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Ingunn Hindenes Thorseth's picture

Ingunn Hindenes Thorseth

Head of Department, Professor
  • E-mailIngunn.Thorseth@uib.no
  • Phone+47 55 58 34 28+47 415 28 683
  • Visitor Address
    Realfagbygget, Allégt. 41
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7803
    5020 Bergen

My principal research interests are low-temperature geochemical processes and geomicrobiology. My research has focused on microbial life in glassy seafloor and subseafloor oceanic basalt, which I study through the use of various textural, chemical and biomolecular biosignatures. Weathering of sandstones and granitic rocks, with special emphasis on weathering effects and biomineralisation of lichens, has been another main research topic. During the last years my main research activity has been related to the discovery and exploration of deep-sea hydrothermal vents and mineral deposits at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridges, and the associated deep-sea sediments. My research interests related to these environments are the role of microbial activity and biominealisation for the formation of various low-temperature mineral deposits (iron-hydroxides, barite), and relations between microbial activity, biogeochemistry and early sediment diagenesis. Another research topic the last years has been alteration (serpentinization) of ultramafic rocks and associated abiotic formation of hydrogen and organic compounds potentially sustaining associated microbial communities.

Academic article
  • 2019. Transport of carbon dioxide and heavy metals from hydrothermal vents to shallow water by hydrate-coated gas bubbles. Chemical Geology. 120-132.
  • 2019. On the biogenicity of Fe-oxyhydroxide filaments in silicified low-temperature hydrothermal deposits: Implications for the identification of Fe-oxidizing bacteria in the rock record. Geobiology. 31-53.
  • 2019. 3He along the ultraslow spreading AMOR in the Norwegian-Greenland Seas. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 1-11.
  • 2018. Water masses and depth structure prokaryotic and T4-like viral communities around hydrothermal systems of the Nordic Seas. Frontiers in Microbiology. 1-17.
  • 2018. Energy landscapes in hydrothermal chimneys shape distribution of primary producers. Frontiers in Microbiology.
  • 2018. Distribution patterns of iron-oxidizing Zeta- and Beta-Proteobacteria from different environmental settings of the Jan Mayen vent fields. Frontiers in Microbiology.
  • 2017. Environmental controls on biomineralization and Fe-mound formation in a low-temperature hydrothermal system at the Jan Mayen Vent Fields. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 101-123.
  • 2016. Novel barite chimneys at the Loki´s Castle vent field shed light on key factors shaping microbial communities and functions in hydrothermal systems. Frontiers in Microbiology.
  • 2016. Marinitoga arctica sp. Nov., a thermophilic, anaerobic heterotroph isolated from a Mid-Ocean Ridge vent field. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 5070-5076.
  • 2016. Fluid composition of the sediment-influenced Loki's Castle vent field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 156-178.
  • 2016. Constraints on the sedimentary input into the Loki's Castle hydrothermal system (AMOR) from B isotope data. Chemical Geology. 111-120.
  • 2015. The role of authigenic sulfides in immobilization of potentially toxic metals in the Bagno Bory wetland, southern Poland. Environmental science and pollution research international. 15495-15505.
  • 2015. The effect of submarine CO2 vents on seawater: Implications for detection of subsea carbon sequestration leakage. Limnology and Oceanography : Methods. 402-410.
  • 2015. Functional interactions among filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent biofilm. Environmental Microbiology. 4063-4077.
  • 2015. Energy landscapes shape microbial communities in hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. The ISME Journal. 1593-1606.
  • 2015. Abiotic and candidate biotic micro-alteration textures in subseafloor basaltic glass: A high-resolution in-situ textural and geochemical investigation. Chemical Geology. 124-137.
  • 2014. Microbial community structure and functioning in marine sediments associated with diffuse hydrothermal venting assessed by integrated meta-omics. Environmental Microbiology. 2699-2710.
  • 2014. Formation of H2, CH4 and N-species during low-temperature experimental alteration of ultramafic rocks. Chemical Geology. 22-34.
  • 2014. Comparison of iron isotope variations in modern and Ordovician siliceous Fe oxyhydroxide deposits. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 422-440.
  • 2014. Barite in hydrothermal environments as a recorder of subseafloor processes: A multiple-isotope study from the Loki's Castle vent field. Geobiology. 308-321.
  • 2013. The versatile in situ gene expression of an Epsilonproteobacteria-dominated biofilm from a hydrothermal chimney. Environmental Microbiology Reports. 282-290.
  • 2013. Quantitative and phylogenetic study of the Deep Sea Archaeal Group in sediments of the Arctic mid-ocean spreading ridge. Frontiers in Microbiology. 299.
  • 2012. Microbially induced iron precipitation associated with a neutrophilic spring at Borra Caves, Vishakhapatnam, India. Astrobiology. 327-346.
  • 2012. Microbial diversity of Loki's Castle black smokers at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. Geobiology. 548-561.
  • 2012. Low temperature alteration of serpentinized ultramafic rock and implications for microbial life. Chemical Geology. 75-87.
  • 2012. Correlating microbial community profiles with geochemical data in highly stratified sediments from the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. E2846-E2855.
  • 2011. Rhabdothermus arcticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Thermaceae isolated from a hydrothermal vent chimney in the Soria Mona vent field on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2197-2204.
  • 2011. Microbial metacommunities in the lichen-rock habitat. Environmental Microbiology Reports. 434-442.
  • 2011. A combined TEM and NanoSIMS study of Endolithic microfossils in altered seafloor basalt. Chemical Geology. 154-162.
  • 2010. The fauna of hydrothermal vents on the Mohn Ridge (North Atlantic). Marine Biology Research. 155-171.
  • 2010. Microbial metacommunities in the lichen-rock habitat. Environmental Microbiology Reports.
  • 2010. Discovery of a black smoker vent field and vent fauna at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. Nature Communications.
  • 2010. Archaeoglobus sulfaticallidus sp nov., a thermophilic and facultatively lithoautotrophic sulfate-reducer isolated from black rust exposed to hot ridge flank crustal fluids. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2745-2752.
  • 2008. Seafloor alteration of basaltic glass: Textures, geochemistry, and endolithic microorganisms. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems.
  • 2008. Enumeration of Archaea and Cacteria in seafloor basalt using real-time quantitative PCR and fluorescence microscopy. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 182-187.
  • 2004. Microbial community diversity in seafloor basalt from the Arctic spreading ridges. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 213-230.
  • 2003. Microbial alteration of 0-30-Ma seafloor and subseafloor basaltic glasses from the Australian Antarctic Discordance. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 237-247.
  • 2002. The occurrence of biomineralization products in four lichen species growing on sandstone in western Norway. The Lichenologist. 429-440.
  • 2002. Hydrothermal vent microbial communities: A fossil perspective. CBM - Cahiers de Biologie Marine. 317-320.
  • 2002. Comparative studies of the lichen - rock interface of four lichens in Vingen, western Norway. Chemical Geology. 81-98.
  • 2001. Microbial fractionation of carbon isotopes in altered basaltic glass from the Atlantic Ocean, Lau Basin and Costa Rica Rift. Chemical Geology. 313-330.
  • 2001. Diversity of life in ocean floor basalt. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 31-37.
  • 2001. Bioalteration of basaltic glass in the oceanic crust. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems.
  • 2001. Bioalteration of basaltic glass in the oceanic crust. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. U1-U32.
  • 2001. Bio-alteration of basaltic glass in the oceanic crust. MANGLER.
  • 2000. Investigation of microorganisms and DNA from subsurface thermal water and rock from the east flank of Juan de Fuca Ridge. Proc. ODP, Sci. Results. 167-174.
  • 1999. ROV exploration of the Kolbeinsey Ridge: Preliminary results of the SUBMAR-99 cruise. Inter Ridge News. 32-43.
  • 1998. Microbial activity at the glass-alteration interface in oceanic basalts. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 165-176.
  • 1998. Evidence for microbial activity at the glass-alteration interface in oceanic basalts. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 165-176.
  • 1997. Evidence of ancient life at 207 m depth in a granitic aquifer. Geology. 827-830.
  • 1996. Microbial Activity in the Alteration of Glass from Pillow Lavas from Hole 896A. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program Scientific Results. 191-206.
  • 1992. The importance of microbiological activity in the alteration of natural basaltic glass. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 845-850.
  • 1992. The importance of microbiological activity in the alteration of natura l basaltic glass. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 445-450.
Lecture
  • 2014. Towards a framework for analyses of how energy landscapes shape microbial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal systems.
  • 2014. Metagenomic study of a filamentous microbial mat from the Loki´s Castle Vent Field.
  • 2014. A FIB-TEM study of alteration textures in altered seafloor pillow basalt.
  • 2013. A natural analogue for CO2 leakage: The release and fate of CO2 at the Jan Mayen vent fields (AMOR).
Popular scientific lecture
  • 2010. Fe stable isotope fractionation in modern and ancient hydrothermal Fe-Si deposits.
  • 1997. Microbial activity at the glass-alteration interface in oceanic basalts.
Academic lecture
  • 2019. Biogeochemical processes in submarine mine tailings and the impact on benthic fauna.
  • 2017. Microbial and geochemical variation in sediments along the arctic mid-ocean spreading ridge system.
  • 2017. Geochemical transition zones are hotspots of nitrogen cycling in Arctic marine sediments.
  • 2017. Biogenicity of Fe-oxyhydroxide filaments in silicified low-temperature hydrothermal deposits.
  • 2016. Weathering of sulphides at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.
  • 2016. Mobilization of heavy metals in submarine mine tailings.
  • 2016. Local environmental controls on microbial Fe(II)-oxidation in seafloor hydrothermal deposits.
  • 2015. Weathering of Seafloor Massive Sulphide Deposits: Preliminary results from in-situ experiments at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.
  • 2015. Input and fate of hydrothermal volatiles and trace elements in deep-sea plumes from Arctic vent fields.
  • 2015. Carbon release through hydrothermal venting at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridges (AMOR).
  • 2014. Use of metatranscriptomics, amplicon pyrosequencing and thermodynamics to assess how microbial communities are shaped by energy availability.
  • 2014. The fate of existing submarine tailings in Norwegian fjords.
  • 2014. The Hugin Fracture.
  • 2014. Stability of Heavy Metals in Submarine Mine Tailings.
  • 2014. Microbial communities associated with low-temperature venting barite chimneys in the Loki´s Castle black smoker field.
  • 2014. Microbial communities associated with low-temparture venting barite chimneys in the Loki´s Castle black smoker field.
  • 2014. Linking prokaryotes and geochemical parameters in Deep sea marine sediments.
  • 2014. Geochemical constraints on alteration textures in the upper oceanic crust.
  • 2014. Energy landscapes shape microbial communities and the distribution of biosignatures in hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.
  • 2014. Correlating abundances of archaeal lineages and geochemical parameters in deep-sea marine sediments.
  • 2014. Biotic processes in palagonite formation.
  • 2013. Thermodynamic constraints on the microbial ecology and biogeochemical cycling in deep-sea hydrothermal systems.
  • 2013. Formation of barite chimneys at low-temperature hydrothermal venting: evidence for complex geobio-interactions.
  • 2013. Discovery of a 3 km long seafloor fracture system in the Central North Sea.
  • 2013. Correlating microbial community structure with geochemical data in sediments from the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.
  • 2013. An experimental study of the formation of H2, CH4 and N-species during low temperature alteration of ultramafic rocks.
  • 2012. Unraveling the sulfur cycle in the Loki’s Castle vent field. GV and Sediment Meeting, Hamburg, Germany.
  • 2012. New knowledge on the Jan Mayen Vent Fields from high-resolution seafloor mapping with interferometric synthetic aperture sonar.
  • 2012. Correlating geochemical data with microbial community structure in highly stratified sediments from the Arctic mid-ocean ridge.
  • 2012. Archaea in the atmosphere.
  • 2011. Microbial processes and biomineralisation associated with low-temperature venting and formation of barite chimneys at Loki's Castle hydrothermal field.
  • 2011. Loki's Castle: A sediment-influenced hydrothermal vent field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.
  • 2011. Investigations of a unique fauna from hydrothermal vents along the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR).
  • 2011. Formation of barite chimneys in hydrothermal systems.
  • 2011. Fe stable isotope fractionation in modern and ancient hydrothermal Fe-Si deposits.
  • 2011. Diversity of microbial communities of Loki's castle black smoker field at the ultra-slow spreading arctic mid-ocean Ridge.
  • 2011. Cu-, Zn- and Fe-isotope systematics of low-T hydrothermal Fe-Si deposits.
  • 2010. The biosphere of deep subsurface environments: present knowledge and outstanding questions.
  • 2010. Microbial life associated with low-temperature hydrothermal venting and formation of barite chimneys at Loki’s Castle vent field.
  • 2010. Low-temperature water rock interactions, microbial ecosystems and biomineralization at oceanic spreading ridges.
  • 2010. Loki’s Castle: Discovery and geology of a black smoker vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.
  • 2010. Investigations of a novel fauna from hydrothermal vents along the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR).
  • 2010. Geobiology of hydrothermal vent fields in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea.
  • 2010. A variety of microbial mats cover the chimney walls of the Loki's Castle hydrothermal field.
  • 2009. Transition metal isotope fractionation in hydrothermal deposits.
  • 2009. Microbial population structure in low temperature iron hydroxide deposits at the 71°N hydrothermal vent field the Arctic-Ocean Ridge.
  • 2009. Microbial involvement in the precipitation of iron in organic mats associated with a neutrophilic spring of Borra caves, Vishakapatanam, India.
  • 2009. Microbial interactions with low-temperature geochemical processes at the seafloor.
  • 2009. Microbial communities in the lichen-sandstone interface.
  • 2009. Microbial Diversity in Deep-Sea Sediments: Influence of Volcanism and Hydrothermal Activity.
  • 2009. Low-temperature siliceous Fe-deposits at the Jan Mayen hydrothermal fields: formation and processes deduced from architecture, microtexture and geochemistry.
  • 2009. Low-temperature alteration of dunite and microbial life.
  • 2009. Geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids and rift valley sediments of the Loki's Castle vent field at the ultra-slow spreading southern Knipovich Ridge.
  • 2009. Cultivation of iron oxidizing bacteria from the Jan Mayen hydrothermal vent fields.
  • 2008. Ultra-slow spreading and hydrogen-based deep biosphere: Objectives and preliminary results of the H2DEEP project.
  • 2008. The deep biosphere; background, news and implications.
  • 2008. Microbilal life in basaltic ocean crust.
  • 2008. Microbial influence on the structural design, microtexture and geochemistry of hydrothermal iron-deposits.
  • 2008. Microbial diversity in low temperature iron deposits at the71°N hydrothermal vent field the Arctic-Ocean Ridge.
  • 2008. Microbial communities in the lichen-rock interface.
  • 2008. IODP Drilling of Conjugate North Atlantic Volcanic Rifted Margins, Causes and Implications of Excess Magmatism.
  • 2008. Bacteriogenic iron oxide precipitation at deep-sea hydrothermal vents: a 1.7 Gya record.
  • 2008. BGB-02: Geomicrobiology: Low-temperature alteration, mineralization, and microbial interactions.
  • 2007. Microbial life associated with weathering of ultramafic rocks.
  • 2007. Diversity of microorganisms associated with low temperature iron mounds at a hydrothermal vent field along the Arctic ridges.
  • 2006. Distribution and diversity of microorganisms associated with a newly discovered hydrothermal vent field at the Mohns Ridge.
  • 2005. Two Vent Fields Discovered at the Ultraslow Spreading Arctic Ridge System.
  • 2005. Microbial life associated with weathering of ultramafic rocks.
  • 2005. Fluid flow rate, temperature and heat flux at Mohns Ridge vent fields: evidence from isosampler measurements for phase separated hydrothermal circulation along the arctic ridge system.
  • 2005. Exploring microbial life in the ocean crust.
  • 2005. Bio-Mediated Fe-deposits associated with a newly discovered vent field at the Mohns Ridge.
  • 2004. The deep biosphere of the ocean crust: new knowledge from ODP Leg 187.
  • 2004. Old Ocean crust sustain subsurface microbial Life.
  • 2004. Microbial communities in seafloor and subseafloor basalts.
  • 2004. Microbial communities in cold seafloor and sub-seafloor basalt.
  • 2004. Genome-based investigations of microbial communities in deep ocean crust.
  • 2004. Exploring microbial life in the ocean crust.
  • 2004. Experimental dissolution of basaltic glass; effect of pH, oxalic acid and temperature.
  • 2003. Microbes in cold oceanic crust.
  • 2002. The significance of bio-interaction with basaltic glass in in-situ oceanic crust and ophiolites.
  • 2002. Microbial diversity and functioning in the subsurface of artic spreading ridges.
  • 2001. The deep biosphere and its interaction with the lithosphere.
  • 2001. Mikroorganismer i havbunnsskorpen.
  • 2001. Microbial populations in basalt from the ocean crust.
  • 2001. Microbial diversity in basalt investigated by 16S rDNA and culturing methods. Scientific results, ODP Leg 187.
  • 2001. Microbes in ocean floor basalt: their association to alteration textures and influence on the geochemical composition of palagonite.
  • 2001. Microbes in ocean floor basalt.
  • 2001. Karakterisering av mikrobielle populasjoner fra basalter i havbunnsskorpen.
  • 2001. Jan Mayen, related to ridge transform-plume or ridge-transform interactions?
  • 2001. Identifying bio-interaction with basaltic glass in the oceanic crust and implications for estimating the depth of the oceanic biosphere.
  • 2001. Bio-interaction with basaltic glass and its importance in mapping the depth of the oceanic biosphere.
  • 2001. Bio-alteration of basaltic glass in the oceanic crust.
  • 1999. Oceanic basalt, an important deep biosphere.
  • 1999. Microbial Basalt Weathering.
  • 1999. Biodegradation of basat in the upper oceanic crust.
  • 1998. Microbial degradation of basaltic glass in the oceanic crust.
  • 1998. Evidence for microbial activity at the glass-alteration interface in oceanic basalt.
  • 1997. Microbial alteration of basaltic glass in the upper oceanic crust.
  • 1997. Microbial alteration of basaltic glass in the upper oceanic crust.
  • 1997. Microbial alteration of basaltic glass in the upper oceanic crust.
  • 1996. Microbial Alterations of the Oceanic Crust.
  • 1996. Microbial Alterations of the Oceanic Crust.
  • 1996. Microbial Alterations of the Oceanic Crust.
  • 1994. Microbial activity in the alternation of basaltic glass.
  • 1992. Microbiological activity in the alteration of volcanic glass from Surtsey, Iceland.
  • 1992. Microbiological activity in the alteration of some Icelandic hyaloclastites. Abstracts.
Academic anthology/Conference proceedings
  • 2015. Shallow Water Venting on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge: the Seven Sisters Hydrothermal System, Mineral Resources in a Sustainable World, Proceedings of the 13th Biennial SGA Meeting. Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits, University of Nancy.
  • 2001. Sikring av Bergkunst - Forvitringsfaktorer og bevaringstiltak. Universitetet i Bergen.
Popular scientific article
  • 2001. Crustal accretion, hydrothermal activity and microbial colonization along the Mohns and the Knipovich ridges: Preliminary results from the SUBMAR-2000 and 2001 cruises. InterRidgeNews Vol. 10 (2): 54-56.. 54-56.
Doctoral dissertation
  • 2019. Input and fate of volatiles and trace elements in deep-sea plumes from Arctic vent fields.
  • 2018. Biosignatures in the Oceanic Crust.
  • 2013. Low temperature geochemical reactions and microbial life in ultramafic rock.
  • 2013. Linking microbial community structures and geochemistry in deep-sea sediments & pursuing the link between identity and function.
  • 2006. Microorganisms in cold seafloor basalts.
  • 1995. Alteration of basaltic glass : texture, geochemistry and microbial interaction.
Interview
  • 2016. Fotograferte aude fjordbotn.
  • 2012. Namnetrekk i stein.
Academic chapter/article/Conference paper
  • 2013. Dissolved CH4 and H2 in hydrothermal plumes at Arctic vent systems. 1 pages.
  • 2010. Hydrothermal activity at the Artic mid-ocean ridges. 23 pages.
  • 2004. Microbial populations in ocean floor basalt: Results from ODP Leg 187. 27 pages.
Other
  • 2002. Identifying bio-interaction with basaltic glass in oceanic crust and implications for estimating the depth of the oceanic biospher: A review. 407-421.
  • 2000. Nedbryting av bergkunst: Årsaker og tiltak: Status-raport etter 4 år med tverrfaglig samarbeid i Vingen og Alta. 29-54.
Abstract
  • 2013. Diverse hydrothermal venting at the Jan Mayen vent fields, AMOR. Mineralogical magazine. 670.
  • 2009. Volatiles in the Loki's Castle and Jan Mayen vent fields of the ultra-slow spreading Knipovich and Mohns Ridges. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. A763-A763.
  • 2009. Microbial population structure at low-temperature siliceous Fe-deposits at the Jan.-Mayen hydrothermal fields. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. A981-A981.
  • 2009. Geochemistry of rift valley sediments and hydrothermal fluids at the ultra-slow spreading S.Knipovich ridge. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. A95-A95.
  • 2009. Discovery of the Loki’s Castle Vent field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-ocean ridge. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. A1008-A1008.
  • 2004. The lichen-granite interface in different lichen growth forms. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. A395-A395.
  • 2004. Microbial communities in seafloor and subseafloor basalts. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. A402-A402.
  • 2004. Low-temperature hydrothermal mounds and chimneys formed by microbial mediated precipitation of Fe and Si. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. A260-A260.
  • 2004. Experimental dissolution of basaltic glass; effect of pH, oxalic acid and temperature. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. A144-A144.
Poster
  • 2011. High resolution community profiling of stratified sediments associated with Loki’s castle vent field at the Knipovitch spreading ridge.
  • 2010. Microbial diversity in deep-sea sediments Influence of volcanism and hydrothermal activity.
  • 2010. Microbial community structure of biomats and chimney walls of the Loki’s Castle hydrothermal field at 73°N.
  • 2010. Microbial community composition in the deep-sea sediments flanking the Loki’ castle at the Knipovitch ridge system.
  • 2010. Metaproteomic analysis of a chemosynthetic hydrothermal vents community reveals insight into key-metabolic processes.
  • 2010. Low temperature alteration of dunite in the Leka ophiolite complex.
  • 2010. Diversity of microbial communities of Loki’s Castle black smoker field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.
  • 2010. Detection of methanotrophic archaea in a barite chimney at Loki’s Castle, the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.
Academic literature review
  • 2013. Microbial life associated with low-temperature alteration of ultramafic rocks in the Leka ophiolite complex. 318-339.
  • 2011. The potential for low-temperature abiotic hydrogen generation and a hydrogen-driven deep biosphere. 711-724.

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