Organic synthesis and organometallic reactions (involving Pd and Ru NHC complexes) in organic synthesis are the primary focus of Bjørsvik research group. The main goal of the most of the research in progress in the group are to develop new and better cataytic processes, focusing both on improvement of synthetic processes and methods as well as the design of new ligands with the goal to improved selectivity and activity of the final catalyst. For this work, multivariate statistical and matemathical methods are frequently used.
The synthesis of N-heterocycles
Within this research activity, the molecular scaffolds of particular interests are benzo[c]cinnolines, carbazoles, and imidazoles. The imidazoles are of particular interest as such compounds can be used as precursors for NHC ligands used in organometallics for various catalysts, for example for olefin metathesis, Suzuki cross-coupling, and oxidation catalysts. Recent years NHC-Ag complexes have also been target molecules in a project in medicinal chemistry investigating such compounds as potential reagens agains
Oxidation and Free Radicals in Organic Synthesis
Free organic radicals for synthetic applications, development of green chemistry methods for the oxidation reactions in organic synthesis has been an long standing research activity in the research group. This research activity involves also studies of antioxidants and development of new total syntheses of such compounds.
Development and investigation of continuous flow organic synthesis reactor systems is an important long standing project in the group. We have successfully developed a novel approach for flow chemistry that is realized in a milli-reactor system that we have named multi-jet oscillation disk (MJOD) milli reactor system. A patent application was submitted (2005) for this system, and a company that was named Fluens Synthesis AS was established.
- FARM236 Medicinal Chemistry
- KJEM131 Organic Synthesis and Analysis (past)
- KJEM232 Experimental organic synthesis
- KJEM233 Organic mass spectrometry (past)
- KJEM335 Physical Organic Chemistry (past)
- Organometallic reactions in organic synthesis
- N-heterocyclic carbenes in synthesis
- Heterocyclic chemistry
- Experimental Design and Modelling in Organic Synthesis
- Free Radical Reactions in Synthetic Organic Chemistry
- Instrumental methods in organic synthesis
- 2019. A two-step telescoped continuous flow switchable process leading to nitriles, diaziridine or hydrazine derivatives. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering. 4: 41-51. Published 2018-11-01. doi: 10.1039/c8re00129d
- 2018. Synthesis of Amides from Alcohols and Amines Through a Domino Oxidative Amidation and Telescoped Transamidation Process. European Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2018: 4436-4445. doi: 10.1002/ejoc.201800378
- 2018. Synthesis of Boscalid via a three-step telescoped continuous flow process implemented on a MJOD reactor platform. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering. 3: 550-558. doi: 10.1039/c8re00049b
- 2018. Carbazomycin G: Method Development and Total Synthesis. European Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2018: 1984-1992. doi: 10.1002/ejoc.201800359
- 2018. Amino-TEMPO Grafted on Magnetic Multi-Walled Nanotubes: An Efficient and Recyclable Heterogeneous Oxidation Catalyst. European Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2019: 1405-1412. Published 2018-11-23. doi: 10.1002/ejoc.201801706
- 2018. A Co2B Mediated NaBH4 Reduction Protocol Applicable to a Selection of Functional Groups in Organic Synthesis. European Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2018: 3416-3425. doi: 10.1002/ejoc.201800440
- 2017. A concise synthesis to Benzo[c]cinnolines via 2,2’-dinitro-1,1’-biphenyls attained from a novel tailored Suzuki cross-coupling. ChemistrySelect. 2: 9387-9390. doi: 10.1002/slct.201701993
- 2016. Synthesis of the carbazole scaffold directly from 2-aminobiphenyl by means of tandem C–H activation and C–N bond formation. European Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2016: 5474-5479. doi: 10.1002/ejoc.201601191
- 2016. Continuous flow synthesis concatenated with continuous flow liquid–liquid extraction for work- up and purification: selective mono- and di- iodination of the imidazole backbone. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering. 1: 436-444. doi: 10.1039/c6re00091f
- 2016. Indium powder as the reducing agent in the synthesis of 2-amino-1,1′-biphenyls. Tetrahedron Letters. 57: 1224-1226. doi: 10.1016/j.tetlet.2016.02.007
- 2016. A highly efficient Pd(PPh3)4-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling method for the preparation of 2-nitrobiphenyls from 1-chloro-2-nitrobenzenes and phenylboronic acids. European Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2016: 1344-1354. doi: 10.1002/ejoc.201501487
- 2016. Continuous flow synthesis of the iodination agent 1,3-diiodo-5,5-dimethyl-imidazolidine-2,4-dione telescoped with semi-continuous product isolation. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering. 1: 379-386. doi: 10.1039/c6re00051g
- 2015. The Baeyer-Villiger oxidation versus aromatic ring hydroxylation: Competing organic peracid oxidation mechanisms explored by multivariate modelling of designed multi-response experiments. Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry. 28: 619-628. doi: 10.1002/poc.3462
- 2015. Scope and mechanistic limitations of a sonogashira coupling reaction on an imidazole backbone. European Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2015: 4658-4666. doi: 10.1002/ejoc.201500520
- 2015. Controlling the course of a two-way switchable Pd-catalyzed process by means of empirical multivariate models. ChemCatChem. 7: 2196-2205. doi: 10.1002/cctc.201500234
- 2015. 4-alkylated silver-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes with cytotoxic effects in leukemia cells. ChemMedChem. 10: 1522-1527. doi: 10.1002/cmdc.201500234
- 2015. Stille cross-coupling for the functionalization of the imidazole backbone: Revisit, improvement, and applications of the method. European Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2015: 3506-3512. doi: 10.1002/ejoc.201500328
- 2014. Continuous flow olefin metathesis using a multijet oscillating disk reactor as the reaction platform. Organic Process Research & Development. 18: 1509-1515. doi: 10.1021/op500223e
- 2014. Synthesis of imidazole alkaloids originated in marine sponges. Studies in Natural Products Chemistry. 42: 33-57. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-63281-400002-1
- 2014. Multivariate optimization of a cyclopropanation, the key step in the synthesis of 3,3,4,4-tetraethoxybut-1-yne. Organic Process Research & Development. 18: 891-896. doi: 10.1021/op5001012
- 2013. A Three-Way Switchable Process for Suzuki Cross-Coupling, Hydrodehalogenation, or an Assisted Tandem Hydrodehalogenation and Suzuki Cross-Coupling Sequence. Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis. 355: 3231-3243. doi: 10.1002/adsc.201300395
- 2013. Fast halogenation of some N-heterocycles by means of N,N-dihalo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin. Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis. 355: 499-507. doi: 10.1002/adsc.201200723
- 2012. Extraction, isolation, and purification of analytes from samples of marine origin - A multivariate task. Journal of chromatography. B. 910: 46-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2012.06.038
- 2012. Synthesis of phenylboronic acids in continuous flow by means of a multijet oscillating disc reactor system operating at cryogenic temperatures. Organic Process Research & Development. 16: 1121-1130. doi: 10.1021/op3000493
- 2012. Organocatalyzed epoxidation of alkenes in continuous flow using a multi-jet oscillating disk reactor. ChemSusChem. 5: 261-265. doi: 10.1002/cssc.201100262
- 2012. Separation of reaction product and palladium catalyst after a heck coupling reaction by means of organic solvent nanofiltration. ChemSusChem. 5: 188-193. doi: 10.1002/cssc.201100355
- 2011. Multijet Oscillating Disc Millireactor: A Novel Approach for Continuous Flow Organic Synthesis. Organic Process Research & Development. 15: 997-1009. doi: 10.1021/op2000699
- 2011. Synthetic Route Discovery and Introductory Optimization of a Novel Process to Idebenone. Organic Process Research & Development. 15: 673-680. doi: 10.1021/op200051v
- 2010. A switchable oxidation process leading to two various versatile pharmaceutical intermediates. Organic Process Research & Development. 14: 1379-1384. doi: 10.1021/op100185x
- 2010. An optimized process to 10-bromo-1-decanol. Organic Process Research & Development. 14: 1215-1220. doi: 10.1021/op100143t
- 2009. Synthesis of a new bidentate NHC–Ag(I) complex and its unanticipated reaction with the Hoveyda–Grubbs first generation catalyst. Tetrahedron. 65: 7186-7194. doi: 10.1016/j.tet.2009.05.095
- 2009. A novel simple and efficient bromination protocol for activated arenes. Tetrahedron Letters. 50: 831-833. doi: 10.1016/j.tetlet.2008.12.016
- 2007. Green and efficient synthesis of bidentate Schiff base Ru catalysts for olefin metathesis. Journal of Organic Chemistry. 72: 3561-3564. doi: 10.1021/jo070164z
- 2007. The first imidazolium-substituted metal alkylidene. Organometallics. 26: 4383-4385. doi: 10.1021/om700590v
- 2007. Ruthenium alkylidene complexes of Chelating amine Ligands. Organometallics. 26: 5803-5814. doi: 10.1021/om070219nS0276-7333(07)00219-1
- 2006. Quantitative structure-activity relationships of ruthenium catalysts for olefin metathesis. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 128: 6952-6964. doi: 10.1021/ja060832i
- 2006. Efficient and green telescoped process to 2-methoxy-3-methyl-[1,4]benzoquinone. Journal of Organic Chemistry. 71: 1703-1706. doi: 10.1021/jo0522512
- 2005. A novel efficient deoxygenation process for N-heteroarene N-oxides. Journal of Organic Chemistry. 70: 3218-3224.
- 2005. Synthesis of methoxy-substituted phenols by peracid oxidation of the aromatic ring. Journal of Organic Chemistry. 70: 7290-7296.
- 2005. Synthesis of 2-Nitro and 2,2’-Dinitro Biphenyls by means of the Suzuki Cross-Coupling reaction. Journal of Organic Chemistry. 70: 9591-9594.
- 2004. Online Spectroscopy and Multivariate Data Analysis as a Combined Tool for Process Monitoring and Reaction Optimization. Organic Process Research & Development. 8: 495-503.
- 2004. Investigations of a novel process to the framework of benzo[c]cinnoline. Journal of Organic Chemistry. 69: 7720-7727.
- 2004. Nitroarene Catalyzed Oxidation with Sodium percarbonate or Sodium perborate as the Terminal Oxidant. Tetrahedron Letters. 45: 8615-8620.
- 2002. N-Acylation Reactions Performed in Aqueous Reaction Medium. Synthesis of Iodixanol. Organic Process Research & Development. 6: 113-119.
- 2002. Organic Processes to Pharmaceutical Chemicals Based on Fine Chemicals from Lignosulfonates. Organic Process Research & Development. 6: 279-290.
- 2002. A New Modified Montanari Oxidation Process by Means of Chlorine Dissolved in the reaction Solvent as Oxidant and TEMPO as Catalyst: Oxidation of 3-S-Quinuclidinol to 3-Quinuclidinone. Organic Process Research & Development. 6: 197-200.
- 2002. Carboxylic acids from methyl aryl ketones by means of a new composite aerobic oxidation process. Tetrahedron Letters. 43: 4985-4987.
- 2002. A Highly Selective Aerobic Oxidation Process Catalysed by Electron Deficient Nitroarenes via Single Electron Transfer Processes. Journal of Organic Chemistry. 67: 7493-7500.
- 2002. Highly Selective and Efficient Conversion of Alkyl Aryl and Alkyl Cyclopropyl Ketones to Aromatic and Cyclopropane Carboxylic Acids by Aerobic Catalytic Oxidation: A Free-Radical Redox Chain Mechanism. Synlett. 610-612.
- 2001. A Bromine Catalysed Free-Radical Oxidation of Acetamides From Primary and Secondary Alkylamines by H_2O_2. Chemical Communications. 523-524.
- 2001. New Selective Oxidation Reactions by Nitroarenes in Basic Medium Involving Electron Transfer Processes. Organic Process Research & Development. 5: 136-140.
- 2001. A Selective Process for N-Alkylation in Competition with O-Alkylation. Boric acid as a Cheap and Effective Protecting Group Applicable for Industrial Scale Synthetic Processes. Organic Process Research & Development. 5: 472-478.
- 2001. Process for the production of iodinated organic x-ray contrast agents. US Patent. US 6,232,499.
- 2000. High Selectivity in the Oxidation of Mandelic acid derivatives and in O-methylation of protocatechualdehyde. New Processes for Synthesis of Vanillin, iso-Vanillin and Heliotropin. Organic Process Research & Development. 4. 9 pages.
- 2000. Organic Process Research and Development by Means of Statistical Experimental Design, Multivariate Modelling, and Mechanistic Interpretation. La Chimica e l'Industria. 82. 8 pages.
- 1999. Fine Chemicals from Lignosulfonates. 1. Synthesis of Vanillin by Oxidation of Lignosulfonate. Organic Process Research & Development. 3: 330-340.
- 1999. Fine Chemicals from Lignosulfonates 2. Synthesis of Veratric acid from Acetoveratrone. Organic Process Research & Development. 3: 341-346.
- 1999. Electrophilic Aromatic Alkylation by Hydroperoxides, Dompetition Between Ionic and Radical Mechanism. Journal of Organic Chemistry. 64: 8812-8815.
- 1999. Polar Effects in Free-Radical Reactions. the Paradox of Reductions of alkyl Iodides and Reductive alkylation of Alkenes by Strong Oxidants (t-BuOOH,Pb(OAc)4. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 121: 7760-7765.
- 1999. Stability of Iodixanol=3,3',5,5'-tetrakis(2,3-dihydroxypropylcarbamoyl)2,2',4,4',6,6'-hexaiodo-N,N'-(2-hydroxypropane-1,3-diyl)diacetanilide towards acid, base, oxygen, heat and light. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 24: 227-235.
- 2010. IUPAC ICOS-18 Proceedings. Kjemisk institutt, Universitetet i Bergen, Bergen. 114 pages.
- 2009. Introduction to design and modelling of organic reactions and processes. Lecture notes from course for PhD students and researchers of the research training network InSolEx. utgit av forfatterne selv, Universitetet i Bergen, Kjemisk instutt. 50 pages.
- 2006. Organic Free Radicals. Program and abstract collection from the EUCHEM conference on organic free radicals, Scandinavian collaboration for the 2006 conference. Kjemisk institutt, Universitetet i Bergen, Bergen.
- 2002. Introduction to design and modelling of organic reactions and processes. Optimum Accipe (H.-R. Bjørsvik), Bergen. 51 pages.
- 2007. Data Analysis: Calibration of NIR Instruments by PLS Regression. Chapter 9, pages 189-206. In:
- 2007. Handbook of Near-Infrared Analysis, Third Edition. CRC Press. 832 pages. ISBN: 084937393X.
- 2001. Chapter 8: Data Analysis:PLS Calibration of NIR instruments by PLS regression. 185-207. In:
- 2001. Handbook of Near-Infrared Analysis Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. ISBN: 0-8247-0534-3.
- Vijayaragavan Elumalai and Hans-René Bjørsvik.* Indium powder as a reducing agent in the synthesis of 2-amino-1,1'-biphenyls. Tetrahedron Letters 2016, 57, 1224–1226.
- Vijayaragavan Elumalai, Alexander H. Sandtorv, and Hans-René Bjørsvik.* A Highly Efficient Pd(PPh3)4-Catalyzed Suzuki Cross-Coupling Method for the Preparation of 2-Nitrobiphenyls from 1-Chloro-2-Nitrobenzenes and Phenylboronic acids. European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2016, 1344-1354.
- Marta Ferreri, Audun Drageset, Cristian Gambarotti, and Hans-René Bjørsvik.* Continuous flow synthesis of the iodination agent 1,3-diiodo-5,5-dimethyl-imidazolidine-2,4-dione telescoped with semi-continuous product isolation. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering 2016, 1, 379-386.
- Audun Drageset and Hans-René Bjørsvik.* Continuous flow synthesis cocatenated with continious flow liquid-liquid extraction for work-up and purification: selective mono- and di-iodination of the imidazole backbone. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering 2016, 1, 436-444.
- Hans-René Bjørsvik* and Vijayaragavan Elumalai. Synthesis of the Carbazole Scaffold Direcly form 2-amino-biphenyl by means of tandem C-H activation and C-N bond formation. European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2016, 5474-5479.
- Vijayaragavan Elumalai and Hans-René Bjørsvik.* A Concise Synthesis to Benzo[c]cinnolines via 2,2´-Dinitro-1,1´-Biphenyls Attained from a Novel Tailored Suzuki Cross-Coupling. ChemistrySelect 2017, 2, 9387-9390
- Vijayaragavan Elumalai, Cristian Gambarotti, and Hans-René Bjørsvik.* Carbazomycin G: Method Development and Total Synthesis. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2018, 1984–1992.
- Frida Johanne Lundevall, Vijayaragavan Elumalai, Audun Drageset, Christian Totland, Hans-René Bjørsvik.* A Co2B mediated NaBH4 reduction protocol applicable for a selection of functional groups in organic synthesis. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2018, 3416-3425.
- Audun Drageset, Hans-René Bjørsvik.* Synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines thru a domino oxidative amidation and telescoped transamidation process. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2018, 4436-4445.
- Audun Drageset, Vijayaragavan Elumalai, Hans-René Bjørsvik.* Synthesis of Boscalid via a Three-step Telescoped Continuous Flow Process Implemented on a MJOD Reactor Platform. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering 2018, 3, 550-558
- Organic Chemistry and Synthesis
- Heterocyclic chemistry, in particular N-heterocycles
- Oxidation and antioxidants
- Free radical chemistry
- NHC ligands and transition metals for catalysis
- Flow chemistry technologies and flow synthesis
- Microwave in organic synthesis
- Optimization and investigation of organic syntheses and processes by means of statistical experimental design and multivariate regression
- Fiber optical spectroscopy for reaction monitoring
A thesis project in organic synthesis will deal with the development of one or more steps of a synthesis leading either to a key intermediate or to a target molecule of a total synthesis. Moreover, other investigations may be required in order to support a proposal for a reaction mechanisms.
The synthetic task can be: (1) investigation of an one step reaction, (2) design and development of a multi-step synthesis of either academic or commercial industrial interest, or (3) a study that involves investigation of a synthetic transformation where the goal is to maximize the profit of an industrial synthesis, improve the yield and / or the selectivity. Target molecule or intermediate can be an important intermediate products or preferably a biologically active compound that can be used as a pharmaceutical chemical. Usually, the target molecule, or model molecule is a N-heterocyclic natural compound.
A project in advanced spectroscopy and organic synthesis will start out with searching the chemical literature and studies of previous research work. This is followed by introductory experiments in the laboratory, where techniques for synthesis laboratory will be used (performing reaction under different conditions, filtration, drying, extraction, crystallization, distillation, flash chromatography, thin layer chromatography, etc.). Of instrumental analytical methods, different chromatographic methods such as GC, GC-MS and HPLC can be necessary for quantification.
Various pectroscopy and spectrometry are of paramount importance in this project, and will involve the utilization of mass spectrometry (MS), infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR and other nucleuses if necessary) will be used for identification and structure elucidation of target products and eventually side- and by-products that have been produced.
Keywords: Synthesis, N-heterocyclic compounds, natural products, metal organic reactions, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, FT-IR, fiber optical raman, fiber optical Near-IR, reaction monitoring