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  • E-mailSiri.Gloppen@uib.no
  • Phone+47 55 58 29 86+47 918 20 532
  • Visitor Address
    Christies gt 15
    Bergen
    Room 
    313
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7802
    5020 BERGEN

I have extensive experience leading international, interdisciplinary research teams. Over the last ten years, I have been the PI for six multi-year projects, acquired through competitive grants and involving researchers from institutions on five continents and from a range of disciplines (Law, Political Science, Anthropology, Economics, Psychology, Philosophy, Medicine). I have also played a central role in acquiring grants for and implementing eight other research projects in this period. The projects focus on the role of rights, law and courts in political change and social development, investigating how this plays out in different fields – from climate change, indigenous rights, land- and water rights, via health, reproductive right and gender equality, to elections and autocratization dynamics.  Commitment to excellent, interdisciplinary, research addressing urgent global challenges is at the centre of the projects, which are ambitious in terms of theory development, methodology and empirical analysis. They are also implemented in close dialogue with practitioners and students.

The close integration of research and learning are also at the core of the Centre on Law & Social Transformation (LawTransform) of which I am the founding director. LawTransform is jointly owned by the Chr. Michelsen Institute and the University of Bergen but is a global Centre with fellows from all continents and a wide range of disciplines. The annual research conference, Bergen Exchanges on Law & Social Transformation – which includes a PhD course – brings together internationally leading scholars, students and practitioners and have become a vitalizing space for socio-legal research in Bergen and a global hub for research on law and social change. LawTransform, and the individual research projects involve practitioners – judges, policy makers, activist – as dialogue partners to secure that their insights are reflected, that the projects are useful, and the findings known. I have also extended the research into more directly applied work (World Bank, Norad).

My main contribution to the field of socio-legal studies is the conceptualisation, theorisation and empirical study of the use of law and legal institutions at a political tool and strategy for social change – how this plays out in different contexts, is engaged by diverse actors, and in various policy fields and institutional arenas. This includes conceptualising and analysing how actors face different legal and political opportunity structures based on their resources, barriers and allies, as well as how they are normative and epistemically embedded. In recent years I have particularly focused on the use of legal arenas and strategies in long-standing political battles between starkly opposed groups – theorised as lawfare.  Based on this theoretical core, I have developed analytical frameworks for the different projects I have directed to systematically explore legal-political dynamics and lawfare processes across regions and thematic fields.

I have developed and taught a range of courses, including fully digital**courses – at UiB:

PhD Courses:

Climate Change Governance (2020**, 2014); Effects of Lawfare (2020**, 2015-2019); Rights as Governance & Political Tools: Gender Based Violence (2018); Inequality & Governance (2015); Health Litigation (2010); Human Rights & Poverty (2008)

MA Courses:

Climate Change Governance (2021**, 2013) Constitution & Politics (with UiB Law School 2014-2020) Law as Political Strategy (2017, 2018); Breaking BAD, Backlash against democracy (2019); Deepening Democracy - Democratic Innovations (2012) Previous courses: Checking the State; Constitutionalism; Citizenship; Human Rights & Social Justice; International Justice

BA Courses:

Courts, Law & Politics (annually since 2015) Political Theory (1995-2000)

Co-organized a Global School Graduate Course on Health Litigation at Harvard (2014)

Selected publications:

Books:

  • Juridification & Social Citizenship. Ed. with Henriette Aasen, Anne M Magnussen & Even Nilssen (E. Elgar, 2014)
  • Klima, medier og politikk. With Elisabeth Eide, Dag Elgesem, Lise Rakner, L. (Eds.). (2014). Abstrakt forlag AS.
  • Climate Talk: Rights, Poverty & Justice. With Jackie Dugard & Asun L. St.Clair (Eds) (Juta, 2013)
  • Litigating Health Rights: Can Courts Bring Justice to Health. With Alicia E Yamin (Eds) HLS Human Rights Programme Series with Harvard University Press (2011). Spanish Translation published by Siglo XXI (Argentina) in March 2013
  • Courts and Power in Latin America and Africa. Co-authored with Bruce Wilson, Roberto Gargarella, Elin Skaar Palgrave McMillan (2010)
  • Globalization and Democratization: Challenges for Political Parties. Ed. with L. Rakner. Fagbokforlaget (2007).
  • Roads to Reconciliation. Ed. with E. Skaar and A. Suhrke. Lexington Books (2005)
  • Democratization  and the Judiciary. Ed. with R. Gargarella and E. Skaar) London: Frank Cass (2004)
  •  South Africa: Battle over the Constitution. Ashgate (1997)

Articles and chapters:     

  • “The Climate Crisis: Litigation and Economic, Social and Cultural Rights”. With Catalina Vallejo. in Dugard et.al. (eds) Research Handbook on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as Human Rights. Edward Elgar Publishing, (2020). (Jointly conceptualized and written.)
  • “LGBT rights in Africa” With Lise Rakner. Chapter 15 in Ashford, C., & Maine, Research Handbook on Gender, Sexuality, and the Law. Edward Elgar, (2020) (Jointly conceptualized and co-written)
  • “Political determinants of sustainable development goals.” With Camila Gianella and Marta Machado, The Lancet 390.10112 (2017): 2545-2546. (Jointly conceptualized and co-written)
  • “Studying Courts in Context” in LD Haglund & R Stryker, (eds) Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights: Emerging Possibilities for Social Transformation. University of California Press (2015)
  • “Grabbing development: Courts, corruption and judicial independence” In T. Søreide & A. Williams (eds) Corruption, Grabbing and Development: Real World Challenges. E. Elgar Publ. (2014)
  • “Red-Green Lawfare: Climate Justice Discourse in Courtrooms” with Catalina Vallejo, in (J. Dugard et al eds) Climate Talk: Rights, Poverty & Justice (Juta, 2014) (I developed the theoretical framework, Vallejo collected most of the data, jointly analyzed and written)
  • “Judging the price of life: cost considerations in right-to-health litigation” with Octavio Ferraz, Ottar Mæstad, and Lise Rakner, in H. Aasen et al. (Eds.). (2014). Juridification and social citizenship in the welfare state. Edward Elgar Publishing (2014). (I led conceptualization and analysis, co-wrote chapter).
  • “Human Rights Based Approaches to Development: Concepts, Evidence, and Policy”, with Varun Gauri, Polity, 44(4): pp 485–50 (2012), (Jointly conceptualized and written)
  • “Climate Change Lawfare” with Asun St Clair, Social Inquiry. 79(4), 2012, pp 899-930) (I developed the theoretical framework, and collected most of the data, jointly written)
  • “Judicial independence and judicialization of electoral politics in Malawi and Uganda”. With Fidelis Edge Kanyongolo In D Chirwa & L. Nijzink,  Accountable Government in Africa: Perspectives from Public Law and Political Science. University of Cape Town Press/UN University Press (2012) (Jointly conceptualized, joint data collection, jointly written)
Academic article
  • 2019. Tribal Representation and Local Land Governance in the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, India. Forum for Development Studies.
  • 2015. Norske klimaparadokser. Norsk Statsvitenskapelig Tidsskrift. 246-255.
  • 2013. Giving Effect to Children's Right to Health in Colombia? Analysing the Implementation of Court Decisions Ordering Health System Reform. Journal of Human Rights Practice. 153-176.
  • 2012. Human Rights-Based Approaches to Development: Concepts, Evidence, and Policy. Polity. 485-503.
  • 2012. Climate Change Lawfare. Social research. 899-930.
  • 2010. Legal enforcement of social rights: Enabling conditions and impact assessment. Erasmus Law Review. 16 pages.
  • 2008. Litigation as a strategy to hold governments accountable for implementing the right to health. Health and Human Rights: An International Journal.
  • 2007. Courts and the poor in Malawi: Economic marginalization, vulnerability, and the law. International Journal of Constitutional Law. 258-293.
  • 2006. The Role of the Judiciary in the 004 General Elections in Malawi. East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights. 279-317 .
  • 2003. The Accountability Function of the Courts in Tanzania and Zambia. Democratization. 112-136.
  • 2003. Kampen for sosiale rettigheter: Er rettssalen riktig arena? Nordisk tidsskrift for menneskerettigheter. 61-75.
  • 2003. Introduction: The Accountability Function of the Courts in New Democracies. Democratization. 1-6.
  • 2003. How to Assess the Political Role of the Courts. African Social Research. 98-118.
  • 2002. Tax Reform and Democratic Accountability in Sub-Saharan Africa. IDS Bulletin.
  • 1994. John Rawls rettferdighetsteori og Den norske grunnlov av 1814. Norsk Statsvitenskapelig Tidsskrift. 153-172.
Report
  • 2005. Social rights litigation as transformation: South African perspectives. .
  • 2004. Aid to judicial reform: Norwegian and international experiences. .
  • 2002. Reconciliation and Democratisation: Outlining the Research Field. 2002:5. 2002:5. .
  • 1994. Kortidsansettelser i elektrobransjen. 163. 163. .
Lecture
  • 2019. Understanding the Political Dimensions of the Turning Against Sexual and Reproductive Rights in Peru.
  • 2019. The Emergence of Conservative Mobilization and Its Effects on Sexual and Reproductive Rights.
  • 2019. Sexual and Reproductive Rights and the Courts.
  • 2019. Roundtable: The Emergence of Conservative Mobilization and Its Effects on Sexual and Reproductive Rights.
  • 2019. Roundtable: Researching Backlash against Democracy.
  • 2019. Malawi Case Study.
  • 2019. Introduction: Framing Legal Approaches to Sexual and Reproductive Rights.
  • 2019. Changing Hearts and Minds? Kenyan Courts, Public Opinion and LGBT Rights.
  • 2019. Autocratic Lawfare.
  • 2018. Malawi Country Case Study.
  • 2018. Judging Democratic Backlash (Breaking BAD project).
  • 2018. Demokrati, rettsstat og populisme.
  • 2017. Researching effects of lawfare.
  • 2017. Politics of Morality: Democracy and Health Effects.
  • 2017. Global Health: Political and Legal Determinants.
  • 2015. The right to health and Universal Health Coverage.
  • 2015. Queer Lawfare and Political Backlash. Theoretical and comparative perspectives.
  • 2014. Litigating Health Rigths: Can courts bring more justice to health.
  • 2013. Promoting equity in health through litigation: Considerations for Advocates and Judges.
  • 2013. Priority Setting in Health: Process, Methods, and Institutions.
  • 2013. Opeationalising the right to health.
  • 2013. Constitutionalism, Human Rights and Informal Justice.
  • 2013. "Introduction", Juridification and Social Citizenship in the Welfare State.
Popular scientific lecture
  • 2019. Researching sexual and reproductive rights lawfare, drivers of politicization and health effects of criminalization .
  • 2019. LGBT rights around the world – strides and setbacks.
  • 2018. Judging democratic backlash.
  • 2018. Den demokratiske rettsstatens kannibalisme .
  • 2016. International Law, Courts and Democracy in a Time of Extremism.
  • 2010. Litigating for medicines - does it bring justice to health?
  • 2010. Human Rights of LGBT people.
  • 2008. The Democratic Republic of Congo: Leaving the past- shaping the future" (Chair).
  • 2008. Roundtable Talk on Poverty and Human Rights (Chair).
  • 2008. Kommentar til Jonas Gahr Støres foredrag "FNs Verdenserklæring om menneskerettighetene 60 år: Dilemmaer for utenrikspolitikken?".
  • 2004. Demokratiske domstoler?
  • 2004. Apartheidregimet i Sør-Afrika.
  • 1999. Rettsstatsutvikling i Sør-Afrika.
  • 1999. Hvor går det sør-afrikanske demokratiet?
  • 1999. Hvor går det sør-afrikanske demokratiet?
Academic lecture
  • 2020. Dialogue symposium: Women on the Bench.
  • 2020. Autocratic Lawfare and Democratic Backsliding in Africa: Judicial Strategies for Repression and Courts as Arenas for Resistance .
  • 2018. Sexual and Reproductive Rights Lawfare.
  • 2018. Queer Lawfare: Global Battles.
  • 2018. Malawi: Democratic Fits and Starts. .
  • 2018. Identity and law - causes and effects of lawfare.
  • 2018. Authoritarian Constitutionalism in Sub-Saharan Africa .
  • 2017. The Right to Health and Maximum Available Resources.
  • 2017. Roundtable. The Transnational and Sub-national Study of Abortion Lawfare. Law and Society Annual Meeting, Mexico, 20-23 June 2017.
  • 2017. Researching Law and Social Transformation.
  • 2017. Political determinants of sexual & reproductive health (Globvac project).
  • 2017. Judicialisation of the right to health: effects beyond health outcomes.
  • 2017. Interview field work and observational methods in Constitutional Law.
  • 2017. Dialoges in Constitutional Law: Sexual & Reproductive Rights Lawfare: Global battles.
  • 2017. Constitutionalism 100 Years After the Mexican Constitution.
  • 2017. Conference on 'Land rights, Land Acquisition, and Inclusive Development in India'.
  • 2017. Conceptualizing Lawfare.
  • 2017. Africa’s legalized politics of homosexuality: dynamics & effects of criminalization.
  • 2017. Abortion Rights Lawfare (Theoretical Framwork).
  • 2016. Human rights - entitlement to health: what does it mean in practice and how can it affect priority setting for UHC?
  • 2016. Criminalization of Abortion and Same Sex intimacy in Africa: Triggers and Health Effects .
  • 2016. Abortion Rights Lawfare: A Conceptual Framwork.
  • 2015. The Role of Law in the Pursuit of Sustainable Development. Keynote address at bars 2015.
  • 2015. Sexual and Reproductive Rights Lafare. Global Battles.
  • 2015. Bergen Exchanges on Law & Social Transformation. Various presentations during the week and main responsibility for the conference.
  • 2013. ”Prioritization of healthcare: Comparative perspectives”.
  • 2013. Data requred to evaluate impact of courts decisions on social transformation: the right to health /La información que se requiere para evaluar el impacto de las instituciones jurídicas en la transformación social.
  • 2013. Courting elections in hybrid regimes.
  • 2013. Courting Elections in Hybrid Regimes.
  • 2013. Can courts bring social justice? Rights based welfare policy in a comparative perspective - The Annual Azim Premji Public Lecture.
  • 2013. "Challenges in translating the right to health into practice - addressing or creating inequality?".
  • 2010. Empowering ligitation? Analysing empowerment-impact of internationalized social rights litigation in South Africa.
  • 2008. Litigating the Right to Health.
  • 2005. The Accountability Function of the Ugandan Courts: Framework for inquiry.
  • 2005. Public interest litigation, social rights and public policy.
  • 2005. Public interest litigation, social rights and public policy.
  • 2005. Law and Poverty in Malawi: Towards Progressive Linkages.
  • 2004. The role of the judiciary in the 2004 General Elections in Malawi.
  • 2004. Socio-Economic Rights and Constitutionalism: Not by Litigation Alone?
  • 2004. Social Rights Litigation as Transformation.
  • 2004. Courts and Social Transformation: an Analytical Framework.
  • 2004. "The Institutional Context of the 2004 General Elections in Malawi: The Role of the Courts".
  • 2003. The Politics of Social Rights Litigation.
  • 2003. Analyzing the Role of Courts in Social Transformation: Social Rights Litigation, court responsiveness and capability.
  • 2002. The Accountability Function of the Courts in Zambia.
  • 2002. The Accountability Function of the Courts in Tanzania.
  • 2002. How to Assess the Political Role of the Zambian courts?
  • 2002. Accountability and the role of courts and institutions of restraint.
Editorial
  • 2013. Introduction : climate change justice : narratives, rights and the poor. South African journal on human rights. 6-13.
Reader opinion piece
  • 2013. Menneskerettighetene er udelelige. Aftenposten (morgenutg. : trykt utg.).
Book review
  • 2004. Uferdig oppgjør. Om Jon Elsters "Oppgjøret med Fortiden Internasjonalt perspektiv på overgangen til demokrati" (Oslo: Pax 2004). Historisk Tidsskrift (Norge).
Academic anthology/Conference proceedings
  • 2014. Klima, medier og politikk. Abstrakt forlag.
  • 2014. Juridification and social citizenship in the welfare state. Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • 2013. La lucha por los derechos de la salud: ¿puede la justicia ser una herramienta de cambio? Siglo XXI Editores.
  • 2013. CLIMATE TALK. Rights, Poverty and Justice. Juta Publishers.
  • 2011. Litigating Health Rights: Can Courts Bring More Justice to Health (Harvard Law School Human Rigthts Programme Series). Harvard University Press (HUP).
  • 2007. Globalization and democratization: Challenges for political parties. Fagbokforlaget.
  • 2005. Roads to Reconciliation. Lexington Books.
  • 2004. Democratization and the Judiciary: The Accountability Function of Courts in New Democracies. Frank Cass Publishers.
  • 2004. Democratization and the Judiciary. The Accountability Function of Courts in New Democracies. Frank Cass Publishers.
Academic monograph
  • 2010. Courts and power in Latin America and Africa.
Non-fiction book
  • 1997. South Africa: The Battle over the Constitution. Ashgate Publishing Limited.
Thesis at a second degree level
  • 2006. Nigerian democratisation. A text analysis of Democracy Theory.
  • 2005. National Human Rights Institutions. A case-study of the National Human Rights Commission in Malaysia and a Comparative Country Survey of 79 States.
  • 2005. Islamism and Democracy - An inquriy into the Political Thought of the Sudanese Islamist Hassan al-Turabi.
  • 2004. Inkludering av innvandrere i norske kommuner. En studie av statlig og kommunal diskurs om mål og middel.
Masters thesis
  • 2018. Water & Power.
  • 2018. A Postmaterialist Explanation of Homophobia in Africa: Multilevel Analysis of Attitudes Towards Homosexuals in 33 African Countries.
  • 2016. Frå sinke til føregangsland på transpersonars rettar.
  • 2006. The judicial protection of tolerance in Chile and Argentina. Explaining freedom of expression jurisprudence 1990-2003.
  • 2006. The Mapuche people´s battle for indigenous land: possibilities for litigating on indigenous land rights.
Popular scientific article
  • 2009. Sør-Afrikas sannhetskommisjon – et internasjonalt ideal? FN-magasinet. 8-11.
  • 2003. Building the Rule of Law in New Democracies: Challenges and Opportunities for Judicial Reform. CMI Policy Brief. 1-4.
Feature article
  • 2013. Den globale abortstriden: Hvem får bestemme over kvinners kropp? Bistandsaktuelt.
  • 2002. Vest Sahara - Grunn til dårlig norsk samvittighet? Bergens Tidende.
  • 2001. Global rettpleie - en vei til forsoning? Bergens Tidende.
Letter to the editor
  • 2020. Time for global health diplomacy. The Lancet. 1691-1692.
  • 2017. Political determinants of Sustainable Development Goals. The Lancet. 2545-2546.
Doctoral dissertation
  • 2020. Power Dynamics in The Provision of Legal Abortion: A Feminist Perspective on Nurses and Conscientious Objection in South Africa .
  • 2001. South African constitutionalism, 1994-2000 : the difficult balancing act of the Constitutional Court.
Interview
  • 2009. Ytringsfriheten 20 år etter fatwaen mot Salman Rushdie.
Academic chapter/article/Conference paper
  • 2020. LGBT Rights in Africa.
  • 2015. Studying Courts in Context: The Role of Nonjudicial Institutional and Socio-Political Realities. 28 pages.
  • 2014. Stortingsklima. Klima som valgkamptema og norske politikeres syn på klimautfordringene. 21 pages.
  • 2014. Norske paradokser. 15 pages.
  • 2014. Klimabistand: god bistandspolitikk? 19 pages.
  • 2014. Juridification and social citizenship: international law, democracy and professional discretion. 23 pages.
  • 2014. Judging the price of life: cons considerations in right-to-health litigation. 25 pages.
  • 2014. Introduction. 20 pages.
  • 2014. Courts, corruption and judical independence. 12 pages.
  • 2013. ntroducción. ¿Pueden los litigios judiciales volver más justa la salud? 18 pages.
  • 2013. Red-Green Lawfare: Climate Justice Discourse in Courtrooms. 28 pages.
  • 2013. Litigación del derecho a la salud. ¿Son actores transnacionales los que mueven los hilos. 32 pages.
  • 2013. La lucha por los derechos de la salud. Marco de análisis. 26 pages.
  • 2013. Introduction.
  • 2013. Climate Change Lawfare. 31 pages.
  • 2012. Judicial Independence and Judicialisation of Electoral Politics in Malawi and Uganda.
  • 2012. I pose og sekk? Klima i norsk utviklingspolitikk etter 2005. 25 pages.
  • 2011. Litigating the right to health : are transnational actors backseat driving? 27 pages.
  • 2011. Litigating health rights : framing the analysis. 23 pages.
  • 2011. Litigating for medicines: how can we assess impact on health outcomes. 27 pages.
  • 2011. Introduction : can litigation bring justice to health? 16 pages.
  • 2008. Public Interest Litigation, Social Rights, and Social Policy. 26 pages.
  • 2008. Elections in Court: The Judiciary and Uganda's 2006 Election Process. 37 pages.
  • 2007. Introduction: Coming to grips with the current predicaments of political parties. 10 pages.
  • 2006. Malawi. 22 pages.
  • 2006. Courts and Social Transformation: An Analytical Framework. 25 pages.
  • 2005. South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission as an international model. 17 pages.
  • 2005. Social Rights Litigation as Transformation: South African Perspectives.
  • 2005. Sobre el derecho de resistencia en contextos de privaciones severas. Como deberia reaccionar el Estado? 17 pages.
  • 2005. Roads to Reconciliation: A Conceptual Framework.
  • 2005. Introduction.
  • 2004. The Accountability Function of the Courts in Tanzania and Zambia. 25 pages.
  • 2004. Rettsstat og demokrati.
  • 2004. Introduction: The Accountability Function of Courts in New Democracies. 6 pages.
  • 2003. Tax reform and democratic accountability in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • 2003. Reparatory Justice - A Road to Reconcilition? On the role of Reparations in Transitional Justice Theory. 17 pages.
  • 2003. Den opprinnelige posisjon. Prinsipper for forhandling om rettferdighet. 14 pages.
  • 1997. Apartheid, borgerrettigheter, frihet, menneskerettigheter, libertarianisme, naturrett, rettferdighet, rettigheter, samfunnskontrakt.
Poster
  • 2017. Land Rights Environmental Protection and Inclusive Development within Indias Federal System.
  • 2008. The Poor and the Judiciary.
  • 2002. Responsiveness to the Concerns of the Poor and Accountability to the Commitment to Reduce Poverty - An Issues Paper (Commissioned by UNDP).
Academic literature review
  • 2007. "Courts and the marginalized: Comparative perspectives". 183-186.
Popular scientific chapter/article
  • 2013. La litigación en reclamo de medicamentos. ¿De qué modo es posible evaluar el impacto en los resultados de salud?,. 361-391.
Briefs
  • 2020. The quest for butterfly climate judging.
  • 2019. The perfect enemy: From migrants to sexual minorities.
  • 2018. Zambian courts breaking BAD?
  • 2013. Sexual and reproductive rights - a global legal battlefield.
  • 2013. Access denied. Abortion rights in Latin America.
  • 2010. How does litigation affect health financing? WHO (Technical Brief Series no. Brief No 15.
Chapter
  • 2016. Right to health in contexts of resource scarcity: towards judicial enforcement of the right to a fair share. 33-54. In:
    • 2016. Zanzibar Yearbook of Law vol 5. Zanzibar Legal Services Centre.

More information in national current research information system (CRIStin)

- Director - Centre on Law & Social Transformation (UiB - CMI 2014-) 

- PI - Political determinants of sexual and reproductive health: Criminalization, health impacts and game changers (UiB - CMI 2016-2021)

- PI - LawTransform: Effects of Rights & Law (UiB - 2017-2022)

- PI - Sexual and Reproductive Rights Lawfare: Global Battles (UiB - CMI 2014-2018)

- Research coordinator 2013-2015 - PluriCourts - Centre for the Study of the Legitimacy of the Global Judiciary (University of Oslo, Faculty of Law - Centre of Excellence, 2013-)

- Team member - Abortion Lawfare in Latin America (UiB - CMI 2014-2017)

- PI - Land Rights and Inclusive Sustainable Development in India (UiB - CMI 2013-2016)

- PI - Institutionalizing the Right to Health in Health Service Delivery (Norad/CMI/World Bank 2014-2016)

- Team member - Climate Change Discourse, Rights and the Poor (UiB - CMI 2010-2012)

- PI - The right to health through litigation? Can court enforced health rights improve health policy and priority-setting in poor countries? (Co-operation between CMI, Faculty of Medicine, UiB, Harvard University, researchers in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, South Africa, India, Bangladesh - 2008-2012)

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