Francisco Gómez Real's picture

Francisco Gómez Real

Professor, Leader, Research Unit for Health Surveys (RUHS), Consultant, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics
  • E-mailfrancisco.real@uib.no
  • Phone+4791561146
  • Visitor Address
    Research Unit for Health Surveys (RUHS)
    2nd floor, Overlege Danielssens hus
    5009 Bergen
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7804
    5020 Bergen

Medical specialist and consultant

Prof Francisco Gómez Real, MD PhD, shares his time between scientific and clinical work. He is a professor at the Department of Clinical Science, Medicine Faculty at the University of Bergen, Norway. He a specialist in Gynaecology and Obstetrics, works as a consultant at the Women's Clinic, Haukeland University Hospital, and is responsible for the follow-up of pregnant women with obesity. He has experience from General Practice and Respiratory Medicine.


Real is a pioneer and international top-expert of research investigating the link between sex hormones, reproductive and metabolic factors and early life factors for respiratory health and disease, pioneering the field through his own PhD, postdoctoral work, PhD students, and postdoctoral research fellow. He is responsible for women´s health studies in the cohorts Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE) and Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA), og co-chair for women´s health studies in Europaen Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS).

He leads the Research Unit for Health Surveys (RUHS), a core facility at the University of Bergen for the implementation of clinical research projects not requiring hospital infrastructure. RUHS is a collaboration between the Faculty of Medicine (MOF) and Haukeland University Hospital (HUS), administratively subject to the department of Clinical Science, and funded by the Trond Mohn Foundation/Trond Mohn Stiftelse (TMS).

There has been extensive covering of Real's research activities in both the national and international media (incl. Reuters) – newspapers (incl. the New York Times, Washington Post, Der Standard, El Pais, Aftenposten), magazines (incl. Dagens Medisin, Allergi i Praksis, Tidskriftet for den Norske Legeforeningen), women’s magazines (incl. Women’s Weekly magazine, SELF magazine), radio (incl. BBC news, ABC news, Norwegian radio stations) and online media (incl. Times News, Medical News Today, American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology, RT online, Web MD, Women´s day, På Høyden).

Real has received numerous Best Paper Awards, from the Norwegian Respiratory Society. In 2007 as first author, and in 2011, 2016 and 2017 as the last author.

Real is lecturer for 5th year medical students in Obstetrics and Gynecology semester in English, at the University of Bergen.

Real was responsible for initiating and organizing the clinical praxis for 5th year medical students in Obstetrics and Gynecology semester in English, at the University of Bergen.

Real has built an excellent track record in reproductive and respiratory health in women and across generations. He has 89 peer reviewed publications, including 54 in the last 5 years. His publication output shows an upward trajectory, with 20 publications in the last two years, and 31 of his publications in top ranked journals (IF 8 or above), he is 1st/2nd/senior author on 26 of them. He has contributed to three book chapters. He is an experienced supervisor of researchers.

Academic article
  • Show author(s) (2024). Muscle Strength and Male Sexual Function. Journal of Clinical Medicine.
  • Show author(s) (2024). Effects of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulinon lung function in males and females: A multivariable Mendelian Randomisation study. Thorax.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Indoor Airborne Microbiome and Endotoxin: Meteorological Events and Occupant Characteristics Are Important Determinants. Environmental Science and Technology. 11750-11766.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Fathers’ preconception smoking and offspring DNA methylation. Clinical Epigenetics.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Association between lipid-A-producing oral bacteria of different potency and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in a Norwegian population-based adult cohort. Journal of Translational Medicine. 11 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Association between abdominal and general obesity and respiratory symptoms, asthma and COPD. Results from the RHINE study. Respiratory Medicine. 6 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Premature menopause and autoimmune primary ovarian insufficiency in two international multi-center cohorts. Endocrine Connections. 11 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Parental Prepuberty Overweight and Offspring Lung Function. Nutrients.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Metformin exposure, maternal PCOS status and fetal venous liver circulation: A randomized, placebo-controlled study. PLOS ONE. 13 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Long-term effect of asthma on the development of obesity among adults: an international cohort study, ECRHS. Thorax.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Lifelong exposure to residential greenspace and the premenstrual syndrome: A population-based study of Northern European women. Environment International. 7 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Female sex hormones and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea in European women of a population-based cohort. PLOS ONE. 13 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Exposure to Antibacterial Chemicals Is Associated With Altered Composition of Oral Microbiome. Frontiers in Microbiology. 15 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Cohort profile: the multigeneration Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) cohort. BMJ Open. 18 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Association of oral bacteria with oral hygiene habits and self-reported gingival bleeding. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 768-781.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Ultraviolet radiation as a predictor of sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women: A European multi-center study (ECRHS). Maturitas. 49-55.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Prenatal and prepubertal exposures to tobacco smoke in men may cause lower lung function in future offspring: a three-generation study using a causal modelling approach. European Respiratory Journal.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Maternal preconception occupational exposure to cleaning products and disinfectants and offspring asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 422-431.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Exposure to environmental phenols and parabens, and relation to body mass index, eczema and respiratory outcomes in the Norwegian RHINESSA study. Environmental health.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Cross-sectional study on exhaled nitric oxide in relation to upper airway inflammatory disorders with regard to asthma and perennial sensitization. Clinical and Experimental Allergy.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Childhood lung function as a determinant of menopause-dependent lung function decline. Maturitas. 41-47.
  • Show author(s) (2021). CT-defined emphysema in COPD patients and risk for change in desaturation status in 6-min walk test. Respiratory Medicine. 8 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Bronchodilator response and lung function decline: Associations with exhaled nitric oxide with regard to sex and smoking status. World Allergy Organization Journal. 16 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Breathlessness across generations: Results from the RHINESSA generation study. Thorax. 172-177.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Sleep time and sleep-related symptoms across two generations – results of the community-based RHINE and RHINESSA studies. Sleep Medicine. 8-13.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Regular Physical Activity Levels and Incidence of Restrictive Spirometry Pattern: A Longitudinal Analysis of 2 Population-Based Cohorts. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1521-1528.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Parents’ smoking onset before conception as related to body mass index and fat mass in adult offspring: Findings from the RHINESSA generation study. PLOS ONE. 1-20.
  • Show author(s) (2020). One Year Change in 6-Minute Walk Test Outcomes is Associated with COPD Prognosis. COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 662-671.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Lung function changes over 8 years and testosterone markers in both sexes: Uk biobank. European Respiratory Journal Open Research (ERJ Open Research). 1-11.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Early Age at Natural Menopause Is Related to Lower Post-Bronchodilator Lung Function. A Longitudinal Population-based Study. Annals of the American Thoracic Society.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Describing the status of reproductive ageing simply and precisely: A reproductive ageing score based on three questions and validated with hormone levels. PLOS ONE.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Association of adult lung function with accelerated biological aging. Aging. 518-542.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Use of metformin to treat pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PregMet2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology. 256-266.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Snoring and nocturnal reflux: Association with lung function decline and respiratory symptoms. European Respiratory Journal Open Research (ERJ Open Research).
  • Show author(s) (2019). Restrictive spirometry pattern is associated with low physical activity levels. A population based international study. Respiratory Medicine. 116-123.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Residential surrounding greenspace and age at menopause: A 20-year European study (ECRHS). Environment International. 1-7.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Polycystic ovary syndrome and lung function: a Mendelian randomization study. European Respiratory Journal.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Exogenous female sex steroids may reduce lung ageing after menopause: A 20-year follow-up study of a general population sample (ECRHS). Maturitas. 29-34.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Epigenome-wide association of father's smoking with offspring DNA methylation: A hypothesis-generating study. Environmental Epigenetics. 10 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Early menarche is associated with lower adult lung function: A longitudinal cohort study from the first to sixth decade of life. Respirology (Carlton South. Print). 1-9.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Being overweight in childhood, puberty, or early adulthood: Changing asthma risk in the next generation? Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 1-13.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Age at menopause and lung function: a Mendelian randomisation study. European Respiratory Journal. 1-10.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Zoonotic helminth exposure and risk of allergic diseases: A study of two generations in Norway. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 66-77.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Polycystic ovary syndrome, body mass index and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Pregnancy Hypertension. 32-37.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Periodontal Health status and lung function in two Norwegian cohorts. PLOS ONE. 1-15.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Leisure-time vigorous physical activity is associated with better lung function: The prospective ECRHS study. Thorax. 376-384.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Critical age windows in the impact of lifetime smoking exposure on respiratory symptoms and disease among ever smokers. Environmental Research. 241-247.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Body silhouettes as a tool to reflect obesity in the past. PLOS ONE. 1-13.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Agreement in reporting of asthma by parents or offspring - the RHINESSA generation study. BMC Pulmonary Medicine. 1-10.
  • Show author(s) (2018). A three-generation study on the association of tobacco smoking with asthma. International Journal of Epidemiology. 1106-1117.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Women with symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing are less likely to be diagnosed and treated for sleep apnea than men. Sleep Medicine. 17-22.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Validation of maternal reported pregnancy and birth characteristics against the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. PLOS ONE. 1-12.
  • Show author(s) (2017). The effects of growing up on a farm on adult lung function and allergic phenotypes: An international population-based study. Thorax. 236-244.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Respiratory symptoms are more common among short sleepers independent of obesity. BMJ Open Respiratory Research.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Physical activity and asthma: A longitudinal and multi-country study. Journal of Asthma. 938-945.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Menopause is associated with accelerated lung function decline. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 1058-1065.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Early menarche and new onset of asthma: Results from the SAPALDIA cohort study. Maturitas. 57-63.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Cohort Profile: Melbourne Atopy Cohort study (MACS). International Journal of Epidemiology. 25-26g.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Asthma in reproductive-aged women with polycystic ovary syndrome and association with obesity. European Respiratory Journal. 1-8.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Age at menarche and lung function: a Mendelian randomization study. European Journal of Epidemiology (EJE). 701-710.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Validation of self-reported figural drawing scales against anthropometric measurements in adults. Public Health Nutrition (PHN). 1944-1951.
  • Show author(s) (2016). The Association of gum bleeding With respiratory Health in a population based study from Northern Europe. PLOS ONE.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Self-reported exposure to traffic pollution in relation to daytime sleepiness and habitual snoring: a questionnaire study in seven North-European cities. Sleep Medicine. 93-99.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Oxygen desaturation in 6-min walk test is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in COPD patients. European Respiratory Journal. 82-91.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Menopause as a predictor of new-onset asthma: A longitudinal Northern European population study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 50-57.e6.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Lower lung function associates with cessation of menstruation: UK Biobank data. European Respiratory Journal. 1288-1297.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Father’s environment before conception and asthma risk in his children: a multi-generation analysis of the Respiratory Health In Northern Europe study. International Journal of Epidemiology. 235-245.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Early life origins of lung ageing: Early life exposures and lung function decline in adulthood in two European cohorts aged 28-73 years. PLOS ONE.
  • Show author(s) (2015). Respiratory health in cleaners in Northern Europe: Is susceptibility established in early life? PLOS ONE. 13 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2015). Hormonal contraception increases risk of asthma among obese but decreases it among nonobese subjects: A prospective, population-based cohort study. European Respiratory Journal Open Research (ERJ Open Research). 1-8.
  • Show author(s) (2014). Longterm follow-up in European respiratory health studies - patterns and implications. BMC Pulmonary Medicine.
  • Show author(s) (2012). Gender differences in prevalence, diagnosis and incidence of allergic and non-allergic asthma: a population-based cohort. Thorax. 625-631.
  • Show author(s) (2011). Early age at menarche, lung function, and adult asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 8-14.
  • Show author(s) (2010). Perimenstrual increase in bronchial hyperreactivity in premenopausal women: Results from the population-based SAPALDIA 2 cohort. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 823-829.
  • Show author(s) (2009). Oral contraception, body mass index, and asthma: A cross-sectional Nordic-Baltic population survey. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 391-397.
  • Show author(s) (2009). Is age at menopause increasing across Europe? Results on age at menopause and determinants from two population-based studies. Menopause. 385-394.
  • Show author(s) (2008). Lung function, respiratory symptoms, and the menopausal transition. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.
  • Show author(s) (2008). Hormonal factors and respiratory health in women - a review. Clinical Respiratory Journal. 111-119.
  • Show author(s) (2007). Menstrual irregularity and asthma and lung function. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 557-564.
  • Show author(s) (2006). Hormone replacement therapy, body mass index and asthma in perimenopausal women: a cross sectional survey. Thorax. 34-40.
  • Show author(s) (2005). Association of asthma and hay fever with irregular menstruation. Thorax. 793-794.
Academic lecture
  • Show author(s) (2017). Repeated desaturation in 6 minute walk test increases risk for mortality in COPD patients.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Asthma and asthma-like symptoms as associated with endometriosis and menstrual pain. European Respiratory Journal.
Academic literature review
  • Show author(s) (2021). The Exposome Approach in Allergies and Lung Diseases: Is It Time to Define a Preconception Exposome? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH).
  • Show author(s) (2021). Exposures during the prepuberty period and future offspring's health: evidence from human cohort studies. Biology of Reproduction. 667-680.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Maternal age at delivery, lung function and asthma in offspring: A population-based survey. European Respiratory Journal. 1-11.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Environmental Impact on Health across Generations: Policy Meets Biology. A Review of Animal and Human Models. Challenges.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Risk factors for premenstrual asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine. 57-72.
  • Show author(s) (2012). Respiratory health in women: from menarche to menopause. Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine. 187-202.

More information in national current research information system (CRIStin)

Project leader and collaborator

He collaborates in his research with the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE), the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS), Tasmanian Health Survey (TAHS), the Swiss cohort study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA), the UK BioBank, the PregMet study, and the transgenerational Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) cohorts. He was PI of the ground-breaking Norwegian Research Council funded Menopause and Respiratory Health study, where ECRHS, RHINE and TAHS collaborated.  He spent a 6-month postdoctoral attachment at prof Shyamali Dharmage´s Allergy and Lung Health Unit, University of Melbourne. He leads the Reproductive Respiratory Health working group of RHINE and RHINESSA studies, is co-Chair of the ECRHS Gender Working Group with AI Leynaert, and PI for ECRHS in Bergen.

Real´s main strengths as a scientist are original and innovative thinking, excellent network building capacity and extensive experience with research administration. This is reflected in papers that have contributed to paradigm shift.

Real collaborates in developing CASCADE (Centre of Multigeneration Science on Health and Disease), a centre led by professor Cecilie Svanes aimed to undertake multigenerational human research.

His PhD student and postdoctoral researcher, Kai Triebner, led recent papers showing menopause is related to new onset asthma and accelerated lung function decline (published in leading respiratory and allergy journals).


2018-2023        Partner, “Preconception exposures and related epigenetic mechanisms in Asthma and allergies”. TOPFORSK Norwegian Research Council (NRC) grant, 25,000,000 NOK

2018-2021        Supervisor, «Life course with good Health» program, West Health Council (Helse Vest) grant, PhD research fellowship, PhD candidate Marianne Lønnebotn

2017-2021        Leader, Research Unit for Health Surveys, Bergen Research Foundation (BFS) grant 11,000,000 NOK

2017-2020        Supervisor, “Post-menopausal deterioration of respiratory health:  Lifestyle strategies to preserve healthy lungs in aging women”, University of Bergen grant, postdoctoral research fellowship, PhD Kai Triebner