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  • E-mailJonas.Linde@uib.no
  • Phone+47 55 58 23 81
  • Visitor Address
    Christies gate 15
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7802
    5020 BERGEN

- Political behavior

- Political opinion 

- Political support

- Quality of Government

- Populism

Selected publications
  • Dahlberg, Stefan; Linde, Jonas. 2016. The dynamics of the winner–loser gap in satisfaction with democracy: Evidence from a Swedish citizen panel. International Political Science Review. 1-17. doi: 10.1177/0192512116649279
  • Dahlberg, Stefan; Linde, Jonas; Holmberg, Sören. 2015. Democratic discontent in old and new democracies: Assessing the importance of democratic input and governmental output. Political Studies. 63: 18-37. doi: 10.1111/1467-9248.12170
  • Linde, Jonas; Erlingsson, Gissur Ó. 2013. The Eroding Effect of Corruption on System Support in Sweden. Governance. An International Journal of Policy, Administration and Institutions. 26: 585-603. doi: 10.1111/gove.12004
  • Linde, Jonas; Ekman, Joakim. 2003. Satisfaction with Democracy: A Note on a Frequently Used Indicator in Comparative Politics. European Journal of Political Research. 42: 391-408.
  • Linde, Jonas. 2012. Why feed the hand that bites you? Perceptions of procedural fairness and system support in post-communist democracies. European Journal of Political Research. 51: 410-434. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6765.2011.02005.x

Sampol 226: Populism and its consequences for liberal democracy (Spring)

Sampol 115: Democracy and democratization (Fall)

Sampol 306: Master seminar in comparative politics (Fall)

Selected publications

Articles in international peer review journals

(2021) "A tough trade-off? The asymmetrical impact of populist radical right inclusion on satisfaction with democracy and government”, European Political Science Review 13 (1): 113-133. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755773920000387 (with Eelco Harteveld, Andrej Kokkonen & Stefan Dahlberg)

(2020) "Responsiveness, support, and responsibility: How democratic responsiveness facilitates responsible government", Party Politics 26 (3): 291–304. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068818763986 (with Yvette Peters).

(2020) "How Populism and Polarization Affect Europe's Liberal Democracies", Politics and Governance 8 (3): 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.17645/pag.v8i3.3460 (with Marlene Mauk and Heidi Schulze).

(2020) "Gen(d)eralized trust: An experimental approach to interpersonal trust and gender sensitivity", Comparative Sociology 19 (2): 237–258. doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/15691330-BJA10010 (with Cornelius Cappelen and Petrus Olander)

(2019) "Conditional Legitimacy: How Turnout, Majority Size and Outcome Affect Perceptions of Legitimacy in EU Membership Referendums", European Union Politics 20 (2): 176–197. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1465116518820163 (with Sveinung Arnesen, Troy Saghaug Broderstad and Mikael Poul Johannesson). 

(2018) "Socialization or Experience? Institutional Trust and Political Support among Emigrants in Different Institutional Settings", The Journal of Politics Vol 80, No. 4 https://doi.org/10.1086/698661 (with Stefan Dahlberg).

(2018) "Unraveling Semi-Presidentialism: Democracy and Government Performance in Four Distinct Regime Types", Democratization, Vol. 25, No. 1: 136-157. doi 10.1080/13510347.2017.1334643 (with Thomas Sedelius)

(2017) "Do Polls Influence Opinions? Testing the Spiral of Silence Using a Dynamic Response Feedback Experimental Procedure", Social Science Computer Review, Online first, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439317731721. (with Sveinung Arnesen, Mikael Johannessen and Stefan Dahlberg). 

(2017) "The Dynamics of the Winner-Loser Gap in Satisfaction with Democracy: Evidence from a Swedish Citizen Panel", International Political Science Review, Vol. 38, No. 5: 525-541. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0192512116649279.(with Stefan Dahlberg)

(2016) "Losing Happily? The Mitigating Effect of Democracy and Quality of Government on the Winner-Loser Gap in Political Support", International Journal of Public Administration Vol. 39, No. 9: 652-664 (with Stefan Dahlberg)

(2016), "Distrust in Utopia? Public Perceptions of Corruption and System Support in Iceland Before and After the Financial Crisis of 2008", Government and Opposition, Vol. 51, No. 4, 553-579. DOI: 10.1017/gov.2014.46 (with Gissur Ó Erlingsson & Richard Öhrvall)

(2015), "Democratic discontent in old and new democracies: Assessing the importance of democratic input and governmental output", Political Studies, Vol. 63, No. S1, 18-37 (Thematic issue on Governance, Trust and Democracy). (with Stefan Dahlberg & Sören Holmberg)

(2014), "Not so Fair After All? Perceptions of Procedural Fairness and Satisfaction with Democracy in the Nordic Welfare States", International Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 37, No. 2. (with Gissur Ó Erlingsson & Richard Öhrvall) 

(2013), "The Eroding Effect of Corruption on System Support in Sweden", Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, Vol. 26, No. 4, 585-603. (with Gissur Ó Erlingsson)

(2013), "The Dictator's New Clothes: E-participation and Quality of Government in Non-Democratic Regimes", International Journal of Public Administration 36, 269-281(with Martin Karlsson)

(2012), "Understanding the rise of e-participation in non-democracies: Domestic and international factors", Government Information Quarterly Vol. 29, No. 2: 142-150. (with Joachim Åström, Martin Karlsson & Ali Pirannejad)

(2012), "Why Feed the Hand that Bites You? Perceptions of Procedural Fairness and System Support in Post-Communist Democracies", European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 51, No. 3, 410-434.

(2012), "Making and Breaking Political Legitimacy in Post-Communist Democracies: The Quality of Government Effect", Politics in Central Europe Vol. 8, No. 1, 35-63.

(2005), "Communist Nostalgia and the Consolidation of Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe", Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics , Vol. 21, No. 3, 354–374. (with Joakim Ekman)

(2004), "Public Support for Democracy in the New EU Member States", Perspectives. The Central European Review of International Affairs, No. 21, 39–54. (with Joakim Ekman)

(2003), "Satisfaction with Democracy: A Note on Frequently Used Indicator in Comparative Politics", European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 42, No. 3, 391–408. (with Joakim Ekman)

(2003), "Beyond the Transitology-Area Studies Debate", Problems of Post-Communism, Vol. 40, No. 4, 3–16. (with Steven Saxonberg)

 

Chapters in edited volumes

(forthcoming) "Quality of Government and Political Support", in Marcia Grimes, Bo Rothstein, Monika Baur and Andreas Bågenholm, eds, The Oxford Handbook of Quality of Government. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (with Stefan Dahlberg)

(2016) "Democratic Discontent in Times of Crisis?", in Yvette Peters and Michaël Tatham, eds, Democratic Transformations in Europe 31: Challenges and Prospects. Routlege. (with Stefan Dahlberg)

(2016) "Utlandssvenskars tillfredsställelse med demokratins funktionssätt", in Maria Solevid (ed.), Svenska utlandsröster. Gothenburg: SOM-institutet. (with Stefan Dahlberg).

(2011), "Patterns of Stability and Performance in Post-Communist Hybrid Regimes", in Bakke, Elisabeth & Ingo Peters (eds.), 20 Years Since the Fall of the Berlin Wall: Transitions, State-Breakup and Democratic Politics in Central Europe and Germany. Berlin: Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag. (with Joakim Ekman)

(2011), "Den motvilliga europén", i Oscarsson, Henrik & Sören Holmberg, red,Väljarbeteende i Europaval. Göteborg: Valforskningsprogrammet. (med Joakim Ekman)

(2011), "Korruption i Sverige", i Hellberg, Ann-Sofie et al., red, Perspektiv på offentlig verksamhet i utveckling: Tolv kapitel om demokrati, styrning och effektivitet. FOVU:s rapportserie nr. 1. Örebro: Örebro universitet. (med Gissur Ó Erlingsson)

(2010), "Ambivalenta demokrater? En jämförande studie av stöd för demokrati och dess alternativ", i Joakim Ekman och Jonas Linde, red, Politik, protest, populism. Deltagande på nya villkor. Malmö: Liber.

(2010), "Inledning", i Joakim Ekman och Jonas Linde, red, Politik, protest, populism – Deltagande på nya villkor. Malmö: Liber. (med Joakim Ekman)

(2010), "Tendenser och utmaningar", i Joakim Ekman och Jonas Linde, red, Politik, protest, populism – Deltagande på nya villkor. Malmö: Liber (med Joakim Ekman)

(2009), "Fond Memories of Dictatorships? Nostalgia and Support for Democracy in Post-Communist Europe", in Uwe Backeds, Tytus Jaskulowski & Abel Polese, eds,Totalitarismus und Transformation: Defizite der Demokratiekonsolidierung in Mittel- und Osteuropa. Göttingen: Vanderhoeck & Ruprecht. (with Joakim Ekman)

(2009), "Demokrati och Demokratisering i Östeuropa", in Björklund, Fredrika & Johnny Rodin, red, Det nya Östeuropa: Stat och nation i förändring. Lund: Studentlitteratur. (med Joakim Ekman)

(2004), "An Assessment of Support for Democracy in the New EU Member States", i Algimantas Jankauskas et al. (red), Central Europe Beyond Double Enlargement. Vilnius: Lithuanian Political Science Association, Institute of International Relations and Political Science, Vilnius University & Konrad Adenauer Foundation. (with Sten Berglund och Joakim Ekman)

 

Other academic articles

(2011), "Det svenska korruptionsproblemet", Ekonomisk debatt, Vol. 39, No. 8, 5-18. (with Gissur Ó Erlingsson)

(2009), "Rosorna som vissnade? En intervjustudie av demokratiattityder bland georgiska medborgare", Nordisk Østforum, Vol. 23, No. 1, 5-28. (med Viktor Hultgren och Clara Sandelind)

(2008), "Den ’goda’ demokratin? En kartläggning av demokratins kvalitet i de postkommunistiska EU-medlemsstaterna", Nordisk Østforum, Vol. 22, No. 1, 31-53.

(2007), "Hybridregimer: Förändrade förutsättningar för demokrati och demokratibistånd", Statsvetenskaplig tidskrift, Vol. 109, No. 2. (med Joakim Ekman och Thomas Sedelius)

(2003), "Demokrati och nostalgi i Central- och Östeuropa", Nordisk Østforum, Nr 1, 2003, 65–84. (med Joakim Ekman)

(2002), "Svensk östeuropaforskning och det nya Europa", Nordisk Østforum, Nr 1, 2002, 19–32. (med Joakim Ekman)

(2000), "Forskningen om Östeuropa: Områdesforskning, komparativ statsvetenskap och internationell politik", Politologen , Nr. 1, 2000. (med Joakim Ekman)

 

Monographs and edited volumes

(2014), Demokratiseringsprocesser: Nya perspektiv och utmaningar (andra upplagan). Lund: Studentlitteratur. (with Joakim Ekman & Thomas Sedelius).

(2010), Politik, protest, populism. Deltagande på nya villkor. Malmö: Liber (red. med Joakim Ekman)

(2006), DemokratiseringsprocesserTeoretiska ansatser och empiriska studier. Lund: Studentlitteratur. (med Joakim Ekman)

(2004), Doubting Democrats? A Comparative Analysis of Support for Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe, Örebro: Örebro Studies in Political Science 10. [Doctoral dissertation]

 

 

Publications in Cristin:

 

  • Show author(s) 2021. Vehicles of democratic dissatisfaction? Populist radical right electoral success and satisfaction with democracy in Europe 1976-2019.
  • Show author(s) 2021. Sverigedemokratenes posisjon i svensk politikk.
  • Show author(s) 2021. A tough trade-off? The asymmetrical impact of populist radical right inclusion on satisfaction with democracy and government. European Political Science Review.
  • Show author(s) 2020. How populism and polarization affect Europe’s liberal democracies. Politics and Governance. 1-5.
  • Show author(s) 2020. Gen(d)eralized trust: An experimental approach to interpersonal trust and gender sensitivity. Comparative Sociology. 237-258.
  • Show author(s) 2019. The will of the silent majority? Nativism, direct democracy, and majority rule in ten western democracies.
  • Show author(s) 2019. The will of the silent majority? .
  • Show author(s) 2019. The Bounded Legitimacy of Majority Rule.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Sverigedemokratene fosser frem.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Conditional Legitimacy: How Turnout, Majority Size and Outcome Affect Perceptions of Legitimacy in EU Membership Referendums. European Union Politics. 176-197.
  • Show author(s) 2019. A tough trade-off? The diverging effects of populist radical right parties' inclusion in government on (non-)nativists' satisfaction with democracy and government.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Socialization or Experience? Institutional Trust and Satisfaction with Democracy among Emigrants in Different Institutional Settings. Journal of Politics. 1389-1393.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Responsiveness, Support, and Responsibility: How Democratic Responsiveness Facilitates Responsible Government. Party Politics. 1-14.
  • Show author(s) 2018. By What Authority? Uncovering the Conditional Mandate from Referendums.
  • Show author(s) 2018. By What Authority? Uncovering the Conditional Mandate from Referendums.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Unravelling Semi-Presidentialism: Democracy and Government Performance in Four Distinct Regime Types. Democratization. 136-157.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Understanding the Uneven Playing Field. The Multifaceted Role of Unfair Electoral Competition in a Non-Democratic Regime.
  • Show author(s) 2017. The winner-loser gap and satisfaction with democracy. Saktuelt.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Referendums as the wiggle room of democracy.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Experience and Socialization: Political Trust and Satisfaction with Democracy among Expatriated Swedes in Different Institutional Contexts.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Do Polls Influence Opinions? Testing the Spiral of Silence using a Dynamic Response Feedback Algorithm. 1. 1. .
  • Show author(s) 2017. Do Polls Influence Opinions? Investigating Poll Feedback Loops Using the Novel Dynamic Response Feedback Experimental Procedure. Social science computer review. 735-743.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Democracy and Government Performance: Parliamentarism, Premier-Presidentialism, President-Parliamentarism, and Presidentialism. Presidential Power. Presidents and presidential politics around the world.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Comparing the meaning of democracy from online data with survey responses in Norway.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Utlandssvenskars tillfredsställelse med demokratins funktionssätt. 23 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2016. The dynamics of the winner–loser gap in satisfaction with democracy: Evidence from a Swedish citizen panel. International Political Science Review. 1-17.
  • Show author(s) 2016. The Contextual Impact on Political Support: Satisfaction with Democracy Among Expatriated Swedes.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Socialization or experience? Institutional trust and political support among expatriated Swedes in different institutional settings.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Losing happily? The mitigating effect of democracy and quality of government on the winner–loser gap in political support. International Journal of Public Administration. 652-664.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Distrust in Utopia? Public Perceptions of Corruption and Political Support in Iceland before and after the Financial Crisis of 2008. Government and Opposition. 553-579.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Democratic Representation and Trust: How Responsiveness Facilitates Responsibility.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Democratic Discontent in Times of Crisis?
  • Show author(s) 2016. Are semi-presidential regimes worse than others? Government performance and democracy in four different regime types .
  • Show author(s) 2015. Valgets egentlige helter. Bergens Tidende.
  • Show author(s) 2015. The Winner-Loser Gap in Satisfaction with Democracy Over Time: Evidence from a Swedish Citizen Panel. 2015:1. 2015:1. .
  • Show author(s) 2015. Not only measuring but also shaping the opinion? A time-series survey experiment on the effect of polls on public opinion.
  • Show author(s) 2015. Losing more happily? The mediating effect of democracy and quality of government on the winner-loser gap in political support.
  • Show author(s) 2015. Democratic discontent in old and new democracies: Assessing the importance of democratic input and governmental output. Political Studies. 18-37.
  • Show author(s) 2014. – Politikarane undervurderer effekten av gode kontaktar.
  • Show author(s) 2014. The stability of the winner-loser gap in political support: Evidence from a Swedish citizen panel.
  • Show author(s) 2014. The Dynamics of the Winner-Loser Gap: The Case of Sweden.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Section Chair "The Functioning of Representative Democracy: Processes Linking Citizens and the State".
  • Show author(s) 2014. Riksdagsvalet i Sverige 2014.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Panel Chair "Quality of Democracy and Legitimacy".
  • Show author(s) 2014. Några reflektioner kring skrivande och publicering.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Not so fair after all? Perceptions of procedural fairness and satisfaction with democracy in the Nordic welfare states. International Journal of Public Administration. 106-119.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Komparativ politik, demokratisering och hybridregimer.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Kommentarer om valet i Sverige.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Kommentar om valet i Sverige.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Kommentar om valet i Sverige.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Intervju om svensk politik.
  • Show author(s) 2014. History Matters: A quantitative assessment of the impact of historical legacies on levels of post-communist corruption.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Expert i TV2 Nyhetskanalens direktsända bevakning av valet i Sverige.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Demokratiseringsprocesser: Nya perspektiv och utmaningar. Studentlitteratur AB.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Democratic Discontent in Old and New Democracies: Assessing the Importance of Democratic Input and Governmental Output.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Democratic Discontent in Old and New Democracies.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Avlyser nyvalget i Sverige.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Assessing the stability of the winner-loser gap in political support: Evidence from a Swedish citizen panel.
  • Show author(s) 2014. "Löfven har startet partnerjakten" Kommentar om valet i Sverige.
  • Show author(s) 2014. "Kan forandre Sverige".
  • Show author(s) 2014. "Forsker tror på samarbeid over blokkene i Sverige".
  • Show author(s) 2013. The Eroding Effect of Corruption on System Support in Sweden. Governance. An International Journal of Policy, Administration and Institutions. 585-603.
  • Show author(s) 2013. The Dictator's New Clothes: The Relationship Between E-Participation and Quality of Government in Non-Democratic Regimes. International Journal of Public Administration. 269-281.
  • Show author(s) 2013. Problems and perceptions of corruption in ‘least corrupt countries’.
  • Show author(s) 2013. Distrust in Utopia?
  • Show author(s) 2013. Distrust in Utopia: Public perceptions of corruption and political support in Iceland before and after the financial crisis of 2008.
  • Show author(s) 2013. Dissatisfied Democrats: A Matter of Representation or Performance?
  • Show author(s) 2013. Dissatisfied Democrats: A Matter of Representation or Performance? 8. 8. .
  • Show author(s) 2013. CRASH IN ECONOMY, CRASH IN CONFIDENCE: Perceptions of corruption and political support in Iceland before and after the financial crisis. 16. 16. .
  • Show author(s) 2012. Why feed the hand that bites you? Perceptions of procedural fairness and system support in post-communist democracies. European Journal of Political Research. 410-434.
  • Show author(s) 2012. Understanding the rise of e-participation in non-democracies: Domestic and international factors. Government Information Quarterly: an international journal of information technology management, policies, and practices. 142-150.
  • Show author(s) 2012. The dictator’s new clothes: E-participation and quality of government in non-democratic regimes.
  • Show author(s) 2012. The Dictator's New Clothes: E-participation and Quality of Government in Non-Democratic Regimes.
  • Show author(s) 2012. Perceptions of Procedural Fairness and Satisfaction with Democracy in the Nordic Welfare States. 19. 19. .
  • Show author(s) 2012. Not so fair after all? The harmful effect of perceived procedural (un)fairness on satisfaction with democracy in the Nordic countries.
  • Show author(s) 2012. Not so fair after all? The effect of procedural fairness on system support in the Nordic welfare states.
  • Show author(s) 2012. Making and Breaking Political Legitimacy in Post-Communist Democracies: The Quality of Government Effect. Politics in Central Europe. 35-63.
  • Show author(s) 2012. Elections in hybrid regimes: Assessing the Formal and Informal Underpinnings of Electoral Contests in Africa, Post-Communist Eurasia and the Middle East.
  • Show author(s) 2011. The Effect of Public Perceptions of Corruption on System Support: The Case of Sweden. 3. 3. .
  • Show author(s) 2011. Svensk korruption mer än bara repor i fasaden. Dagens nyheter.
  • Show author(s) 2011. Perceptions of (Im)Partiality and its Impact on System Support in Post-Communist Europe.
  • Show author(s) 2011. Patterns of Stability and Performance in Post-Communist Hybrid Regimes. 22 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2011. Making and Breaking Political Legitimacy in Post-Communist Democracies: The Quality of Government Effect.
  • Show author(s) 2011. Korruption i Sverige. 16 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2011. Det svenska korruptionsproblemet. Ekonomisk Debatt. 5-18.
  • Show author(s) 2010. Tendenser och utmaningar. 9 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2010. Politik, protest, populism. Deltagande på nya villkor. Liber.
  • Show author(s) 2010. Inledning. 27 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2010. Den motvillige europén. 12 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2010. Ambivalenta demokrater? En jämförande studie av stöd för demokrati och dess alternativ. 30 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Why Feed the Hand that Bites You? Quality of Government and System Support in the Post-Communist EU Member States. 20. 20. .
  • Show author(s) 2009. Rosorna som vissnade? En intervjustudie av demokratiattityder bland georgiska medborgare. Nordisk Østforum. 5-28.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Into the Gray Zone: The Recent Trend of 'Hybridization' of Political Regimes. 7. 7. .
  • Show author(s) 2009. Fond Memories of Dictatorships? Nostalgia and Support for Democracy in Post-Communist Europe. 20 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Demokratisering i det postkommunistiska Europa. 28 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Nya demokratier. 40 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Den 'goda' demokratin? En kartläggning av demokratins kvalitet i de postkommunistiska EU-medlemsstaterna. Nordisk Østforum. 31-53.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Hybridregimer: Förändrade förutsättningar för demokrati och demokratibistånd. Statsvetenskaplig Tidsskrift.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Coping with Change: Attitudinal Consolidation in Thirteen Post-Communist Countries. .
  • Show author(s) 2006. Demokratiseringsprocesser. Teoretiska ansatser och empiriska studier. Studentlitteratur AB.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Demokratiopinioner i Europa: Ett medborgar- och transformationsperspektiv på demokratins utveckling i EU.
  • Show author(s) 2005. Sources of Institutional Trust in Central and Eastern Europe. .
  • Show author(s) 2005. Communist Nostalgia and the Consolidation of Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics. 354-374.
  • Show author(s) 2004. Public Support for Democracy in the New EU Member States. Perspectives. 39-54.
  • Show author(s) 2004. Doubting Democrats? A Comparative Analysis of Support for Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe.
  • Show author(s) 2004. An Assessment of Support for Democracy in the New EU Member States.
  • Show author(s) 2003. Satisfaction with Democracy: A Note on a Frequently Used Indicator in Comparative Politics. European Journal of Political Research. 391-408.
  • Show author(s) 2003. Demokrati och nostalgi i Central- och Östeuropa. Nordisk Østforum. 65-84.
  • Show author(s) 2003. Beyond the Transitology-Area Studies Debate. Problems of Post-Communism. 3-16.
  • Show author(s) 2002. Svensk östeuropaforskning och det nya Europa. Nordisk Østforum. 19-32.

More information in national current research information system (CRIStin)