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Hilary Helen Birks

Professor, Professor Emerita in Quaternary Palaeoecology and Palaeoclimate Research at the Department of Biology and at the Bjerknes Centre of Climate Research. Visiting Professor Emerita at the Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London.
  • E-mailHilary.Birks@uib.no
  • Phone+47 55 58 33 25
  • Visitor Address
    Thormøhlensgt. 53 A/B
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7803
    5020 Bergen

Hilary Birks is a plant macrofossil specialist with particular interests in vegetation history and palaeoecology in the Late-glacial and Holocene (14,000 - 0 years ago). She took up macrofossil analysis in 1970 and now has a wide experience in Europe and North America, with special emphasis on northern and arctic ecosystems. She has studied Late-glacial palaeoecology in Scotland, Norway, and Minnesota; she has worked on Holocene ecosystem development in Norway, Svalbard, Greenland, Romania, and Tibet and on the full-glacial of Beringia (between Alaska and Siberia) and Siberia. She has also studied the historical effects of eutrophication and pollution on lake ecosystems in Minnesota, UK, and North Africa. In connection with the interpretation of plant macrofossil data, she has studied the recent deposition of plant remains.

Other major research interests include:

  • the use of terrestrial plant macrofossils for AMS radiocarbon dating, chronology, and 14C variations in the Late-glacial, including the dating of volcanic ash layers and the quantification of the marine 14C reservoir effect
  • the reconstruction of atmospheric CO2 concentrations from the stomatal density and δ13C of fossil leaves through the Late-glacial and into the Holocene
  • the combination of plant macrofossil analyses with other proxies in multi-disciplinary studies. The first of these was a pioneering study of eutrophication in Minnesota lakes in 1970. The largest was the Kråkenes Project involving 24 scientists from 5 countries, to reconstruct the late-glacial and early Holocene ecosystem responses to the climate changes. This approach was continued in the NORPAST and NORPEC projects with a transect of late-glacial sites from southern to northern Norway to determine regional climatic development and gradients since deglaciation. An assessment of recent pollution and ecosystem sustainability in North African lakes (CASSARINA) has combined analyses of diverse animal and plant remains with radiometric dating.

Major research achievements

(i)        Major contributions to knowledge of the late-glacial and Holocene vegetation of Scotland, including the palaeoecology of pine stumps found in blanket peat deposits, climate reconstruction during the late-glacial, radiocarbon chronology of late-glacial tephras, and vegetation history and biogeography of Scotland.

(ii)       A pioneering study of the modern deposition of plant remains in lakes in 1970, followed by 3 other studies in UK and Norway.

(iii)      A pioneering multi-disciplinary palaeolimnological study of lake eutrophication in 1970.

(iv)      A multi-disciplinary reconstruction of the Late-glacial and early Holocene ecosystems, environment, and climate changes at Kråkenes Lake, western Norway since 1992. Besides aquatic and vegetational development, quantitative climate reconstructions were made and compared from 5 biological proxies. Rates of environmental and climatic change were estimated. The project also included the establishment of a high-resolution Late-glacial/early Holocene radiocarbon chronology, which allowed the determination of the calendar ages of the start and end of the Younger Dryas, (the latter being the start of the Holocene) and of the Vedde and Saksunarvatn tephras. Changes in pCO2 during the late-glacial and early Holocene determined from the stomatal density of fossil Salix herbacea leaves demonstrated differences from the ice-core pCO2 record. At least 26 publications have been produced from the project, including a special issue of Journal of Paleolimnology vol. 23.

(v)       Evaluation of the importance of plant macrofossil data in the interpretation of late-glacial vegetation history as a complement to pollen analysis.

(vi)      The use of plant macrofossils where pollen data are unreliable, to study vegetation history in the Arctic and the movement of tree-lines during the Holocene.

(vii)     Multi-disciplinary records of recent lake-ecosystem responses to pollution, eutrophication, and hydrological interference, particularly in North Africa, but also in Minnesota and UK.

Teaching

Since her appointment as Professor of Quaternary Climate Changes and Palaeoecology in 2002, she has taught undergraduates about Quaternary Palaeoecology, including pollen analysis, and field courses about plant ecology and taxonomy and field methods used in Quaternary research. She has led graduate-student excursions to Öland, Spain, and Scotland. She has taught an international Plant Macrofossil Course for many years in Bergen.

She taught an international course on ‘Introduction to Plant Macrofossil Analysis’ at ECRC, University College London, 1995-2012. She has also taught macrofossil courses in Sweden and Alaska (Fairbanks).

She has supervised or co-supervised 7 doctoral students in the Universities of Bergen and London.

Scientific Collaboration

She collaborates with numerous colleagues within the University of Bergen with botanical, geological and zoological interests. She led a Quaternary palaeoecology project within the Bergen University Strategic Grant NORPEC. She has also collaborated with other Norwegian colleagues through the NFR project NORPAST, at the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory at Trondheim, the Norwegian Geological Survey, Tromsø University, and Bø College.

She is affiliated to University College London as a Visiting Professor at the Environmental Change Research Centre. She collaborated on several research projects on pollution of North African lakes, the palaeoenvironment of northern Egypt, and recent lake ecosystem changes in the UK with scientists at the Centre. In addition, Viv Jones (ECRC, UCL) and Steve Brooks (Natural History Museum, London) have collaborated in her Norwegian and Scottish late-glacial research projects. Together with Carl Sayer and colleagues, she is compiling a Handbook of Aquatic Macrofossil Identification.

Elsewhere, she is involved in a project on the diets of extinct mastodons in mid-west North USA with Bas van Geel (Netherlands), and on Holocene tree-line dynamics in the Retezat Mountains in the Romanian Carpathians with Iló Orban and Enikö Magyari (Hungary). She worked with Minna Väliranta (Finland) on interstadial and early Holocene climates in Finland. She has played a role in the INTIMATE (INTegration of Ice-core, MArine and TErrestrial data, 60,000-8000 years ago) project over many years.

Her research activities have been documented in her paper ‘My Life with Macrofossils’ in Journal of Paleolimnology 57, 181-200

Publications

A list of Hilary Birks’s publications since 1970. Reprints of many of them are available on request.

Other interests

Hilary Birks has a strong interest in photography of plants in the wild, associated with enjoyment of visiting alpine areas around the world to study their flora. Her other major hobby is gardening, with a special interest in growing alpine plants.

 

Publications to 2016

Academic article
  • 2019. Using species attributes to characterize late-glacial and early-Holocene environments at Kr?kenes, western Norway. Journal of Vegetation Science. 1228-1238.
  • 2019. Evidence for the diet and habitat of two late Pleistocene mastodons from the Midwest, USA. Quaternary Research. 792-812.
  • 2018. Treeline and timberline dynamics on the northern and southern slopes of the Retezat Mountains (Romania) during the late glacial and the Holocene. Quaternary International. 59-78.
  • 2018. The timing of deglaciation and the sequence of pioneer vegetation at Ringsaker, eastern Norway – and an earthquake-triggered landslide. Norwegian Journal of Geology. 301-318.
  • 2018. Modern pollen–vegetation relationships in traditionally mown and unmanaged boreal rich-fen communities in central Norway. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 14-27.
  • 2018. Modern pollen assemblages and their relationships to vegetation and climate in the Lhasa Valley, Tibetan Plateau, China. Quaternary International. 210-221.
  • 2018. Holocene fire-regime changes near the tree-line in the Retezat Mts. (Southern Carpathians, Romania). Quaternary International. 94-105.
  • 2017. Stay or go - how topographic complexity influences alpine plant population and community responses to climate change. Perspectives in plant ecology, evolution and systematics. 41-50.
  • 2017. Holocene treeline and timberline changes in the South Carpathians (Romania): Climatic and anthropogenic drivers on the southern slopes of the Retezat Mountains. The Holocene. 1613-1630.
  • 2016. The fourth dimension of vegetation. Science. 412-413.
  • 2016. How have studies of ancient DNA from sediments contributed to the reconstruction of Quaternary floras? New Phytologist. 499-506.
  • 2016. How foreign is the past? (brief communication arising from Lyons et al. 2016). Nature. E1-E2.
  • 2015. South to north: Contrasting late-glacial and early-Holocene climate changes and vegetation responses between south and north Norway. The Holocene. 37-52.
  • 2015. Plant macrofossil evidence for an early onset of the Holocene summer thermal maximum in northernmost Europe. Nature Communications.
  • 2015. Impacts of palaeoclimate change 60 000-8000 years ago on humans and their environments in Europe: Integrating palaeoenvironmental and archaeological data. Quaternary International. 4-13.
  • 2014. Validation of climate model-inferred regional temperature change for late-glacial Europe. Nature Communications. 7 pages.
  • 2014. To what extent did changes in July temperature influence late-glacial vegetation patterns in NW Europe? Quaternary Science Reviews. 262-277.
  • 2014. Looking forward through the past: identification of 50 priority research questions in palaeoecology. Journal of Ecology. 256-267.
  • 2014. Late-glacial and early-Holocene climate variability reconstructed from multi-proxy records on Andøya, northern Norway. Quaternary Science Reviews. 108-122.
  • 2014. Identifying the driving factors behind observed elevational range shifts on European mountains. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 876-884.
  • 2014. Dating, synthesis, and interpretation of palaeoclimatic records of the Last Glacial cycle and model-data integration: advances by the INTIMATE (INTegration of Ice-core, MARrine and TErrestrial records) COST Action ES0907. Quaternary Science Reviews. 1-13.
  • 2013. Vegetation responses to late-glacial climate changes in western Norway. Preslia (Praha). 215-237.
  • 2013. Stratigraphic expressions of the Holocene-Anthropocene transition revealed in sediments from remote lakes. Earth-Science Reviews. 17-34.
  • 2013. Soil mineral depletion drives early Holocene lake acidification. Geology. 415-418.
  • 2013. Precise 14C ages of the Vedde and Saksunarvatn ashes and the Younger Dryas boundaries from western Norway and their comparison with the Greenland Ice Core (GICC05) chronology. Journal of Quaternary Science. 490-500.
  • 2012. Vegetation responses to rapid climate changes during the last deglaciation 13 500 - 8000 years ago on southwest Andøya, arctic Norway. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. 17-35.
  • 2012. Quantitative climate reconstruction from late-glacial and early Holocene plant macrofossils in western Norway using the probability density function approach. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 27-39.
  • 2012. High resolution Late-glacial and early-Holocene summer air temperature records from Scotland inferred from Chironomid assemblages. Quaternary Science Reviews. 67-82.
  • 2012. From cold to cool in northernmost Norway: Lateglacial and early Holocene multi-proxy environmental and climate reconstructions from Jansvatnet, Hammerfest. Quaternary Science Reviews. 100-120.
  • 2012. Are fossil assemblages in a single sediment core from a small lake representative of total deposition of mite, chironomid, and plant macrofossil remains? Journal of Paleolimnology. 669-691.
  • 2011. New age estimates and climatostratigraphic correlations for the Borrobol and Penifiler Tephras: evidence from Abernethy Forest, Scotland. Journal of Quaternary Science. 247-252.
  • 2010. Palaeoenvironmental and palaeoseismic implications of a 3700-year sedimentary record from proglacial Lake Barrancs (Maladeta Massif, Central Pyrenees, Spain). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 83-93.
  • 2010. Oribatid mite assemblages across the tree-line in western Norway and their representation in lake sediments. Journal of Paleolimnology. 361-374.
  • 2010. Long-term ecosystem dynamics of a small lake and its catchment in west Greenland. The Holocene. 1207-1222.
  • 2010. Lateglacial and early Holocene vegetation and climate gradients in the Nordfjord-Alesund area, western Norway. Boreas. 783-798.
  • 2010. Can we detect a west Norwegian tree line from modern samples of plant remains and pollen? Results from the DOORMAT project. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. 325-340.
  • 2009. Rapid oceanic and atmospheric changes during the Younger Dryas cold period. Nature Geoscience. 202-205.
  • 2009. Early Weichselian interstadial (MIS 5c) summer temperatures were higher than today in northern Fennoscandia. Quaternary Science Reviews. 777-782.
  • 2008. The ecological implications of a Yakutian mammoth's last meal. Quaternary Research. 361-376.
  • 2008. The Late-Quaternary history of arctic and alpine plants. Plant Ecology & Diversity. 135-146.
  • 2008. Biological responses to rapid climate change at the Younger Dryas-Holocene transition at Kråkenes, western Norway. The Holocene. 19-30.
  • 2006. Stomatal frequency of Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris shows no proportional relationship with atmospheric CO2 concentration. Nordic Journal of Botany. 327-339.
  • 2006. Spatial representation of aquatic vegetation by macrofossils and pollen in a small and shallow lake. Journal of Paleolimnology. 335-350.
  • 2006. Holocene forest development along the Setesdal valley, southern Norway, reconstructed from macrofossil and pollen evidence. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. 65-85.
  • 2006. Derek Almey Ratcliffe, B.Sc., Ph.D., D.Sc. (1929-2005). Journal of Bryology. 71-75.
  • 2006. Changes in North Atlantic radiocarbon reservoir ages during the Allerod and Younger Dryas. Science.
  • 2006. Changes in North Atlantic Radiocarbon Reservoir Ages During the Allerød and Younger Dryas. Science. 1514-1517.
  • 2005. On the presence of late-glacial trees in western Norway and the Scandes: a further comment. Journal of Biogeography. 376-378.
  • 2005. Did tree-Betula, Pinus and Picea survive the last glaciation along the west coast of Norway? A review of the evidence, in light of Kullman (2002). Journal of Biogeography. 1461-1471.
  • 2004. The Rise and Fall of Forests. Science. 484-485.
  • 2004. Holocene vegetation and climate history on a continental-oceanic transect in northern Fennoscandia based on pollen and plant macrofossils. Boreas. 211-223.
  • 2003. The importance of plant macrofossils in the reconstruction of Lateglacial vegetation and climate: examples from Scotland, western Norway, and Minnesota, USA. Quaternary Science Reviews. 453-473.
  • 2003. Knut Fægri (1909-2001). Watsonia. 462-464.
  • 2002. The recent extinction of Azolla nilotica in the Nile Delta, Egypt. Acta Palaeobotanica. 203-214.
  • 2002. Recent environmental change in North African wetland lakes: diatom and other stratigraphic evidence from nine sites in the CASSARINA Project. Aquatic Ecology. 369-388.
  • 2002. Rapid climatic changes during the Greenland stadial 1 (Younger dryas) to early Holocene transition on the Norwegian Barents sea coast. Boreas. 215-225.
  • 2002. Late-glacial and early-Holocene Trichoptera (Insecta) from Kråkenes Lake, western Norway. What Trichoptera fossil remains tell us about climatic changes. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Trichoptera - Nova Supplement Entomologicae. 75-80.
  • 2001. Zooplankton (Cladocera, Ostracoda), Chironomidae and other benthic faunal remains in sediment cores from nine North African wetland lakes: the CASSARINA Project. Aquatic Ecology. 389-403.
  • 2001. The identification of wingless Betula fruits in Weichselian sediments in the Gross Todtshorn borehole (Lower Saxony, Germany) - the occurrence of Betula humilis Schrank. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. 107-115.
  • 2001. Terrestrial pollen record of recent land-use changes around nine North African lakes in the CASSARINA project. Aquatic Ecology. 431-448.
  • 2001. Species-environmental relationships of aquatic macrophytes in Northern Ireland. Aquatic Botany. 175-223.
  • 2001. Recent ecosystem dynamics in nine North African lakes in the CASSARINA Project. Aquatic Ecology. 461-478.
  • 2001. Radiometrically determined dates and sedimentation rates for recent sediments in nine North African wetland lakes (the CASSARINA Project). Aquatic Ecology. 347-367.
  • 2001. Palaeolimnological responses of nine North Africanlakes in the CASSARINA Project to recent environmental changes and human impact detected by plant macrofossil, pollen, and faunal analyses. Aquatic Ecology. 405-430.
  • 2001. Open water zooplankton communities in North African wetland lakes: th CASSARINA Project. Aquatic Ecology. 319-333.
  • 2001. Inter-regional corrlatio of palaeoclimatic records for the Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition: a protocol for improved precision recommended by the INTIMATE project group. Quaternary Science Reviews. 1175-1187.
  • 2001. Full-glacial upland tundra vegetation preserved under tephra in the Beringia National Park, Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Quaternary Science Reviews. 135-147.
  • 2000. Two terrestrial records of rapid climatic change during the glacial - Holocene transition (14,000 - 9,000 calendar years B.P.) from Europe. MANGLER. 1390-1394.
  • 2000. The late-glacial and early-Holocene palaeoecology of cladoceran microfossil assemblages at Kråkenes, western Norway, with a reconstruction of temperature changes. Journal of Paleolimnology. 67-76.
  • 2000. The develoopment of the aquatic ecosystem at Kråkenes Lake, western Norway, during the late-glacial and early-Holocene - a synthesis. Journal of Paleolimnology. 91-114.
  • 2000. Late-glacial and early-Holocene Trichoptera (Insecta) from Kråkenes Lake, western Norway. Journal of Paleolimnology. 1-8.
  • 2000. Late-glacial and early-Holocene Trichoptera (Insecta) from Kråkenes Lake, western Norway. Journal of Paleolimnology. 1-8.
  • 2000. Late-Glacial and Early-Holocene Climate Reconstructions at Kråkenes Lake, a West Norwegian Point on PEP III. Pages. 17-18.
  • 2000. Introduction to the reconstruction of the late-glacial and early-Holocene aquatic ecosystems at Kråkenes Lake, Norway. Journal of Paleolimnology. 1-5.
  • 2000. Future uses of pollen analysis must include plant macrofossils. Journal of Biogeography. 31-35.
  • 2000. Diatom responses to late-glacial and early-Holocene environmental changes at Kråkenes, western Norway. Journal of Paleolimnology. 21-34.
  • 2000. Aquatic macrophyte vegetation development in Kråkenes Lake, western Norway, during the late-glacial and early-Holocne. Journal of Paleolimnology. 7-19.
  • 1999. The chronology of palaeoenvironmental changes during the Last Glacial-Holocene transition: towards an event stratigraphy for the British Isles. Journal of the Geological Society. 397-410.
  • 1999. Stomata åpner for CO2-studier. Naturen. 189-199.
  • 1999. Late-Weichselian marine 14 C reservoirages at the western coast of Norway. Quaternary Research. 104-114.
  • 1999. Late weichselian marine 14C reservoir ages at the western coast of Norway. Quaternary Research. 102-114.
  • 1999. Late Weichselian marine 14C reservoir ages at the western coast of Norway. Quaternary Research. 104-114.
  • 1999. Early Holocene atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Science. 1815-1816.
  • 1999. Early Holocene Atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Science. 1815-1816.
  • 1999. Climate variations in Britain during the Last glacial - Holocene transition (15.0-11.5 cal Ka BP): comparison with the GRIP ice-core record. Journal of Geological Society of London. 411-423.
  • 1998. An event stratigraphy for the Last Termination in the North Atlantic region based on the Greenland ice-core record, a proposal by the INTIMATE grou. Journal of Quaternary Science. 283-292.
  • 1998. A calendar age estimate of the Younger Dryas-Holocene boundary at Kråkenes, western Norway. The Holocene. 249-259.
  • 1997. With AGS in Northern California. Quarterly Bulletin of the Alpine Garden Society. 163-173.
  • 1997. Late Wisconsin environments of the Bering Land Bridge. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 293-308.
  • 1997. Betula species in the west Norwegian late-glacial interstadial and early Holocene, and the reconstruction of climate gradients. Geonytt. 102-102.
  • 1997. A reconstruction of the aquatic ecosystem development Kråkenes Lake, Norway, during the late-glacial and early Holocene. Würzburger Geographische Manuskripte. 31-32.
  • 1996. The Kråkenes Late-glacial Palaeolimnological Project. Journal of Paleolimnology. 281-286.
  • 1996. The Kråkenes Late-glacial Palaeoenvironmental Project. Journal of Paleolimnology. 281-286.
  • 1996. The Kråkenes Late-glacial Palaeoenvironmental Project. Journal of Paleolimnology. 281-286.
  • 1996. New radiocarbon dates for the Vedde ash and the Saksunarvatn ash from western Norway. Quaternary Research. 119-127.
  • 1996. Life and times of the Bering land bridge. Nature. 60-63.
  • 1996. Holocene treelines, Dendrochronology and Palaeoclimate. Paläoklimaforschung. 1-18.
  • 1996. Distinguishing fossil Betula nana and B. pubescens using their wingless fruits: implications for the late-glacial vegetational history of western Norway. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. 229-240.
  • 1996. Distinguishing fossil Betula nana and B. pubescens using their wingless fruits: Implications for the late-glacial vegetational history of western Norway. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. 229-240.
  • 1995. Rapid Communication Rapid late-glacial atmospheric CO2 changes reconstructed from the stomatal density record of fossil leaves. Journal of Quaternary Science. 379-384.
  • 1995. Late-glacial mosses and environmental reconstructions at Kråkenes, western Norway. Lindbergia. 64-82.
  • 1995. By the road on the Furka Pass. Quarterly Bulletin of the Alpine Garden Society. 44-45.
  • 1994. The importance of plant macrofossils in late-glacial climatic reconstructions: an example from western Norway. Quaternary Science Reviews. 719-726.
  • 1994. Plant macrofossils and the nunatak theory of per-glacial survival. Dissertationes Botanicae. 129-143.
  • 1994. Late-glacial vegetational ecotones and climatic patterns in Western Norway. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. 107-119.
  • 1994. Late Weichselian environmental change in Norway, including Svalbard. Journal of Quaternary Science. 133-145.
  • 1994. Late Weichselian environmental change in Norway, including Svalbard. Journal of Quaternary Science. 133-145.
  • 1994. Investigations towards the reconstruction of the late-glacial environment at Lurga, S. E. Burren. I. The sedimentary record and the pollen and macrofossil evidence. IQUA Guide to the Burren.
  • 1994. Climatic changes in areas adjacent to the Northe Atlantic during the last glacial-interglacial transition (14-9 ka BP): a contribution to IGCP - 253. Journal of Quaternary Science. 185-198.
  • 1993. The ecology and conservation of the Killarney Fern (Trichomanes speciosum Willd.) in Britain and Ireland. Biological Conservation. 231-247.
  • 1993. Palaeoecology of a late Allerød peat bed at Godøy, western Norway. Journal of Quaternary Science. 147-159.
  • 1992. Notes on the flora and vegetation of Canna and Sanday. Botanical Journal of Scotland. 15-26.
  • 1991. Late Weichselian flora and vegetation of Andøya, Northern Norway - macrofossil (seed and fruit) evidence from Nedre Æråsvatn. Nordic Journal of Botany. 465-476.
Academic lecture
  • 2013. Synchronous inter-hemispheric alpine glacier advances during the Antarctic Cold Reversal.
  • 2013. Comparison between the calibrated radiocarbon (IntCal09) and Greenland Ice Core (GICC05) time scales for the Vedde and Saksunarvatn ashes and the Younger Dryas boundaries.
  • 2012. Synchronous inter-hemispheric alpine glacier advances during the Antarctic Cold Reversal.
  • 2012. Ancient DNA from lake sediments - Fact or fiction?
  • 2011. Vegetation responses to rapid climatic changes during the last deglaciation on southwest Andøya, northern Norway.
  • 2011. The late-Quaternary history of arctic and alpine plants and their future in a changing world.
  • 2011. Synchronous inter-hemispheric alpine glacier advances during the Antarctic cold reversal.
  • 2011. Plant life in the cold - arctic and alpine environments.
  • 2011. New ages and stratigraphic coherence of Lateglacial tephra layers: the Borrobol and Penifiler tephras from Abernethy Forest.
  • 2011. Macrofossil evidence for vegetation and climate gradients in the late-glacial and early Holocene in the Nordfjord area, western Norway.
  • 2011. Introduction to Quaternary palaeoecology.
  • 2011. Ecological responses to late-glacial climate changes in northern and western Norway.
  • 2011. Ecological responses to late-glacial climate changes in northern and western Norway.
  • 2011. Ecological responses to late-glacial climate changes in northern and western Norway.
  • 2011. DYNAWARM: Dynamics of Past Warm Climates.
  • 2009. The recent extinction of Azolla nilotica in the Nile Delta.
  • 2009. Rapid oceanic and atmospheric changes at the end of the younger Dryas cold period.
  • 2009. Pollenfeller på Upsete og Finse.
  • 2009. Atmospheric circulation inferred from lake sediments at Andøya, northern Norway.
  • 2008. The late-Quaternary history of arctic and alpine plants.
  • 2008. Ocean-atmosphere flickering ended the Younger Dryas cold period.
  • 2008. Beringia. The palaeoecology of an ice-age refugium.
  • 2008. "Direct Observation Of Recent Macrofossils Across Tree-line” The Mite Analysis.
  • 2007. Titanium concentration in lake sediments as a measure for glacier activity during the Younger Dryas in South Western Norway.
  • 2007. Pollenfeller på Upsete – erfaringer og resultater etter 2 ½ års innsamling.
  • 2007. Pollen traps below, at, and above the present day tree-line at Upsete, western Norway.
  • 2007. Bedre datering av marine prøver.
  • 2006. The ecological implications of a mammoth's last meal.
  • 2006. Plant macrofossils in palaeoecology.
  • 2006. Palaeoecology - an outline illustrated by the Kråkenes multi-disciplinary study.
  • 2006. New approaches to the interpretation of Holocene palaeoecological data.
  • 2006. Multi-proxy studies in Quaternary palaeoecology - origins, development and potential.
  • 2006. Exploring the World of High Alpines.
  • 2006. Biological responses to rapid climate change at the Last Glacial-Interglacial transition - dynamics, turnover, and rates of change.
  • 2005. Present-day and Late-glacial marine 14C Reservoir Ages of Surface Waters in the North Atlantic-Norwegian Sea.
  • 2005. Present-day and Late-glacial marine 14C Reservoir Ages of Surface Waters in the North Atlantic-Norwegian Sea.
  • 2005. Present day and Allerod - Younger Dryas marine 14C reservoir ages of surface waters in the North Atlantic-Norwegian Sea.
  • 2005. Endringar i marin 14C reservoaralder gjennom Preboreal -Yngre Dryas- Allerød på vestkysten av Noreg.
  • 2005. A continuous centennial-scale record of North Atlantic sea-surface 14C reservoir ages from 14,000 to 11,000 years ago.
  • 2005. A -resolution record of North Atlantic sea-surface 14C reservoir ages from 14,000 to 11,000 years ago.
  • 2002. Late-glacial and early-Holocene Trichoptera (Insecta) from Kråkenes Lake, western Norway.
  • 2001. Late Weichselian 14C reservoir ages along the Norwegian coast.
  • 2000. Forest response to environmntal stress at timberlines: sensitivity of northern, alpine and mediterranean forest limits to climate.
  • 1999. Marin 14C reservoaralder på vest-kysten av Noreg i sein weichsel.
  • 1999. Marin 14C reservoar-alder på vestkysten av Noreg i sein-Weichsel.
  • 1995. Identification and radiocarbon dating og the regional tephrachronostratigraphic markers the Vedde Ash and the Saksunarvatn ash in lake sediments at Kråkenes, western Norway.
  • 1994. AMS %1%4C dating of the Kråkenes Late Weichselian sediments.
Book review
  • 2015. John Birks: Pioneer in quantitative palaeoecology. The Holocene. 3-16.
  • 2005. Derek Almey Ratcliffe. Plant Talk. 40-41.
Academic anthology/Conference proceedings
  • 1988. The Cultural Landscape - Past, Present and Future. Cambridge University Press.
  • 1988. The Cultural Landscape - Past, Present and Future. Cambridge University Press.
Popular scientific article
  • 2018. Michael Proctor (1929-2017). BSBI News. 66-70.
  • 2018. Meconopsis torquata in the mountains near Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region. The Rock Garden. 82-89.
  • 2010. Eastern Cape Odyssey. Alpine Gardener. 422-444.
  • 2008. Alpines on the equator. Alpine Gardener. 426-435.
  • 2007. The AGS in Tibet 2005. Quarterly Bulletin of the Alpine Garden Society. 289-349.
  • 2007. Planter og fortidens klima. Ottar. 32-38.
  • 2006. Expedition Northern Patagonia November-December 2005. Quarterly Bulletin of the Alpine Garden Society. 55 pages.
  • 2004. On the Jhomolhari Trail. Alpine Gardener. 269-297.
  • 2004. Lily beetles in Norway. Alpine Gardener. 6-7.
  • 2003. Up the Wall. Alpine Gardener. 279-280.
  • 2002. Primula in Sichuan and Qinghai. Alpine Gardener. 334-338.
  • 2002. Louseworts in Sichuan and Qinghai. Alpine Gardener. 296-304.
  • 2002. Knut Fægri. Plant Talk. 10.
  • 2002. Cremanthodium and Ligularia in Sichuan and Qinghai. Alpine Gardener. 318-320.
  • 2002. Anemone, Arenaria, Astragalus, Braya, Chrysosplenium, Corydalis, Draba, Gentiana, Gentianopsis, Halenia, and Comastoma, Gueldenstaedtia, Hedysarum, Koenigia, Oxytropis, Parnassia, Potentilla, Pyrola, Rhodiola, Saxifraga, Sedum, Sibbaldia, Silene, Soroseris, and Trollius. The Holocene. 313-342.
  • 2000. Searching for alpines in the wild. Quarterly Bulletin of the Alpine Garden Society. 48-52.
Feature article
  • 2016. My life with macrofossils. Journal of Paleolimnology. 181-200.
  • 2016. In Memoriam: Herbert Edgar Wright, Jr.: 13 September 1917 – 12 November 2015. Journal of Paleolimnology. 73-78.
Doctoral dissertation
  • 2008. Studies in the ecology and palaeoecology of the Lhasa valley, Tibet Autonomous Region, China.
Academic chapter/article/Conference paper
  • 2007. Plant macrofossil introduction. 23 pages.
  • 2007. Paleolimnological applications. 20 pages.
  • 2007. Late glacial multidisciplinary studies. 12 pages.
  • 2005. Exploratoty Comparisons of Quantitative Temperature Estimates Over the Last Deglaciation in Norway and the Norwegian Sea. 14 pages.
  • 2005. Endringar i marin 14C reservoaralder gjennom Preboreal-Yngre dryas-Allerød på vestkysten av Noreg. 2 pages.
  • 2003. Reconstructing Holocene climates from pollen and plant macrofossils. 16 pages.
  • 2002. 17 contributions.
  • 2001. Plant macrofossils. 26 pages.
  • 2000. The amount of CO2 in the air breathed by the Iceman. 3 pages.
  • 1998. Quantifying bryophyte - environment relationships. 15 pages.
  • 1996. Holocene treelines, dendrochronology and paleoclimate. (General introduction). 18 pages.
Academic literature review
  • 2012. Macrofossils in Raraku Lake (Easter Island) integrated with sedimentary and geochemical records: towards a palaeoecological synthesis for the last 34,000 years. 113-126.
  • 2011. Lateglacial vegetation development in Denmark - New evidence based on macrofossils and pollen from Slotseng, a small-scale site in southern Jutland. 2534-2550.
  • 2006. Multi-proxy studies in palaeolimnology. 235-251.
Chapter
  • 2013. The contribution of plant macrofossil analysis to paleolimnology. 657-673. In:
    • 2013. Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, 2nd edition.
  • 2013. Plant Macrofossil Introduction. 593-612. In:
    • 2013. Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, 2nd edition.
  • 2013. Late glacial multidisciplinary studies including plant macrofossils. 785-793. In:
    • 2013. Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, 2nd edition.

More information in national current research information system (CRIStin)

1965:    BA, University of Cambridge

1969:    MA, University of Cambridge

1969:    PhD, University of Cambridge

2003:    Foreign member of Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters

2014:    Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science

2015:    Lifetime achievement award and medal of the International Paleolimnology    Association