• E-mailJill.Walker.Rettberg@uib.no
  • Phone+47 55 58 84 31
  • Visitor Address
    HF-bygget, Sydnesplassen 7
    5007 Bergen
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7805
    5020 Bergen

Jill Walker Rettberg is professor of digital culture at the University of Bergen in Norway and Principal Investigator of the ERC project MACHINE VISION: Machine Vision in Everyday Life: Playful Interactions with Visual Technologies in Digital Art, Games, Narratives and Social Media. The main goal of this five-year project is to develop frameworks for analysing how contemporary visual technologies such as facial recognition, deepfakes and image filtering affect our perception of and relationship to the world. 

Rettberg is co-leader of the Digital Culture Research Group with Astrid Ensslin, and the group  around a dozen PhDs and postdocs in addition to several tenured members. She is a member of the Network for Games Research and Bergen Electronic Literature Research Group. She has a keen interest in digital methods in the humanities, especially visualisations and network analysis. In 2018 she established the Digital Humanities Network at the University of Bergen, which she led until 2020. 

Rettberg's first research interests were storytelling and self-representation in social media, building upon a foundation of digital art, electronic literature and digital humanities. Narrative remains a key interest. In the Machine Vision project, Rettberg's team studies how machine vision technologies are represented in art, games and narratives. She has a particular interest in how narrative develops in new genres, like blogging, Snapchat, online diaries or even self-tracking apps. A recent paper in the Journal of Popular Culture explores the development of we-narrative (the third person plural voice) in the popular TV show SKAM, which integrates social media as a key element of its narration. Looking forwards, she plans to explore the intertwining of algorithmic systems with narrative, both as authors experiment with machine learning, and as digital media increasingly use algorithms to generate and assemble content. 

Professor Rettberg's book Machine Vision: How Algorithms are Changing the Way We See the World is forthcoming on Polity Press in 2022. Her previous book, Seeing Ourselves Through Technology: How We Use Selfies, Blogs and Wearable Devices to See and Shape Ourselves, was published as an open access monograph by Palgrave in October 2014, and can be freely downloaded. Her book Blogging was published in a 2nd edition by Polity Press in 2014, and she has also co-edited an anthology of critical writing on World of Warcraft (MIT Press 2008).

Jill Walker Rettberg has shared her research in social media since October 2000, when she started her still-active research blog, jill/txt. In 2016, she began making research stories for Snapchat, which you can follow by adding jilltxt on Snapchat, or you can see an archive of selected Snapchat Research Stories on YouTube. Rettberg's pioneering use of Snapchat was written up in the Chronicle of Higher Education in April 2016, and was awarded the John Lovas Memorial Award by Kairos Journal in June 2017. Rettberg is also an active participant in debates on Twitter, Facebook and in Norwegian newspapers, and is a frequent expert source in Norwegian media. 

Maskinsyn is a dissemination project connected to the MACHINE VISION research project where we have made an exhibition in collaboration with the University Museum (open to the public 18.03.2021-29.08.2021) and are developing a live action roleplaying game (a larp) called Sivilisasjonens venterom that will be held in November 2021.

Rettberg won the Meltzer Foundation Prize for Excellence in Research Dissemination in 2006 and the John Lovaas Award for Research Dissemination in Social Media in 2017.

Course development and teaching 

Jill Walker Rettberg has been responsible for developing and teaching courses at the undergraduate and graduate level on games, electronic literature, digital art, social media, critical digital culture theory, web design and machine vision.

PhD Supervision

Rettberg is currently the main supervisor for one PhD student, Henning Skarbø, who was recently awarded a public sector PhD. His project is a collaboration between Digital Culture at UiB and the hospital, and will develop a conversational app for chronic patients, combining humanistic theories of digital culture with human-computer conversational design. 

She is also co-supervisor for Elisabeth Nesheim here at UiB, who is writing a PhD on haptic interfaces in digital art, and is a dissertation committee member for Sara Raffel, who is writing her PhD on storytelling in virtual reality, at the University of Central Florida in Orlando.

Rettberg has been an opponent at three PhD defences, at the University of Copenhagen, Tallinn University and the University of Stavanger. She was a mentor at the Doctoral Consortium at the 2015 Association of Internet Researchers conference, and in 2017, she was a jury member for the Association of Internet Researchers' prize for best PhD dissertation.

Many of Jill Walker Rettberg's publications are open access, and can be accessed either through her Google Scholar profile, her ResearchGate profile or Bergen Open Research Archive

  • Show author(s) 2021. “Nobody is ever alone”: The use of social media narrative to include the viewer in SKAM. Journal of Popular Culture. 232-256.
  • Show author(s) 2021. Identifying, Deceiving, Protecting and Hunting: What Fictional Machines and Humans Do with Machine Vision Technologies.
  • Show author(s) 2020. What kinds of knowledge can AI provide? The Epistemology of AI and Machine Vision.
  • Show author(s) 2020. Ways of knowing with data visualizations. 14 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2020. The Biased Face of Technology: Algorithmic Inequality and Algorithmic Persuasion.
  • Show author(s) 2020. Situating data cultures and infrastructures: André Brock, Gabriele de Seta and Jill Walker Rettberg.
  • Show author(s) 2020. Situated Data Analysis: A New Method for Analysing Encoded Power Relationships in Social Media Platforms and Apps. Humanities & Social Sciences Communications.
  • Show author(s) 2020. Online Diaries and Blogs. 14 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2020. Hvordan fjernlese teknologiskildringer i kulturen?
  • Show author(s) 2020. Book Review: Automated Media. Convergence. The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies.
  • Show author(s) 2019. When Personal Data Becomes Big Data: Quantifying and Visualising Strava Workouts.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Virale fortellinger. Morgenbladet.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Using Network Analysis to Understand Cultural Representations of Machine Vision.
  • Show author(s) 2019. The Machine Vision Database: Machine Vision in Art, Games and Narratives.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Snapchat Research Stories. Hyperrhiz: The New Media Culture.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Seeing Through Algorithms: The algorithmic production of everyday photographs. Norsk Medietidsskrift. 1-20.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Maskinsyn: Et algoritmisk blikk på verden?
  • Show author(s) 2019. Mapping Cultural Representations of Machine Vision: Developing Methods to Analyse Games, Art and Narratives.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Mapping Cultural Representations of Machine Vision: Developing Methods to Analyse Games, Art and Narratives. ACM Hypertext Proceedings. 97-101.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Machine Vision: Selfie Filters and Image Recognition Algorithms as Technical Cognitive Systems (Or: Do Aesthetic Inference Algorithms Weep?).
  • Show author(s) 2019. Machine Vision: Selfie Filters and Image Recognition Algorithms as Technical Cognitive Systems.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Machine Vision in Everyday Life: Playful Interactions with Visual Technologies in Digital Art, Games, Narratives and Social Media .
  • Show author(s) 2019. Machine Images: from Vertov’s Kino-Eye to Deep Fakes and Selfie Lenses.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Lager rollespill på museet.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Kake-eller-død-dilemmaet. Morgenbladet. 22-22.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Instagram Moments.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Hva kan datavisualisering formidle? .
  • Show author(s) 2019. How art, games and stories can help us develop ethical machine vision .
  • Show author(s) 2019. Haunted Cameras and the Agency of Technology .
  • Show author(s) 2019. Forskernes gullgruve har etiske problemer. Morgenbladet.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Du, jeg og robotene.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Digital uhygge. Morgenbladet.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Algoritmenes dom over liv og død. Morgenbladet. 24-24.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Åpningstale om DNA-portretter på utstillingsåpning av Heather Dewey-Hagborgs kunstverk "Probably Chelsea".
  • Show author(s) 2018. The Voice of the Crowd: Collective Narration Online.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Så lett kan du bli lurt av manipulerte videoer på nett.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Survival Kit in the Age of Technology.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Sublime visualiseringer av stordata. Fra tall til figurer - en blogg om datavisualisering.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Styrt av algoritmer? Digital kompetanse i et algoritmisk samfunn.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Snapchat: Phatic Communication and Ephemeral Social Media. 9 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Prisen for en digital skole. Bergens Tidende.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Når digitaliseringen endrer samfunnet blir gapet enda større for de som faller utenfor.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Nå kan hvem som helst lage falske videoer.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Følelser og kunnskap: retorikken bak en datavisualisering.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Faces, Data and Identity.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Et samfunn styrt av algoritmer.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Digital skjønnhetsmal. Morgenbladet. 18-18.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Brows, contour, lips, lashes: How the ‘full-beat face’ took over the Internet.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Apps as Companions: How Quantified Self Apps Become Our Audience and Our Companions. 16 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Ansiktsgjenkjenning kan plukke ut kriminelle i folkemengder.
  • Show author(s) 2017. The Selfie Course: More than a MOOC. 15 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Sosiale medier for forskere.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Snapchat and the SnapMap: Collective, Ephemeral Stories about Public Events.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Self-representation in social media. 14 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Research Council of Norway grants: How are applications evaluated and funds dispersed?
  • Show author(s) 2017. Our Stories on Snapchat: Collective Documentaries?
  • Show author(s) 2017. Mobile spotting in the media – ultimate transparency or the death of privacy?
  • Show author(s) 2017. Live Stories on Snapchat: User and Research Dilemmas.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Hand Signs for Lip-syncing: The Emergence of a Gestural Language on Musical.ly as a Video-Based Equivalent to Emoji. Social Media + Society.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Biometric Citizens: Adapting Our Selfies To Machine Vision. 8 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Machine Vision as Viewed Through Art. Hostile Other or Part of Ourselves?
  • Show author(s) 2016. Jenter og kvinners bruk av nettet.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Garments of Paradise: Wearable Discourse in the Digital Age by Susan Elizabeth Ryan (review). Technology and Culture. 502-504.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Apps as Companions: How Quantified Self Apps Become Our Audience and Our Companions.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Anmeldelse av Victoria Flanagan: Technology and Identity in Young Adult: The Posthuman Subject. Barnboken.
  • Show author(s) 2016. 'Now Objects Perceive Me': Art that Interrogates Machine Vision.
  • Show author(s) 2015. The Data Sprint Approach: Exploring the field of Digital Humanities through Amazon’s Application Programming Interface. Digital Humanities Quarterly.
  • Show author(s) 2015. Terrorists or cowards: negative portrayals of male Syrian refugees in social media. Feminist Media Studies. 3 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2015. Kid-E-Lit: Utstilling av elektronisk litteratur for barn og unge.
  • Show author(s) 2015. Corpses, Fetuses And Zombies: The Dehumanization of Media Users in Science Fiction and Mainstream Media.
  • Show author(s) 2015. Chromatic algorithms: Synthetic color, computer art, and aesthetics after code. New Media & Society. 1192-1196.
  • Show author(s) 2014. What Can't We Measure in a Quantified World?
  • Show author(s) 2014. Visualising Networks of Electronic Literature: Dissertations and the Creative Works They Cite. Electronic Book Review (EBR).
  • Show author(s) 2014. Seeing Ourselves Through Technology: How We Use Selfies, Blogs and Wearable Devices to See and Shape Ourselves.
  • Show author(s) 2014. New Directions in the Digital Humanities: Database Visualization Research Based on the ELMCIP Electronic Literature Knowledge Base.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Life Poetry Told by Sensors (Opening Keynote).
  • Show author(s) 2014. Hoaxes.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Forskning bør være gratis. NRK Ytring.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Email Novel.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Electronic Literature Communities. 17 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Collaborative Creativity in New Media: Roundtable.
  • Show author(s) 2014. "Angsten for medienes umenneskeliggjørende virkning”: Fremtidsmedier sett gjennom science fiction. En respons til Jon Bing. Norsk Medietidsskrift. 323-340.
  • Show author(s) 2013. Å bruke ELMCIPs kunnskapsbase i elektronisk litteratur i undervisningen.
  • Show author(s) 2013. Ungdom og sosiale medier.
  • Show author(s) 2013. The Emergence of Electronic Literature: Library Exhibition at the University of Bergen Humanities Library.
  • Show author(s) 2013. Norsk blogghistorie: erindringer fra årtusenskiftet. 14 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2013. NOU 2013: 2 Hindre for digital verdiskaping. .
  • Show author(s) 2013. Mining the Knowledge Base: Exploring Methodologies for Analysing the Field of Electronic Literature.
  • Show author(s) 2013. Medierike ebøker – nye sjangrer eller remediering?
  • Show author(s) 2013. Elektronisk Litteratur fra 1970 -tallet til i dag.
  • Show author(s) 2013. Blogging. -.
  • Show author(s) 2013. A Network Analysis of Dissertations About Electronic Literature.
  • Show author(s) 2012. Telling our Stories: Technologically Mediated Self-Representations.
  • Show author(s) 2012. Sharing Photos: Filtering Moments of Life in Social Media.
  • Show author(s) 2012. LinkedIn som arbeidsverktøy.
  • Show author(s) 2012. Electronic Literature Seen from a Distance: The Beginnings of a Field. Dichtung-Digital.
  • Show author(s) 2012. Digital dannelse: Hva trenger vi å kunne for å delta i dagens digitale tekstkultur?
  • Show author(s) 2012. Den elektronisk litteraturen kommer! Bloggpost for NRKs bokblogg.
  • Show author(s) 2011. The Genealogy of a Creative Community: Why is Afternoon the "Grandaddy" of Hypertext Fiction?
  • Show author(s) 2011. Student Research Using the ELMCIP Knowledge Base.
  • Show author(s) 2011. Student Research Using the ELMCIP Knowledge Base.
  • Show author(s) 2011. Interview with Jill Walker Rettberg. The Journal SIGWEB Newsletter.
  • Show author(s) 2011. Experiences with Geographical Collaborative Systems: Playfulness in Geosocial Networks and Geocaching.
  • Show author(s) 2010. Sosiale medier og HR.
  • Show author(s) 2010. Nye medier, nye fortellinger: elektronisk litteratur.
  • Show author(s) 2010. Feral hypertext: When hypertext literature escapes control. 16 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2010. Digitale tekster: blogging, Wikipedia og SMS. 12 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2010. Digital Media. 15 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Unge utleverer seg på blogg.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Sosiale medier, virtuelle møtesteder.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Mediesamfunnet, institusjoner og digitale fortellinger. Norsk Medietidsskrift. 403-406.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Journalistikk i og med sosiale medier.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Intervju om mammablogging.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Hvorfor blogger vi om mammalivet?
  • Show author(s) 2009. Hvordan lykkes med blogging.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Hvordan kan sosiale medier brukes i forskningsformidling?
  • Show author(s) 2009. Has the Wikipedia grown up?
  • Show author(s) 2009. Flere leser Facebook enn VG på papir.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Diskusjon om sosiale medier i valgkampen med Heikki Holmås, Nikki Scheie og Jill Walker Rettberg.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Blogs, Literacies and the Collapse of Private and Public. Leonardo Electronic Almanac. 10 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Blogging: fra massemedier til sosiale medier.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Blogging as a tool for reflection and learning.
  • Show author(s) 2009. 'Freshly Generated for You, and Barack Obama' How Social Media Represent Your Life. European Journal of Communication. 451-466.
  • Show author(s) 2009. "Freshly Generated for You, and Barack Obama": How Social Media Represent Your Life. European Journal of Communication. 451-466.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Tar tempen på blogging.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Sveip.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Sveip.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Sosiale nettverk på nett: OBS! Sjefen kan se at du gikk toppløs på stranden i sommer.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Selvpresentasjon på Hordaland kunstsenter.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Rapport frå Azeroth.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Quests in World of Warcraft: Deferral and Repetition. 18 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Presentasjon av boken Digital Culture, Play, and Identity: A World of Warcraft Reader.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Introduction: "Orc Professor LFG," or Researching in Azeroth. 16 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Intervju om blogging i NRK kulturnytt.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Innslag om World of Warcraft antologien på MM.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Hjelp av Obama Girl.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Forsker på dødsårsaker i World of Warcraft.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Forsker for å forstå WoW.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Feral Hypertext.
  • Show author(s) 2008. EU-utvalg vil kontrollere bloggere.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Digital Culture, Play, and Identity: A World of Warcraft Reader. MIT Press.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Der alle har ei stemme.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Blogs, Literacies and the Collapse of Private and Public.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Blogging. 5.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Bloggere får mer status.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Blogger seg til inntekter.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Bloggeksperten.
  • Show author(s) 2008. - På linje med verdens verste diktaturer.
  • Show author(s) 2007. World of Warcraft som globalisert spillverden. Bergens Tidende.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Virtuell politikk.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Uvande med IKT-verkty i undervisninga.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Til kamp mot tidsskriftforlag.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Sex, politikk og YouTube. Bergens Tidende.
  • Show author(s) 2007. På nett med HF.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Profesjonell blogging (hvorfor blogging er bedre enn reklame).
  • Show author(s) 2007. Monetizing the Blog.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Litteratur på nettet: en innføring i elektronisk litteratur. Norsklæreren. 59-60.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Kildekritikk på nettet.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Intervju om nettsamfunn på TV2 Nyhetskanalen.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Født som nettbruker? Bruk av blogg og wiki blant dagens studenter.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Blogs, Literacies and the Collapse of Private and Public.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Blogs and Appropriation.
  • Show author(s) 2007. A Network of Quests in World of Warcraft. 4 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2007. -Bryter etiske retningslinjer.
  • Show author(s) 2006. פני באלבום של כולם.
  • Show author(s) 2006. The Me Everybody Knows.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Taletrengsel på nettet.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Software tracks mood swings of blogosphere.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Network Literacy: Learning with Blogging and Web 2.0.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Nettformidling 2.0.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Men e-boka var ikke død.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Klikk for ny litteratur.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Internett forklart for teknologen og samfunnsviteren. Norsk Medietidsskrift. 188-189.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Interaktion i digitala miljöer.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Institutional Repositories: A Researcher Point of View.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Høytrykk i blogosfæren.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Hundre tusen kroner til forskningsblogg fra Bergen.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Hordene inntar humanistisk informatikk.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Har verdens største rollespill som pensum.
  • Show author(s) 2006. From Places to Connections.
  • Show author(s) 2006. From Bards to Blogs.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Formidlingspris til Walker og Kaland.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Feral Textuality: Blogs and Other Undomesticated Hypertexts.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Elinor.nu: En katalog over elektronisk litteratur i Norden.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Elektronisk litteratur samles på nett.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Blogging, informasjonsarbeid og markedsføring.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Blogging og læring.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Blogging from Inside the Ivory Tower.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Bloggforsker tildeles Meltzerprisen.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Bidro til viktig elevdrapsdiskusjon.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Amatører blir kjendiser på YouTube.
  • Show author(s) 2005. Yndlingsplassen.
  • Show author(s) 2005. New Kids on the Blog.
  • Show author(s) 2005. Kulturbeitet: innslag om digitale fortellinger.
  • Show author(s) 2005. Intervju i Norgesglasset om blogging og forskning.
  • Show author(s) 2005. Innslag i TV2 nyhetene kl 21: om farer for ungdom ved chatting.
  • Show author(s) 2005. IT-næringen etterlyser ny kompetanse.
  • Show author(s) 2005. Digitaliserte tanker.
  • Show author(s) 2005. Digitaliserte tanker.
  • Show author(s) 2005. - Blogging kan endre verdensbildet.

More information in national current research information system (CRIStin)


[in progress]

Distributed narrative: Digital narratives frequently break with the aesthetic ideal of unity that has dominated narrative and drama since Aristotle defined the unities of time, space and action in Poetics. Distributed narratives challenge not only the unity of the story, but also the unity of its telling, or of its form. Distributed narratives are distributed in time, space and authorship: 1) Distribution in Time: The narrative cannot be experienced in one consecutive period of time.2) Distribution in Space: There is no single place in which the whole narrative can be experienced. 3) Distribution of Authorship: No single author or group of authors can have complete control of form of the narrative. (Read >> 2004)

Feral hypertext is a concept that builds upon distributed narrative to argue that hypertext on the web has become feral, that it no longer is clearly delimited by authorship or clear boundaries separating one text from another. “If we lose the old ways of disciplining links and hypertext – authorship, metadata, clear structures – there is all the more need to research the ways in which feral hypertext can work. Hypertext will remain an intimate extension of our memory, but the focus will be on our in the collective rather than on the individual. Feral hypertext draws from our collective ideas and associations to create emergent structures and meanings. That is valuable, if only we can see it and appreciate it.” (Read >> 2005)

The role of the reader/player in digital narratives

Second person address in digital narratives: “In hypertexts, games and certain other electronic texts, an apostrophe to the reader can and often does require a response. The reader’s answer is inscribed in the text, and enacted by the reader. That is what this essay is about. It’s about how you seem to be part of the texts you read and the games you play, and how, in electronic texts, your scripted response is necessary to the very act of reading or playing.” (..) “When you play a game, or enact the involuntary performatives of responding to a link in a hypertext, you are more than a voyeur. You enjoy that feeling of being part of the text, part of the ma- chine. Do you enjoy the limitations of your participation: the feeling of being forced, of submitting? Is this the pleasure of ritual? In games, and even in some hypertext fiction, death (of your character or your reading) is your punishment when you stray from the path.” (“Do You Think You’re Part of This? Digital Texts and the Second Person Address >> 2001)

Ontological fusion: Building upon earlier research by Pavel (1986) and Walton (1990). «I argue that interaction can be a form of depiction, causing the user to imagine both her perceptual actions and her manipulation of the work as being fictional as well as actual. This produces an ontological fusion between the actual and the fictional.» “…a bodily, perceptual and often emotional fusion with the fictional world» “interaction can be a form of depiction, causing the user to imagine both her perceptual actions and her manipulation of the work as being fictional as well as actual. This produces an ontological fusion between the actual and the fictional.» (2003)