby-Rayya, H., & Sam, D. L. (i2017). Is Integration the Best Way to Acculturate? A Re- examination of the Bicultural-Adaptation Relationship in the “ICSEY-Data Set”Using the Bilineal Method.  Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 46, 287 - 293.

Sam, D. L. (2017).  Multiculturalism.  In F. M. Moghaddam (Ed).  The SAGE Encyclopedia of Political behavior (pp 504 – 507). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc

Sam, D. L., Bruce, D., Agyemand, C. B., Amponsah, B., & Arkofrul, H. (in press(.  Cyberbullying victimization in among high school and university students in Ghana.  Deviant Behavior

Sam, D. L. (in press). Understanding positive immigrant youth adaptation in the context of multiculturalismSam. Journal of Adolescence, .doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2017.08.007. 

Buchanan, E., Abu-Rayya, H. M., Kashima, E., Paxton, S. J., & Sam, D. L. (in press).  Perceived discrimination, language proficiencies, and adaptation: Comparisons between refugee and non-refugee immigrant youth in Australia.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations.


  • Culture and its effect on psychological research, theory and practice
  • Acculturation of immigrants, refugees and sojourners
  • Ethnic identity, acculturation strategies and health issues

RIFE – Risking it (all) for Europe

This project is still in its planning phase.  It is going to be a collaborative project involving a number of countries including Greece and Ghana where the goals are among others to (i) understand the underlying motives and (ii) the sustaining factors that propel thousands of young individuals and families to look beyond their habitual country of residence; to look to Europe in their search for “greener pastures”.

DIMA – Determinants of inclusive Migrant integration

This has been an EEA funded comparative study on socio-political and psychological factors that may account for the integration of Russian speakers in Norway and Estonia.  The study has involved both interviewing, focus-group discussions and questionnaire surveys of Russian-speakers in the two countries together with native Norwegians and Estonians.


This project seeks to understand why post-elections in Kenya are marred by violence in contrast to peaceful post-election transitions in Ghana.  The study examines civic and political participation and engagement among university students in the two countries.


This project is on Cyberbullying among high school and university students in Ghana.  This is a 3-phase project with the goal of (i) determining the extent of cyberbullying in Ghana and the wellbeing of cyberbullying victims; (ii) develop a psychological portrait of both cyberbullying victims and perpetrators and (iii) understand the cultural factors that sustain cyberbullying in Ghana. A comparative component is currently being planned

Research groups