Randi Jacobsen Bertelsen's picture

Randi Jacobsen Bertelsen

Researcher, PI ERC StG project BRuSH, PI RHINESSA Bergen
  • E-mailRandi.J.Bertelsen@uib.no
  • Phone+47 996 74 046
  • Visitor Address
    Haukeland University Hospital
    Laboratory building 9th floor
    5020 Bergen
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7804
    5020 Bergen

I am groupleader for the BRuSH research group at the Department of Clinical Science at the University of Bergen. I have a background from evolutionary biology and ecology (MSc) from the University of Bergen and from Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and University of Oslo (PhD).

In 2010 I was awarded Voksentoppen Research Award within paediatric allergology and pulmonology, and in 2018 I received Kronprins Haakons research award for asthma and allergy.

My main research interests are on environmental exposure, microbiome and asthma and allergy. The Young Research Talent grant (RCN-funded) focused on exposure to antibacterial chemicals, oral microbiome and lung health.

I am currently PI for two large 5-year research projects with funding from the Research Council of Norway (BetterHealth-program) from 2018 to 2023 and the European Research Council (ERC); starting grant project "BRuSH" (2019-2023). In these research project we are exploring how bacteria that produce particularly potent proinflammatory lipid As (the component responsible for inflammation in the host) affects lung health and disease over time. The interest are both on bacteria in the environment and in the human body.

I have a shared researcher position between University of Bergen and Oral Health Centre of Expertise, where I have collaborators with dental background, which is valuable collaborators in the projects exploring oral and respiratory health. I am PI and biobank manager for RHINESSA Bergen centre (www.rhinessa.net).

My professional committments include

  • Appointed member in the National Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics (NEM) by the Ministry of Education and Research since 2014 
  • Associate editor of International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health since 2017
  • Vice chair for COST Action CA18131 (2019-2023): Statistical and machine learning techniques in human microbiome studies
  • Appointed member of the Scientific advisory board of the Leibniz ScienceCampus Evolutionary Medicine of the Lung (EVOLUNG) http://evolung.fz-borstel.de/ since 2018

A successful track record for research funding includes grants such as 

  • Research Council of Norway (RCN) Personal Postdoctoral Grant
  • U.S.-Norway Fulbright Foundation for Educational Exchange Fellowship
  • the Norwegian Asthma- and Allergy Foundation
  • RCN Young Research Talent grant
  • RCN Research Project from 2017 (BETTERHEALTH)
  • ERC Starting Grant 2018.

Healthy lungs start from your toothbrush European Reaserch Council - World Microbiome Day

Phthalates and Childhood Asthma Environmental health perspectives - podcast

Housedust mite and allergies [in Norwegian]

Chemicals in toothpaste and cosmetics and risk on allergi [In Norwegian] 

Cat allergens and asthma risk [In Norwegian]


Academic article
  • Show author(s) (2024). Muscle Strength and Male Sexual Function. Journal of Clinical Medicine.
  • Show author(s) (2024). Longitudinal analysis of the skin microbiome in association with hand eczema, hand hygiene practices and moisturizer use. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
  • Show author(s) (2023). The impact of gingivitis reduction on lung function: a randomized trial under intensified oral hygiene. Trials. 14 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2023). The impact of alcohol-based hand sanitiser and hand washing with soap and water on bacterial skin microbiota composition. JEADV Clinical Practice. 764-774.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Residential greenspace and lung function decline over 20 years in a prospective cohort: The ECRHS study. Environment International.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Periodontitis is associated with airflow obstruction in the Malmö Offspring Dental Study. Journal of Clinical Periodontology.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Oral bacterial composition associated with lung function and lung inflammation in a community-based Norwegian population. Respiratory Research.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Optimization of bacterial DNA and endotoxin extraction from settled airborne dust. Science of the Total Environment. 10 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Long-term exposure to low-level air pollution and greenness and mortality in Northern Europe. The Life-GAP project. Environment International. 11 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Indoor Airborne Microbiome and Endotoxin: Meteorological Events and Occupant Characteristics Are Important Determinants. Environmental Science and Technology. 11750-11766.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Food hypersensitivity: an examination of factors influencing symptoms and temporal changes in the prevalence of sensitization in an adult sample. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 833-840.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Changes in Infection Prevention Practices and Occurrence of Skin Symptoms among Healthcare Workers, Cleaners and Day-care Workers in Norway during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. 8 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Association between lipid-A-producing oral bacteria of different potency and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in a Norwegian population-based adult cohort. Journal of Translational Medicine. 11 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2023). Advancing microbiome research with machine learning: key findings from the ML4Microbiome COST action. Frontiers in Microbiology.
  • Show author(s) (2022). The effect of farming environment on asthma; time dependent or universal? European Journal of Epidemiology (EJE). 779-788.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Premature menopause and autoimmune primary ovarian insufficiency in two international multi-center cohorts. Endocrine Connections. 11 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Parental TB associated with offspring asthma and rhinitis. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 544-549.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Lifelong exposure to residential greenspace and the premenstrual syndrome: A population-based study of Northern European women. Environment International. 7 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Exposure to Antibacterial Chemicals Is Associated With Altered Composition of Oral Microbiome. Frontiers in Microbiology. 15 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Cow Farmers’ Homes Host More Diverse Airborne Bacterial Communities Than Pig Farmers’ Homes and Suburban Homes. Frontiers in Microbiology.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Cohort profile: the multigeneration Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) cohort. BMJ Open. 18 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Association of oral bacteria with oral hygiene habits and self-reported gingival bleeding. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 768-781.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Ascaris exposure and its association with lung function, asthma, and DNA methylation in Northern Europe. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 1960-1969.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Prenatal and prepubertal exposures to tobacco smoke in men may cause lower lung function in future offspring: a three-generation study using a causal modelling approach. European Respiratory Journal.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Physical activity in pregnancy: a Norwegian-Swedish mother-child birth cohort study. AJOG Global Reports. 10 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Maternal preconception occupational exposure to cleaning products and disinfectants and offspring asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 422-431.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Lifelong exposure to air pollution and greenness in relation to asthma, rhinitis and lung function in adulthood. Environment International. 10 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Exposure to environmental phenols and parabens, and relation to body mass index, eczema and respiratory outcomes in the Norwegian RHINESSA study. Environmental health.
  • Show author(s) (2021). A prospective study on the role of smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, indoor painting and living in old or new buildings on asthma, rhinitis and respiratory symptoms. Environmental Research. 1-10.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Parents’ smoking onset before conception as related to body mass index and fat mass in adult offspring: Findings from the RHINESSA generation study. PLOS ONE. 1-20.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Parental occupational exposure pre- and post-conception and development of asthma in offspring. International Journal of Epidemiology. 1856-1869.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Does parental farm upbringing influence the risk of asthma in offspring? A three-generation study. International Journal of Epidemiology. 1874-1882.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Associations of preconception exposure to air pollution and greenness with offspring asthma and hay fever. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH). 1-14.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Prevalence of allergic sensitization to storage mites in Northern Europe. Clinical and Experimental Allergy.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Is atopic sensitization associated with indicators of early vascular ageing in adolescents? PLOS ONE. 1-11.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Epigenome-wide association of father's smoking with offspring DNA methylation: A hypothesis-generating study. Environmental Epigenetics. 10 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Dampness, mould, onset and remission of adult respiratory symptoms, asthma and rhinitis. European Respiratory Journal.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Being overweight in childhood, puberty, or early adulthood: Changing asthma risk in the next generation? Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 1-13.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Asthma and selective migration from farming environments in a three-generation cohort study. European Journal of Epidemiology (EJE). 601-609.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Agreement of offspring-reported parental smoking status: the RHINESSA generation study. BMC Public Health. 1-9.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Zoonotic helminth exposure and risk of allergic diseases: A study of two generations in Norway. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 66-77.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Periodontal Health status and lung function in two Norwegian cohorts. PLOS ONE. 1-15.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Cleaning at home and at work in relation to lung function decline and airway obstruction. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 1157-1163.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Agreement in reporting of asthma by parents or offspring - the RHINESSA generation study. BMC Pulmonary Medicine. 1-10.
  • Show author(s) (2018). A three-generation study on the association of tobacco smoking with asthma. International Journal of Epidemiology. 1106-1117.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Validation of maternal reported pregnancy and birth characteristics against the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. PLOS ONE. 1-12.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Prevalence of, and work-related risk factors for, hand eczema in a Norwegian general population (The HUNT Study). Contact Dermatitis. 214-223.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Clinical markers of asthma and IgE assessed in parents before conception predict asthma and hayfever in the offspring. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 627-638.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Building dampness and mold in European homes in relation to climate, building characteristics and socio-economic status: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey ECRHS II. Indoor Air. 921-932.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Validation of self-reported figural drawing scales against anthropometric measurements in adults. Public Health Nutrition (PHN). 1944-1951.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Use of probiotics and prebiotics in infant feeding. Baillière's Best Practice & Research : Clinical Gastroenterology. 39-48.
  • Show author(s) (2016). The Association of gum bleeding With respiratory Health in a population based study from Northern Europe. PLOS ONE.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Self-reported exposure to traffic pollution in relation to daytime sleepiness and habitual snoring: a questionnaire study in seven North-European cities. Sleep Medicine. 93-99.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Pulmonary illness as a consequence of occupational exposure to shrimp shell powder. Environmental Research. 491-499.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Menopause as a predictor of new-onset asthma: A longitudinal Northern European population study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 50-57.e6.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Father’s environment before conception and asthma risk in his children: a multi-generation analysis of the Respiratory Health In Northern Europe study. International Journal of Epidemiology. 235-245.
  • Show author(s) (2015). Respiratory health in cleaners in Northern Europe: Is susceptibility established in early life? PLOS ONE. 13 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2015). Measurement of total and free urinary phenol and paraben concentrations over the course of pregnancy: assessing reliability and contamination of specimens in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Environmental Health Perspectives. 705-711.
  • Show author(s) (2014). Reliability of triclosan measures in repeated urine samples from Norwegian pregnant women. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. 517-521.
  • Show author(s) (2014). Probiotic milk consumption in pregnancy and infancy and subsequent childhood allergic diseases. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 165-+.
  • Show author(s) (2014). Food allergens in mattress dust in Norwegian homes - a potentially important source of allergen exposure. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 142-149.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Urinary biomarkers for phthalates associated with asthma in Norwegian children. Environmental Health Perspectives. 251-256.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Triclosan exposure and allergic sensitization in Norwegian children. Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 84-91.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Pulmonary phthalate exposure and asthma - is PPAR a plausible mechanistic link? EXCLI Journal. 733-759.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Phthalate Exposure and Allergy in the US Population: Results from NHANES 2005-2006. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1129-1134.
  • Show author(s) (2012). Pet keeping and tobacco exposure influence CD14 methylation in childhood. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 746-753.
  • Show author(s) (2010). Rhinitis in children: Co-morbidities and phenotypes. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 612-622.
  • Show author(s) (2010). Gender differences in indoor allergen exposure and association with current rhinitis. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 1388-1397.
  • Show author(s) (2010). Do allergic families avoid keeping furry pets? Indoor Air. 187-195.
  • Show author(s) (2010). Childhood asthma and early life exposure to indoor allergens, endotoxin and beta(1,3)-glucans. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 307-316.
  • Show author(s) (2007). Modeling the intra-urban variability of outdoor traffic pollution in Oslo, Norway - A GA(2)LEN project. Atmospheric Environment. 7500-7511.
  • Show author(s) (2005). Results of pulmonary resection for lung cancer in Norway, patients older than 70 years. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 325-328.
Academic lecture
  • Show author(s) (2023). Association between indoor bacterial communities, lung function and airway inflammation.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Food Allergens in Mattress Dust in Norwegian Homes: a Significant Source of Allergen Exposure?
Short communication
  • Show author(s) (2018). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in fish processing workers diagnosed by inhalation challenge. European Respiratory Journal Open Research (ERJ Open Research). 00071.
Popular scientific article
  • Show author(s) (2014). Astma og renholdsarbeidere: Resultater fra RHINE-studien. Fagbladet Allergi i praksis. 30-33.
Letter to the editor
  • Show author(s) (2019). Offspring Reports on Parental Place of Upbringing: Is It Valid? Epidemiology. e16-e18.
Doctoral dissertation
  • Show author(s) (2010). The indoor environment and childhood allergic diseases; the importance of allergens and microbial components. No.936.
  • Show author(s) (2022). The association between periodontitis and pulmonary function based on the Malmö offspring dental study (MODS). Journal of Clinical Periodontology.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Late Breaking Abstract- Mothers' preconception overweight and offspring asthma. European Respiratory Journal.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Maternal Probiotic Intake and Respiratory and Allergy Outcomes in Early Childhood. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. AB129-AB129.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Food allergens in mattress dust in Norwegian homes: a significant source of allergen exposure? Clinical and Translational Allergy.
  • Show author(s) (2009). Early life exposure to cat allergens increase the risk of late childhood asthma in a community with low levels of in-door allergens. Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 106-107.
  • Show author(s) (2008). Do allergic families avoid having furry pets when children are small? Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 7-8.
Academic literature review
  • Show author(s) (2021). The Exposome Approach in Allergies and Lung Diseases: Is It Time to Define a Preconception Exposome? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH).
  • Show author(s) (2021). Exposures during the prepuberty period and future offspring's health: evidence from human cohort studies. Biology of Reproduction. 667-680.

More information in national current research information system (CRIStin)

Publication statistics

  • 47 publications in international peer-reviewed journals; h-index: 18, Citations: 808 (Web of science)
  • 9 publications in Norwegian journals for health personnel (4 as first- or single author)
  • Book chapter: Jensen ET, Bertelsen RJ, Ringel Kulka T.The Microbiota of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Infancy”, book chapter in “The Microbiota in Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology: Implications for Human Health, Prebiotics, Probiotics and Dysbiosis” 1st Edition November 2016. Elsevier. ISBN: 9780128040249.
  • 10 popular science interviews (newspapers, TV, radio)

Many of Randi J Bertelsen's publications are Open Access, and her updated publication record can be found at: 




Google Scholar Citations



10 Representative Publications

  1. Jõgi NO, Svanes C, Siiak SP, Logan E, Holloway JW, Igland J, Johannessen A, Levin M, Real FG, Schlunssen V, Horsnell WGC, Bertelsen RJ (2018) Zoonotic helminth exposure and risk of allergic diseases: A study of two generations in Norway. Clin Exp Allergy; 48(1):66-77. Citations: 12. First study to describe prevalence of zoonotic helminth exposure in Norway.
  2. Svanes Ø, Bertelsen RJ, Lygre SHL, Carsin AE, Antó JM, Forsberg B, García-García JM, Gullón JA, Heinrich J, Holm M, Kogevinas M, Urrutia I, Leynaert B, Moratalla JM, Le Moual N, Lytras T, Norbäck D, Nowak D, Olivieri M, Pin I, Probst-Hensch N, Schlünssen V, Sigsgaard T, Skorge TD, Villani S, Jarvis D, Zock JP, Svanes C (2018) Cleaning at Home and at Work in Relation to Lung Function Decline and Airway Obstruction. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine; 197(9):1157-1163 IF: Citations: 32. Co-supervisor for Ø Svanes; this paper report important association between cleaning and accelerated lung function decline. This paper gained a lot of attention in the press throughout the world.
  3. Pérez Barrionuevo AM, Gómez Real F, Igland J, Johannessen A, Omenaas E, Franklin KA, Pérez Barrionuevo L, Åstrøm AN, Svanes C, Bertelsen RJ (2018) Periodontal health status and lung function in two Norwegian cohorts. PLoS One; 13(1):e0191410 Citations: 5. An important paper which lay the groundwork for the ongoing research topic in the ERC and RCN funded projects on association between oral microbiome and respiratory health.
  4. Bertelsen RJ, Rava M, Casin AE, Accordini S, Benediktsdottir B, Dratva J, Franklin KA, Heinrich J, Holm M, Janson C, Johannessen A, Jarvis DL, Jogi R, Leyneart B, Norback D, Omenaas ER, Raherison C, Sánchez-Ramos JL, Schlunssen V, Sigsgaard T, Dharmage SC, Svanes C (2017) Parental asthmatic and allergic activity before conception predicts asthma and allergy in the offspring. Clin Exp Allergy; 47(5): 627-638. Citations: 8. Highlighted as Editor’s choice selection (May 2017 Edition)
  5. Vindenes HK, Svanes C, Lygre SH, Hollund BE, Langhammer A, Bertelsen RJ (2017). Prevalence of and work-related risk factors for hand eczema in a Norwegian general population (HUNT3). Contact Dermatits; 77(4):214-223. Citations: 10. This is the first paper on chemical exposures and hand eczema in a general population in Norway.
  6. Bertelsen RJ, Jensen ET, Ringel-Kulka T (2016). Use of probiotics and prebiotics in infant feeding. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 30(1):39-48. Citations: 57. Personal invitation for specialty edition
  7. Bertelsen RJ, Brantsæter AL, Magnus M, Haugen M, Myhre R, Jacobsson B, Longnecker MP, Meltzer HM, London SJ (2014) Probiotic milk consumption in pregnancy and infancy and subsequent childhood allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 133(1):165-171. Citations: 103. 
  8. Bertelsen RJ, Lødrup-Carlsen KC, Calafat AM, Hoppin JA, Haland G, Mowinckel P, Carlsen KH, Løvik M (2013). Urinary Biomarkers for Phthalates Associated with Asthma in Norwegian Children. Environ Health Perspect 121(2):251-256. Featured as a Science Selection in the February Issue of EHP: http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/2013/02/121-a59/ Citations: 143. I finished this paper as a visiting postdoctoral-fellow at NIEHS. I was invited to contribute with a podcast on phthalates and asthma in Environmental Health Perspective.
  9. Bertelsen RJ, Longnecker MP, Løvik M, Calafat AM, Carlsen K‐H, London SJ, Lødrup Carlsen KC. Triclosan exposure and allergic sensitization in Norwegian children (2013) Allergy; 68 (1): 84-91. Citations: 89. This publication gained a lot of attention in national and international media during a time when triclosan was being phased out due to fear of that effect on development of antibiotic resistance bacteria
  10. Bertelsen RJ, Carlsen KCL, Carlsen K-H, Granum B, Doekes G, Håland G, Mowinckel P, Løvik M. Childhood asthma and early life exposure to indoor allergens, endotoxin and ß(1,3)-glucans (2010). Clin Exp Allergy; 40 (2): 307-316. Citations: 59. This paper attracted a lot of media attention and also lead to a television-interview (The Norwegian National Broadcasting channel). 

2021 Researcher project "Oral health in adults: predictors, social gradients and correlation with cardiovascular health in women and men" - WP PI - Research Council of Norway; project owner: Oral Health Centre of Expertice/TKVestland

2019 ERC Starting Grant: “Oral bacteria as determinants for respiratory health” - Principal investigator (PI) - European Research Council (ERC); Project owner: University of Bergen

2018 Researcher project: “Oral and Environmental Microbiome, Endotoxin and Lung Health; the ‘United Airways’ concept extended” - PI - Research Council of Norway; Project owner: University of Bergen

2017 Reseracher project: “Housedust mite prevalence in Western Norway” - PI - The Norwegian Asthma and Allergy Foundation; Project owner: Haukeland University Hospital


2018  Kronprins Haakons Research Award for Asthma and Allergy Research; the Norwegian Asthma and Allergy Foundation, Oslo, Norway (5 000 Euro); annual prize for special merits in the field

2011   Fulbright Fellowship from the U.S.-Norway Fulbright Foundation for Educational Exchange for research in Medical Sciences at NIEHS/NIH, North Carolina, USA

2010  Voksentoppen Research Award within paediatric allergology and pulmonology awarded for outstanding research within paediatric respiratory medicine and allergology; Voksentoppen, Oslo University Hospital, Norway (5 000 Euro); annual prize for special merits in the field

Commision of trust/Professional Commitments

2019 -  Vice Chair, Management Committee, COST Action CA18131: Statistical and machine learning techniques in human microbiome studies

2018-   Member, Scientific Advisory Board: Leibniz ScienceCampus for Evolutionary Medicine of the Lung (EvoLung), Germany. http://evolung.fz-borstel.de/index.php

2017 -  Associate editor, International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health (Elsevier)

2015 -  Founding member, International Society for Children's Health and the Environment

2014-   Committee member of the National Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics (NEM), appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research

2013-   Member, working group for recommended technical standards for indoor environment: «Anbefalte faglige normer for inneklima» Rapport 2013: 7, NIPH, Norway

2011-   Norwegian representative, WHO expert meeting on Environmental Health Inequalities in Europe; Bonn, Germany. Report contribution: Environmental Health Inequalities in Europe; Assessment report; WHO 2012; ISBN: 978 92 890 0260 8

Organization of international comferences

Organiser – Seminar: “Analyses of the human microbiome; challenges and opportunities”, invited international and national speakers (35 participants), University of Bergen, Norway (3rd March 2019)

Organiser - 31st annual conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE 2019), Proposing and organizing symposium: “Interaction between environmental chemicals and toxicants and the human microbiome” (50 participants), Utrecht, the Netherlands

Chair of meeting planning committee - ISCHE. Name of event: “The Future of Children’s Environmental Health – Translating Knowledge into Action” (70 participants), Cuernavaca, Mexico (January 5-10, 2016).