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Ruth-Anne Sandaa's picture

Ruth-Anne Sandaa

Professor
  • E-mailRuth.Sandaa@uib.no
  • Phone+47 55 58 46 46
  • Visitor Address
    Thormøhlensgt. 53 A/B
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7803
    5020 Bergen

Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on the planet. In one drop of seawater there is as many as one million viruses. This means that there are more viruses in one litre of seawater than humans on our planet. Most of these viruses infect microbes, that is bacteria, archaea and phytoplankton, the main primary producers of the world’s oceans. By infecting and killing these microbes, viruses affect all microbial processes, such as global fixation and cycling of key elements e.g. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous. However, not all viruses cause harm to their hosts. Some have developed different ways to “live” in peace with their host or even being beneficial for host survival. How these different forms of relationships are established, and how they affect the function of the host community, is however unknown. My primary research objective is to discover basic mechanisms of virus-host interaction that contribute to a general understanding of how viruses affect the biodiversity of their host population in the marine microbial foodweb.

Research topics:

  • Describe and qualify the dynamics and diversity of viral communities and their effects on the host community in natural and experimental ecosystems.
  • Gain fundamental knowledge of how marine algal viruses and their phytoplankton hosts evolve from an acute disease state to peaceful co-existence by examining specific traits (fitness traits/trade-offs)
  • Uncovering the keys to success of viruses in Artic marine environments
Academic article
  • 2020. Reproducing the virus-to-copepod link in Arctic mesocosms using host fitness optimization. Limnology and Oceanography.
  • 2020. Genetically similar temperate phages form coalitions with their shared host that lead to niche-specific fitness effects. The ISME Journal.
  • 2019. Seasonal dynamics of algae-infecting viruses and their inferred interactions with protists. Viruses. 1-16.
  • 2018. Water masses and depth structure prokaryotic and T4-like viral communities around hydrothermal systems of the Nordic Seas. Frontiers in Microbiology. 1-17.
  • 2018. Seasonality drives microbial community structure, shaping both eukaryotic and prokaryotic host–viral relationships in an Arctic marine ecosystem. Viruses. 1-22.
  • 2018. Is the virus important? And some other questions. Viruses. 1-4.
  • 2017. The response of heterotrophic prokaryote and viral communities to labile organic carbon inputs is controlled by the predator food chain structure. Viruses. 1-15.
  • 2017. Seasonal dynamics of haptophytes and dsDNA algal viruses suggest complex virus-host relationship. Viruses. 18 pages.
  • 2017. Micromonas versus virus: New experimental insights challenge viral impact. Environmental Microbiology. 2068-2076.
  • 2017. Linking bacterial community structure to advection and environmental impact along a coast-fjord gradient of the Sognefjord, western Norway. Progress in Oceanography. 13-30.
  • 2017. Emerging interaction patterns in the Emiliania huxleyi-EhV system. Viruses. 1-14.
  • 2016. Synechococcus in the Atlantic Gateway to the Arctic Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science.
  • 2016. Confirming the "rapid phosphorus transfer from microorganisms to mesozooplankton in the eastern mediterranean sea" scenario through a mesocosm experiment. Journal of Plankton Research. 502-521.
  • 2015. Tsv-N1: A novel DNA algal virus that infects tetraselmis striata. Viruses. 3937-3953.
  • 2015. Top-down and bottom-up control on bacterial diversity in a western Norwegian deep-silled fjord. FEMS Microbiology Ecology.
  • 2015. Seasonal diversity and dynamics of haptophytes in the Skagerrak, Norway, explored by high-throughput sequencing. Molecular Ecology. 3026-3042.
  • 2015. Characterisation of three novel giant viruses reveals huge diversity among viruses infecting Prymnesiales (Haptophyta). Virology. 180-188.
  • 2014. Virus infection of Haptolina ericina and Phaeocystis pouchetii implicates evolutionary conservation of programmed cell death induction in marine haptophyte-virus interactions. Journal of Plankton Research. 943-955.
  • 2014. Dip in the gene pool: Metagenomic survey of natural coccolithovirus communities. Virology. 129-137.
  • 2014. A theoretical analysis of how strain-specific viruses can control microbial species diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 7813-7818.
  • 2013. Strong seasonality and interannual recurrence in marine myovirus communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 6253-6259.
  • 2013. Genomic sequence and analysis of EhV-99B1, a new coccolithovirus from the Norwegian fjords. Intervirology. 60-66.
  • 2013. Effects of differences in organic supply on bacterial diversity subject to viral lysis. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 202-213.
  • 2012. Mg2+ as an indicator of nutritional status in marine bacteria. The ISME Journal. 524-530.
  • 2012. Finding a needle in the virus metagenome haystack - micro-metagenome analysis captures a snapshot of the diversity of a bacteriophage armoire. PLOS ONE. 13 pages.
  • 2012. Effect of increased pCO2 on bacterial assemblage shifts in response to glucose addition in Fram Strait seawater mesocosms. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 713-723.
  • 2011. Water quality and microbial community structure in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) cultures. Aquaculture. 111-120.
  • 2011. Two new subfamilies of DNA mismatch repair proteins (MutS) specifically abundant in the marine environment. The ISME Journal. 1143-1151.
  • 2011. Diversity of airborne bacteria in samples collected using different devices for aerosol collection. Aerobiologia. 107-120.
  • 2011. Development of phoH as a Novel Signature Gene for Assessing Marine Phage Diversity. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 7730-7739.
  • 2010. Bacterial community composition in an Arctic phytoplankton mesocosm bloom: the impact of silicate and glucose. Polar Biology. 1557-1565.
  • 2009. Viral control of bacterial biodiversity - evidence from a nutrient-enriched marine mesocosm experiment. Environmental Microbiology. 2585-2597.
  • 2008. Response of marine viral populations to a nutrient induced phytoplankton bloom at different pCO2 levels. Biogeosciences. 523-533.
  • 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of members of the Phycodnaviridae virus family, using amplified fragments of the major capsid protein gene. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 3048-3057.
  • 2008. Photosynthetic genes in viral populations with a large genomic size range from Norwegian coastal waters. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 2-11.
  • 2008. Monitoring the opportunistic bacteria Pseudoalteromonas sp. LT-13 in a great scallop, Pecten maximus hatchery. Aquaculture. 14-21.
  • 2008. Marine mimivirus relatives are probably large algal viruses. Virology Journal. 8 pages.
  • 2008. Counterintuitive carbon-to-nutrient coupling in an Arctic pelagic ecosystem. Nature. 387-391.
  • 2008. Burden or benefit? Virus-host interactions in the marine environment. Research in Microbiology. 374-381.
  • 2007. Characterisation of bacterial communities associated with intensively reared cod (Gadus morhua) larvae using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Aquaculture. 319-327.
  • 2006. Seasonal variations in virus-host populations in Norwegian coastal waters: Focusing on the cyanophage community infecting marine Synechococcus spp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 4610-4618.
  • 2004. Spring phytoplankton bloom dynamics in Norwegian coastal waters: Microbial community succession and diversity. Limnology and Oceanography. 180-190.
  • 2004. Spring phytoplankton bloom dynamics in Norwegian coastal waters: Microbial community succession and diversity. Limnology and Oceanography. 180-190.
  • 2004. Discovery of a dsRNA virus infecting the marine photosynthetic protist Micromonas pusilla. Virology. 280-291.
  • 2004. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for genus-, group- and species-specific detection of mycobacteria. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease. 99-104.
  • 2003. Virioplankton community structure along a salinity gradient in a solar saltern. Extremophiles. 347-351.
  • 2003. Sequence analysis in the 23S rDNA region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and related species. Journal of Microbial Methods. 373-380.
  • 2003. Response of bacterial and viral communities to nutrient manipulations in seawater mesocosms. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 109-212.
  • 2003. Characterization of the bacterial community associated with early stages of great scallop (Pecten maximus) using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 302-311.
  • 2003. Characterisation of bacterial communities associated with early life stages of cultured Great Scallop, Pecten maximus using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 302-311.
  • 2003. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis in the differentiation of related species of mycobacteria. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 83-90.
  • 2002. Isolation and characterization of a virus that infects Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 767-774.
  • 2001. Population dynamics and diversity of phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses in a seawater enclosure. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 47-57.
  • 2001. Microbial population dynamics and diversity during a bloom of the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Marine Ecology Progress Series. 39-46.
  • 2001. Isolation and characterization of two viruses with large genome size infecting Chrysochromulina ericina (Prymneriophyceae) and Pyramimonas orientalis (Prasinophyceae). Virology. 272-280.
  • 2001. Influence of long-term heavy-metal contamination on microbial communities in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 287-295.
  • 1999. Analysis of bacterial communities in heavy metal contaminated soils at different levels of resolution. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 237-251.
  • 1999. Abundance and diversity of Archaea in heavy-metal contaminated soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 3293-3297.
  • 1998. Rapid method for fluorometric quantification of DNA in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 265-268.
  • 1998. Novel techniques for analysing microbial diversity in natural and perturbed environments. Journal of Biotechnology. 53-62.
  • 1998. Analysis of broad-scale differences in microbial community composition of two pristine forest soils. Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 579-587.
  • 1996. High frequency transfer of a broad host range plasmid present in an atypical strain of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 71-75.
  • 1994. Transfer in Marine sediments of the naturally occuring plasmid pRAS1 encoding multiple antibiotic resistance. Applied and Environmental Microbiology.
  • 1994. Spredning av antibiotikaresistens blandt bakterier fra ... Miljøvirkninger ved havbruk.
  • 1994. Immunomagnetic beads as a tool in conjugation experiments. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 111-115.
  • 1994. Distribution of tetracycline resistant determinants among Gram... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 908-912.
  • 1993. Transfer and maintenance of the plasmid RP4 in marine sediments. Microbial Releases.
  • 1992. Transferable drug resistance in bacteria isolated from fish farm sedime ents. Canadian Journal of Microbiology (print). 1061-1065.
Report
  • 1994. Miljøeffekter ved utsetting av mikroorganismer. SFT, 93513. .
  • 1994. Miljøeffekter ved utsetting av mikroorganismer. Dir. for naturforvaltning, BTEK 69404. .
Lecture
  • 2013. VIRUSES, CONTROLLING FORCE ON HOST DIVERSITY? -Life in the fast-line,.
  • 2013. Unexpected diversity in algal viruses.
  • 2010. Use of flow cytometry in air and marine microbiological research.
Popular scientific lecture
  • 2007. Virus-viktig økologisk faktor i havet.
  • 2007. Av og til er en nanometer nok.
  • 1996. Plasmid diversity in Icelandic hot springs.
  • 1993. Gene-transfer in marine sediments.
  • 1993. Gene transfer between bacteria in marine sediments.
  • 1993. Antibiotika-resistens i oppdrettsanlegg. Hvor kommer den fra - hvordan kan den spres?
  • 1993. Antibiotika resistens i oppdrettsanlegg.
Academic lecture
  • 2020. Diversity in marine virus-host relationships and their effect of phytoplankton community structure. .
  • 2019. Friends or foes, strategies for stable co-existance in algel viruses infecting haptophytes.
  • 2018. Reluctant affairs-algal virus-haptophyte relationship in the Ocean. .
  • 2018. Diversity of marine prymnesioviruses and their strategies for stable co-existence with their phytoplankton hosts.
  • 2017. from light to dark and shallow to deep: Metagenomic analysis of total virus assemblages from arctic seawater provides a first glance of season- and depth-driven virus diversity and dynamics.
  • 2017. Synechococcus in the Arctic Ocean.
  • 2017. Microbial Food web structure in a changing Arctic.
  • 2017. Marine viruses, small but important.
  • 2017. Marine viruses small but ecologically important.
  • 2017. Light and depth - main drivers of marine virus diversity and dynamics in the Arctic - Metagenomic analysis of total viral assemblages from surface to the deep .
  • 2016. Role of appendicularians in aquatic viral ecology: particle trapping, ingestion and consequences for the marine microbial food web.
  • 2016. Marine Viruses, small but major players in the ocean ecosystem.
  • 2016. Marine Viruses are small but important.
  • 2016. Development of a semi-automated method for metagenomic characterization of total virus assemblages from seasonal high-latitude seawater samples.
  • 2015. Diversity, seasonal dynamics and biotic interactions in marine phytoplankton and virus communities.
  • 2015. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of marine haptophytes and their viruses and the role of biotic interactions.
  • 2014. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of marine haptophytes and their viruses.
  • 2013. Diversity and dynamics of marine haptophytes and their viruses.
  • 2012. Viruses, a controlling force on prokaryotic diversity?
  • 2012. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of haptophytes in outer Oslofjorden revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.
  • 2012. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of haptophytes in outer Oslofjorden revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.
  • 2011. Geographic segregation and mechanisms of genetic evolution between coccolithovirus populations: a genomic study.
  • 2010. Host-viruses interactions in blooming and non-blooming haptophytes.
  • 2009. Live and let die: Molecular methods for studying host-virus interactions using Chrysochromulina ericina and CeV-01B as a model system.
  • 2008. Increased level of CO2 in the ecosphere may modify the structure of marine plankton.
  • 2007. Total numbers and activity of environmental airborne bacteria.
  • 2007. Burden or Benefit- virus-host interactions in the marine environment.
  • 2006. Viral community analysis.
  • 2005. Viral diversity in the marine environment. Effect on the species richness and activity of planktonic organisms.
  • 2005. VIRAL DIVERSITY IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT. EFFECT ON THE SPECIES RICHNESS OF PLANKTONIC ORGANISMS.
  • 2005. Are colonies or colonial cells of Phaeocystis pouchetii (prymnesiophyceae) susceptible to virus infection?
  • 2004. Viral diversity in solar saltern.
  • 2003. CHARACTERISATION OF BACTERIAL COMMUNITIES ASSOCIATED WITH EARLY LIFE STAGES OF CULTURED GREAT SCALLOP (PECTEN MAXIMUS), USING DENATURING GRADIENT GEL ELECTROPHORESIS (DGGE).
  • 2002. Marine phytoplankton viruses - ecology, physiology and host virus interactions.
  • 2002. Marine Phytoplankton Viruses-Ecology, Physiology and Host Virus Interactions.
  • 2001. The discovery of a novel algal virus type infecxtion of the phytoplankter Micromonas pusilla by a double stranded RNA reovirus.
  • 2000. Population dynamics in the virioplankton community during marine algal blooms.
  • 2000. Isolation and characterization of two marine viruses infecting Chrysochromulina ericina and Pyramimonas orientalis.
  • 2000. Infection of Micromonas pusilla (Prasinophyceae) by a dsRNA virus.
  • 2000. Diversity and succession of algae, virus and bacteria in nutrient enriched seawater enclosures.
  • 2000. Bacterial population dynamics and diversity after viral lysis of three different algal species.
  • 1998. Transfer of the naturally occuring plasmid pRAS1 affects the microbiological diversity in marine sediments [poster].
  • 1998. Transfer of the naturally occuring plasmid pRAS1 affects the microbialdiversity in marine sediments.
  • 1998. Spread of the plasmid pRAS1 in sea water and marine sediment - characterization of recipients [poster].
  • 1998. Changes im the microbiological community structure and diversity in metal contaminated soils.
  • 1998. Bacterial activity and diversity measured by differential-PCR.
  • 1997. Novel techniques for analysing microbial diversity in natural and perturbed environments.
  • 1997. Monitoring environmental impact of antropogenic activity on microbial communities.
  • 1996. Molecular methods for investigating changes in microbial communities.
  • 1996. Effect of heavy metal contamination on the microbial community structure in soil.
  • 1996. Changes in the microbial diversity in soil due to heavy metal contamination.
Short communication
  • 2015. The 474-kilobase-pair complete genome sequence of CeV-01B, a virus infecting Haptolina (Chrysochromulina) ericina (Prymnesiophyceae). Microbiology Resource Announcements (MRA). 1-2.
Masters thesis
  • 2006. DNA characterization and phylogenetic analyses on species of pelagic Crustacea from the Mid-Atlantic ridge.
Popular scientific article
  • 2004. Produksjon av kamskjellyngel. Vekk med antibiotika og opp med overlevelsen. Norsk Fiskeoppdrett. 59-61.
  • 2003. Vennlige Virus. Bergens Tidende.
Doctoral dissertation
  • 2016. Bacterial, archaeal and viral community structure in a deep Norwegian fjord.
  • 2010. Microbial ecology in the early life stages of intensively reared marine species.
  • 1994. Conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in marine sediments.
Interview
  • 2004. Maneter, virus og bakterier.
Academic chapter/article/Conference paper
  • 2010. Fingerprinting aquatic virus communities. 10 pages.
  • 2000. Molecular biology and genetic diversity of microorganisms. 15 pages.
Encyclopedia article
  • 2009. Viral pool, environmental. 553-567. In:
    • 2009. Encyclopedia of microbiology, volume 3. Elsevier.
Poster
  • 2020. Enzyme discovery from the edge of (sequence) space.
  • 2020. Bringing deep-sea enzymes to light.
  • 2017. Diversity of novel viruses infecting haptophytes.
  • 2016. RNA-Seq analysis of host and viral gene expression highlights the interaction between Prymnesium kappa and the virus HeV-RF02.
  • 2016. Marine viral diversity in the Arctic - from surface to deep waters through the long polar night and day.
  • 2014. Microbial community changes within a chimney wall at the basalt-hosted Jan Mayen vent field (JMVF):Modeled predictions vs. Pyrosequencing data.
  • 2012. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of haptophytes in outer Oslofjorden revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.
  • 2011. Virus resistance in marine phytoplankton - a status update.
  • 2011. Virus resistance in eukariotic marine phytoplankton - a status update.
  • 2011. Pelagiske virus i Kongsfjord.
  • 2010. Host-viruses interactions in blooming and non-blooming haptophytes.
  • 2005. Mg2+ plays an important role in marine bacteria.
  • 2004. Microbial biodiversity control.
  • 2003. Inlet water flown over a biofilm with probiotic bacteria-a possible strategy to increase survival of scallop larvae?
  • 2000. A method for diversity analysis of viruses in small volumes of seawater.
  • 1999. Virus i Havet.
  • 1993. Transfer of a broad host range plasmid from Aeromonas salmonicida to bacteria indigenous to the marine environment.
  • 1993. In situ transfer in the marine environment of a broad host range plasmid indigenious to Aeromonas salmonicida.
Academic literature review
  • 2018. Simple models combining competition, defence and resource availability have broad implications in pelagic microbial food webs. 1440-1452.

More information in national current research information system (CRIStin)

 

1.Sandaa, R.-A., V. Torsvik, J. Goksøyr. 1992. Transferable drug resistance in bacteria from fish-farm sediments. Can. J. Microbiol. 38:1061-1065.

2.Sandaa, R.-A. 1993. Transfer and maintenance of the plasmid RP4 in marine sediments. Microb. Releases. 2:115-119.

3.Enger, Ø., R.-A. Sandaa. 1994. Immunomagnetic beads as a tool in conjugation experiments. J. of Microb. Meth. 19:111-115.

4.Sandaa R.-A., and Ø. Enger. 1994. High frequency transfer of a broad host range plasmid indigenous to the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. Dis. Aquat. Org. 24:71-75.

5.Sandaa, R.-A., and Ø. Enger. 1994. Transfer of a naturally occurring plasmid in  Aeromonas salmonicida 718 in unsterile marine sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 4234-4238.

6.Andersen, S.R., R.-A. Sandaa. 1994. Distribution of tetracycline resistance determinants among gram-negative bacteria isolated from polluted and unpolluted marine sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:908-912.

7.Sandaa, R-A., Ø. Enger, and V. Torsvik. 1998. Rapid method for fluorometric quantification of bacterial DNA in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 30:265-268.

8.Torsvik, V., F.L. Daae, R.-A. Sandaa, and L. Øvreås. 1998. Review. Novel Techniques for analysing microbial diversity in natural and pertutibed environments. J  Biotech 64:53-62

9.Chatzinotas A., R.-A. Sandaa, D. Hahn, W. Schönhuber, F.L. Daae, V. Torsvik, J. Zeyer, and R. Amann. 1998. Analysis of Broad-scale Differences in Microbial Community Compositions of Two Pristine Forest Soils. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 21:579-587

10.  Sandaa, R-A., V. Torsvik, Ø. Enger, F.L. Daae, T. Castberg and D. Hahn. 1999. Analysis of bacterial communities in heavy metal contaminated soils at different levels of resolution. FEMS Microb. Ecol. 30:237-251.

11.  Sandaa, R-A., Ø. Enger, and V. Torsvik. 1999. Abundance of Archaea in Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:3293-3297

12.  Torsvik, V., F.L. Daae, R.-A. Sandaa and L. Øvreås. 2000. Molecular Biology and genetic diversity of microorganisms. In: Journey to diverse Microbial world: Adaptation to exotic environments. J. Seckbach (Ed.) Kluwer Academic Publishers. the Netherlands. pp 43-57.

13.  Sandaa, R.-A., V. Torsvik and Ø. Enger. 2001. Influence by long term heavy metal contamination on microbial communities in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 33:287-295.

14.  Larsen, A., T. Castberg, R.-A. Sandaa, C. Brussaard, J. Egge, J., M. Heldal, A. Paulino, R. Thyrhaug, E. van Hannen, and G. Bratbak. 2001. Population dynamics and diversity of phytoplankton, bacteria and virus in a seawater enclosure. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 221: 47-57.

15.  Castberg, T, A. Larsen,  R-A Sandaa, C.P.D  Brussaard,  J. Egge, M. Heldal, R. Thyrhaug,  E. van Hannen, G. Bratbak. 2001. Microbial population dynamics and diversity during blooms of the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 221:39-46.

16.  Smalla K., E. Krogerrecklenfort, H. Heuer, W. Dejonghe, E. Top, M. Osborn, J. Niewint, C. Tebbe, M. Barr, M. Bailey, A. Greated, C. Thomas, S. Turner, P. Young, D. Nikolakopoulou, A. Karagouni, A. Wolters, J. D. van Elsas, K. Drønen, R. Sandaa, S. Borin, J. Brabhu, E. Grohmann and P. Sobecky. 2000. PCR-based detection of mobile genetic elements in total community DNA. Microbiol. 146:1256-1257

17.  Sandaa, R.-A., M. Heldal, T. Castberg, R. Thyrhaug and G. Bratbak. 2001. Isolation and characterization of two viruses with large genom size infecting Chrysochromulina ericina (Prymnesiophyceae) and Pyramimonas orientalis (Prasinophyceae). Virol. 290:272-280

18.  Castberg, T, R. Thyrhaug,  A. Larsen, R-A.  Sandaa, M. Heldal, G. Bratbak. 2002. Isolation and characterization of virus infecting Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyceae). Phycol. 38:767-774

19.  Øvreås, L., D. Bourne, R-A. Sandaa, E. O. Casamayor, S. Benlloch, V. Goddard, G. Smerdon, M. Heldal, T. F. Thingstad. 2003. Response of bacterial and viral communities to nutrient manipulations in seawater mesocosms. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 31: 109–121

20.  Sandaa R-A., T. Magnesen, L. Torkildsen, Ø. Bergh. 2003. Characterisation of bacterial communities associated with early life stages of cultured Great Scallop, Pecten maximus using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 26:302-311

21.  Sandaa, R-A., E. Skjoldal, G. Bratbak. 2003. Virioplankton community structure along a salinity gradient in a solar saltern. Extremophiles. 7:347-351,

22.  Kurabachew M.D., Ø. Enger, Sandaa, R-A., B. Bjorvatn. 2003. Sequence analysis in the 23SDNA region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and related species. J. Microbiol. Methods. 54:373-380

23.  Kurabachew M.D., Sandaa, R-A., Ø. Enger, B. Bjorvatn. 2003. Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) in the differentiation of related species of Mycobacteria. J. Microbiol. Methods. 55: 83-90.

24.  Larsen, A., G.A .Fonnes, R-A. Sandaa, T. Castberg, R .Thyrhaug, S.E. Erga, S. Jacquet, and G. Bratbak. 2004. Spring phytoplankton bloom in Norwegian coastal waters: Microbial community dynamics, succession and diversity. Limn. Oceanog.  49:180-190

25.  Brussaard, C.P.D, R-A. Sandaa, G. Bratbak. 2004. The discovery of a novel algal virus type infection of the phytoplankter Micromonas pusilla by a double stranded RNA reovirus. Virol. 319:280-291

26.  Kurabachew M.D., Ø. Enger, R-A. Sandaa, R.  Skuce  and B. Bjorvatn. 2004. Multiplex PCR assay for the detection of mycobacteria and species identification of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 49:99-104.

27.  Sandaa R-A., A. Larsen. 2006. Seasonal variations in viral-host populations in Norwegian coastal waters: Focusing on the cyanophage community infecting marine Synechococcus species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:4610-4618.

28.  Brunvold, L, R-A. Sandaa, H. Bleie, D. Herke, A.B. Olsen,  H. Mikkelsen, E. Welde, A. Nerland, and Ø. Bergh. 2007.  Characterisation of bacterial communities associated with intensively reared cod (Gadus morhua) larvae using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE).  Aquaculture, 272: 319-327

29.  Sandaa R-A., M. Clokie, N. Mann. 2008. Photosynthetic genes in viral populations within a huge genomic size range, isolated from Norwegian coastal waters.  FEMS Microb. Ecol. 63:2-11

30.  Sandaa, R-A., L. Brunvold,  T. Magnesen, and Ø. Bergh. 2008.  Monitoring opportunistic bacteria in a hatchery for great scallop, Pecten maximus by means of Denaturing Gradient Gel Elecrophoresis (DGGE). Aquaculture 276:14–21.

31.  Monier A., J. Borggaard Larsen, R-A. Sandaa, G. Bratbak, J-M. Claverie, H. Ogata. 2008. Marine mimivirus relatives are probably large algal viruses. Virol. J. 5:12

32.  Larsen, J.B., A. Larsen, R. Thyrhaug, G. Bratbak, and R-A. Sandaa. 2008. Marine viral populations detected during a nutrient induced phytoplankton bloom at elevated pCO2 levels. Biogeosciences 5: 523–533

33.  Larsen, J.B. A. Larsen, G. Bratbak, and R.-A. Sandaa. 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of members of the Phycodnaviridae virus family using amplified fragments of the major capsid protein gene. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.  74:3048-3057.

34.     Sandaa, R-A. 2008. Review. Burden or Benefit-viral –host interaction in the marine environment. Review in Research in Microbiology, 159, 374-381.

35.     Thingstad TF, R.G.J. Bellerby, G. Bratbak, K.Y. Børsheim, J.K. Egge, M. Heldal, A. Larsen, C. Neill, J. Nejstgaard, S. Norland, R-A. Sandaa, E.F. Skjoldal, T. Tanaka, R. Thyrhaug, B. Töpper. 2008. Counterintuitive food web response to organic carbon enrichment in anarctic pelagic ecosystem.  Nature,  455:387-390

36.  Sandaa, R-A.  2009. Viral pool, environmental. In: Encyclopedia in Microbiology, third edition, Ed: Moselio Schaechter, Section: Environmental Microbiology and Ecology.  pp 553-567. Elsevier Ltd.   

37.  Sandaa, R-A., S. Short, D. Schröder.  2009, Fingerprinting aquatic virus communities. In: Methods in Aquatic Viral Ecology.  American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.,   Chapter 2, pp 9–18.

38.  Sandaa, R.-A., L. Gomez-Consarnau, J. Pinhassi, L. Riemann, A. Malits, M. Weinbauer, P.A. Gasol,  and T. F. Thingstad. 2009. Viruses control of bacterial biodiversity - Linkages between viral and bacterial community structure in a nutrient enriched mesocosm experiment. Environmental Microbiology, 11:2585-2595.

39.  Birte Töpper, Aud Larsen, Tron Frede Thingstad, Runar Thyrhaug & Ruth-Anne Sandaa. 2010.Dynamics in bacterial community composition during an Arctic phytoplankton mesocosm bloom. Polar Biology, 33:1557–1565.

40.  Fahlgren, C., Bratbak, G., Sandaa, R-A., Thyrhaug, R., Zweifel, U.L. 2010. Diversity of airborne bacteria in samples collected by use of different devices for aerosol collection. Aerobiologia 1:14.

41.  van der Meeren T, Brunvold, L., Sandaa, R-A., Bergh, Ø., Castberg, T.,Thyrhaug, R., Mangor-Jensen, A.  2011. Water quality and microbial community structure in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) cultures. Aquaculture International, 316:111-120.

42.  Ogata, H., Ray, J., Toyoda, K., Sandaa, R.-A, Nagasaki K, Bratbak, G.,  Claverie, J.M. 2011. Girus-encoded MutS subfamilies abundant in the marine environment. ISME journal, 1-9.

43.  Goldsmith, Crosti, Varsani, McDaniel, Dwivedi, Carlson, Suttle, Weinbauer, Sandaa, Breitbart.2011.  Pho Regulon Genes in Phage: Development of a Novel Signature Gene for Assessing Marine Phage Diversity. Appl. Microb. Ecol,77:7730-7739

44.  Heldal, M, Norland, S, Erichsen, E.S., Sandaa, R.-A.Larsen, A., Thingstad, F. and Bratbak, G. 2011. Mg2+ as an indicator of nutritional status in marine bacteria, ISME Journal, 1–7.

45.  Modha, S. Ray, J., Dondrup, M., Steen, I. H., Sandaa, R.-A. and Clokie, M.. Finding the needle in the  metagenomic viral haystack -  Micro-metagenome analysis captures a snapshot of the evolution of a bacteriophage armoire, submitted to PLoS One

Molecular Microbial ecology.

  • VirVar: Uncovering key players for regulation of phytoplankton function and structure: lessons to be learned from algal virus-haptophyte coexistence, NFR
  • Arven etter Nansen (The Nansen Legacy), NFR
  • Virus-X, “Viral metagenomics for innovation value” , EU project Horizon 2020-Biotech
  • VIROVAC: Filter-feeding mesozooplankton as uncharted accomplices in marine virus ecology. NFR

Research groups