Research experience and interests:
Ecophysiological aspects of phytoplankton in Norwegian marine waters. The investigations cover fjord waters; Korsfjorden, Raunefjorden, Lindåspollene, Samnangerfjorden, Boknafjorden, Lysefjorden and Oslofjorden, coastal waters; Western, Southern and Eastern Norway, and oceanic waters; the Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea and the Greenland Sea. Special emphasis has been put on the regulation mechanisms of spatial and temporal distribution of phytoplankton biomass and primary production. Among the physical factors being studied are light, wind, hydrography – including water column stability, and water circulation. Besides this, physiological and behavioural effects of light (including UV) and other environmental factors on microalgae has been investigated. Among these are cell motility (studied in a specially designed artificial water column), bio-optical aspects of microalgae in general and photosynthetic response.
Within the field of light and phytoplankton interactions I cooperate with colleges (Øyvind Frette, Børge Hamre and Jakob Stamnes) from the “Optics and atomic physics” group, of which I am an associated member, at the Department of Physics and Technology, UoB. Our common research activities have a long time horizon and it is conducted in collaboration with several national and international scientific groups and institutions. In order to enhance the quality of our work and to enable us to investigate new aspects of light and phytoplankton interactions, we have established a marine bio-optical laboratory facility, with funding from the Norwegian Research Councils’ Program for “Advanced equipment”. This has resulted in several “Light and Life” projects. These are: "Light and Life in Norwegian Waters" (LLNW), "Light and Life in Icy Arctic Waters", "Light and Life in African environment" and “Light and Life in Norwegian Waters: Physics/Biology Based Approach to Satellite Monitoring of Primary Production and Algal Blooms”. Many Master and Ph.D students have been involved in the projects.
In Norwegian fjords the observed seasonal variations in phytoplankton biomass, species composition, primary production and vertical distribution are due to a complex interaction between physical, chemical and biological factors. We have seen that the wind regulated exchange processes between coastal and fjord water, together with light regime, are overall regulating factors. During periods of northerly winds along the coast of Western Norway, displacements of coastal waters away from the coast are accompanied by upwelling of nutrient rich deeper water into the euphotic zone. An opposite circulation pattern is seen during periods of southerly winds. These advective processes are also essential for questions concerning the autochthonous-allochthonous origin of the species. Common for the investigated fjords are strong stratifications of the water masses throughout extended periods of the growth season, which enable the deeper situated phytoplankton species to adapt to low light intensities. During time, such a strategy could result in deep maximum layers of chlorophyll a. It is has also been found that persistent stratification of the water masses combined with stable light conditions could lead to diel rhythms in photosynthetic activity of summer phytoplankton. As a bloom proceeds and nutrients are being exhausted, grazing by micro- and macrozooplankton may become an important regulating factor phytoplankton growth. During calm weather conditions, nutrient limitation, nitrogen or phosphorus, may persist for extended periods in Norwegian fjords. Continued growth of phytoplankton in the surface layer above the pycnocline thus relies on regenerated nutrients. Both bacterio- and virioplankton have been found to be important in this context. Besides this, virioplankton may act as an internal driving force in spring bloom successions.
To better understand the role of light regime on growth of phytoplankton, information on the spatial and temporal variations of the inherent optical properties (absorption and scattering) of coastal and fjord waters (“case II water”) have been gained. The transmission of UV radiation and the factors controlling it are important in this context. Therefore the role of coloured dissolved organic material (CDOM) has been thoroughly investigated. Possible effects of UV radiation on vertical distribution of phytoplankton and primary production have been investigated both in case I (ocean water) and case II waters. It was found that the maximum and mean potential for inhibition of primary production at a depth of 5 m were 11 and 3 % in the Greenland and Norwegian Seas, 3.2 and 0.9 % in coastal waters of south-western Norway, and 0.5 and 0.1 % in the Samnangerfjord.
Development of new methods
An experimental water column equipped with an optical detection system for the study of fine scale vertical displacement of microalgae in stratified waters has been constructed. With this system migratory patterns and swimming speeds of the algae can be deduced. An improved technique for measurements of the volume scattering function (VSF) of marine particles has also been developed. This equipment enables us to study how microalgae and other particles influence the propagation of light in the ocean. A new infrared laser equipped with confocal microscopy, including “Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging” (FLIM), has now being installed in our lab, which implies new opportunities to study basic photosynthetic processes and anatomical changes in microalgal cells as responses to light stress.
By using a spectral radiative transfer model combined with a parameterization of the inhibition of marine photosynthesis by ultraviolet radiation, it has been found that ozone depletion in polar regions during periods of sufficiently low solar elevations, compromising both open and ice-covered waters, could lead to increased photosynthesis at all depths. The reason for this is that reduced ozone concentrations not only result in enhanced levels of UV radiation but also in photosynthetic utilizable radiation (PUR), which could otherwise be limiting to primary production during periods of normal ozone concentrations.
Aquaculture related research
The main aspect of this research is to investigate if it is possible to increase the primary production within a fjord by artificial upwelling of deeper nutrient rich water during the summer season, when growth of phytoplankton is otherwise nutrient limited. This would be beneficial for the aquaculture industry, both concerning mussel and fish farming. We have found that by using a submerged freshwater discharge to bring about an upwelling, the algal production can be increased by a factor of 3-4, and at the same time reduce the occurrence of toxic algal flagellates. This work is in collaboration with the Jan Aure, Tore Strohmeier and Øivind Strand at the Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Bergen.
Pedagogical competence and experience
Pedagogical competence - I had my basic pedagogical education during 1992 by participating in the course “Developmental Program in University Pedagogics”. My teaching experience at university level goes back to 1985.
Teaching responsibilities at UoB and UoO - Introductory courses in Biology (120 students): - BIO 100 Biology - (45 ECTS credits) 1993 – 1999, and - BIO 103 Botany – (15 ECTS credits) 2000 -2002, in both cases responsible for both laboratory course and lectures comprising “Physiology and anatomy of higher plants”, equivalent to 5 ECTS credits, - BIO 113 Microbiology – (10 ECTS credits), partly responsible for lectures 2003 - 2004 and for laboratory course from 2003, BIO 114 Physiology – (10 ECTS credits), partly responsible for lectures and laboratory course 2003 – 2004. Specialisation courses in Marine biology and Microbiology, chronologically from 1985 until 2006: - B 290 Algal systematics and ecology - (15 ECTS credits), including laboratory course, partly responsible, - B 390 Marine ecological processes – (3 ECTS credits), partly responsible, - BM 202, UoO Marine ecological methods – (15 ECTS credits), including laboratory course, partly responsible, - BM 223 Algal physiology I – (15 ECTS credits), including laboratory course, partly responsible, - BM 224 Algal physiology II – (15 ECTS credits), including laboratory course, total responsible, - BFM 360 Marine pollution biology – (5 ECTS credits), partly responsible, - BM 222 Experimental algal physiology – (10 ECTS credits), including laboratory course, partly responsible, - BM 221 Microbial ecology II – (15 ECTS credits), including laboratory course, partly responsible, - MAR 314 Experimental marine microbiology – (5 ECTS credits), partly responsible - BM 321/MIK 314 Light and Microalgae in marine ecosystems – (5 ECTS credits), total responsible, - MIK 201 Eucaryote microbiology – (10 ECTS credits), including laboratory course, partly responsible. For several of the taught courses listed above, I was also responsible for editing the laboratory manual. In the case of BM 224 and BM 321/MIK 314, I was responsible for both the initiation and planning of the courses. I have also been responsible for the direction of a number of Master students at our Department and at the Department of Physics and Technology.
- 2019. CDOM absorption properties of natural water bodies along extreme environmental gradients. Water. 11:1988: 1-19. doi: 10.3390/w11101988
- 2018. Testing Fluorescence Lifetime Standards using Two-Photon Excitation and Time-Domain Instrumentation: Fluorescein, Quinine Sulfate and Green Fluorescent Protein. Journal of Fluorescence. 28: 1065-1073. doi: 10.1007/s10895-018-2270-z
- 2018. Seasonal and annual variability in the phytoplankton community of the Raunefjord, west coast of Norway from 2001-2006. Marine Biology Research. 14: 421-435. doi: 10.1080/17451000.2018.1426863
- 2018. Enhancing EPA Content in an Arctic Diatom: A Factorial Design Study to Evaluate Interactive Effects of Growth Factors. Frontiers in Plant Science. 9: 1-11. Published 2018-04-17. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00491
- 2018. Comparing EPA production and fatty acid profiles of three Phaeodactylum tricornutum strains under western Norwegian climate conditions. Algal Research. 30: 11-22. doi: 10.1016/j.algal.2017.12.001
- 2017. Seasonal variations in C:N:Si:Ca:P:Mg:S:K:Fe relationships of seston from Norwegian coastal water: Impact of extreme offshore forcing during winter-spring 2010. Marine Chemistry. 196: 1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.marchem.2017.07.001
- 2017. Measurement and modeling of volume scattering functions for phytoplankton from Norwegian coastal waters. Journal of Marine Research. 75: 579-603. doi: 10.1357/002224017822109514
- 2017. Comparison of absorption properties of colored dissolved organic matter in six different case 2 water bodies. AIP Conference Proceedings. 1810:120006: 1-4. doi: 10.1063/1.4975580
- 2017. Analysis and parameterization of absorption properties of northern Norwegian coastal water. AIP Conference Proceedings. 1810:120007. 4 pages. doi: 10.1063/1.4975581
- 2017. Impact of Chromophoric dissolved organic matter on light absorption in lake water on the Tibetan Plateau, China. AIP Conference Proceedings. 1810:120005. 4 pages. doi: 10.1063/1.4975579
- 2017. Dampened copepod-mediated trophic cascades in a microzooplankton-dominated microbial food web: A mesocosm study. Limnology and Oceanography. 62: 1031-1044. doi: 10.1002/lno.10483
- 2017. Bioprospecting North Atlantic microalgae with fast growth and high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content for microalgae-based technologies. Algal Research. 26: 392-401. doi: 10.1016/j.algal.2017.07.030
- 2017. Linking bacterial community structure to advection and environmental impact along a coast-fjord gradient of the Sognefjord, western Norway. Progress in Oceanography. 159: 13-30. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2017.09.002
- 2016. Absorption properties of high-latitude Norwegian coastal water: The impact of CDOM and particulate matter. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 178: 158-167. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2016.05.012
- 2016. Aragonite saturation states and pH in western Norwegian fjords: Seasonal cycles and controlling factors, 2005-2009. Ocean Science. 12: 937-951. doi: 10.5194/os-12-937-2016
- 2016. Specific metabolites in a Phaeodactylum tricornutum strain isolated from Western Norwegian fjord water. Marine Drugs. 14. 17 pages. doi: 10.3390/md14010009
- 2015. Impact of particulate and dissolved material on light absorption properties in a High-Altitude Lake in Tibet, China. Hydrobiologia. Published ahead of print. 17 pages. doi: 10.1007/s10750-015-2528-2
- 2015. Migratory behaviour of Skeletonema grethae (Bacillariophyceae) in stratified waters. Diatom Research. 30: 13-25. doi: 10.1080/0269249X.2014.943808
- 2015. Growth and diel vertical migration patterns of the toxic dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum in a water column with salinity stratification: the role of bioconvection and light. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 539: 47-64. doi: 10.3354/meps11488
- 2015. Chlorophyll a fluorescence lifetime reveals reversible UV-induced photosynthetic activity in the green algae Tetraselmis. European Biophysics Journal. Published ahead of print. doi: 10.1007/s00249-015-1092-z
- 2015. Top-down and bottom-up control on bacterial diversity in a western Norwegian deep-silled fjord. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 91:fiv076. doi: 10.1093/femsec/fiv076
- 2015. Response of Mytilus edulis to enhanced phytoplankton availability by controlled upwelling in an oligotrophic fjord. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 518: 139-152. doi: 10.3354/meps11036
- 2014. Environmental control of phytoplankton distribution and photosynthetic performance at the Jan Mayen Front in the Norwegian Sea. Journal of Marine Systems. 130: 193-205. doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2012.01.006
- 2014. Nutrients and phytoplankton biomass distribution and activity at the Barents Sea Polar Front during summer near Hopen and Storbanken. Journal of Marine Systems. 130: 181-192. doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2012.12.008
- 2014. Testing fluorescence lifetime standards using two-photon excitation and time-domain instrumentation: Rhodamine B, coumarin 6 and lucifer yellow. Journal of Fluorescence. 24: 1015-1024. doi: 10.1007/s10895-014-1368-1
- 2014. Infectious Salmon Anemia (ISA) virus: Infectivity in seawater under different physical conditions. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 26: 33-42. doi: 10.1080/08997659.2013.864720
- 2013. Light conditions and photosynthetic efficiency of phytoplankton in Murchison Bay, Lake Victoria, Uganda. Limnologica. 43: 185-193. doi: 10.1016/j.limno.2012.09.005
- 2012. Dynamics of phytoplankton distribution and photosynthetic capacity in a western Norwegian fjord during coastal upwelling: Effects on optical properties. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 97: 91-103. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2011.11.034
- 2012. Chlorophyll a and NADPH fluorescence lifetimes in the microalgae haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae) under normal and astaxanthin-accumulating conditions. Applied Spectroscopy. 66: 1216-1225. doi: 10.1366/12-06634
- 2011. Mueller matrix measurements of algae with different shape and size distributions. Applied Optics. 50: 5149-5157.
- 2010. Fine scale vertical displacement of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae) in stratified waters: Influence of halocline and day length on buoyancy control. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 384: 7-17. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2009.11.017
- 2010. Growth of scallop spat in a raceway nursery during autumn conditions in western Norwegian waters. Journal of Shellfish Research. 29: 45-54. doi: 10.2983/035.029.0125
- 2008. Could stratospheric ozone depletion lead to enhanced aquatic primary production in the polar regions? Limnology and Oceanography. 53: 332-338.
- 2007. Primary production enhancement by artificial upwelling in a western Norwegian fjord. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 352: 39-52. Published 2007-12-20. doi: 10.3354/meps07139
- 2007. Laboratory measurements of light scattering from marine particles. Limnology and Oceanography : Methods. 5: 34-40.
- 2007. Scattering properties of microalgae: the effect of cell size and cell wall. Applied Optics. 46: 5762-5769.
- 2005. UV transmission in Norwegian marine waters: controlling factors and possible effects on primary production and vertical distribution of phytoplankton. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 305: 79-100.
- 2004. Seasonal variability in inherent optical properties in a western Norwegian fjord. Sarsia. 89: 276-291. doi: 10.1080/00364820410002541
- 2004. Spring phytoplankton bloom dynamics in Norwegian coastal waters: Microbial community succession and diversity. Limnology and Oceanography. 49: 180-190.
- 2004. Spring phytoplankton bloom dynamics in Norwegian coastal waters: Microbial community succession and diversity. Limnology and Oceanography. 49: 180-190.
- 2003. New aspects of migratory behavior of phytoplankton in stratified waters: Effects of halocline strength and light on Tetraselmis sp. (Prasinophyceae) in an artificial water column. Limnology and Oceanography. 48: 1202-1213.
- 2003. Parameterisation and analysis of the optical absorption and scattering coefficients in a Western Norwegian fjord - A case II water study. Applied Optics. 42: 883-892.
- 2003. UV (280 to 400 nm) optical properties in a Norwegian fjord system and an intercomparison of underwater radiometers. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 256: 1-11.
- 2003. Det grøne gullet. UiB-magasinet : nytt fra Universitetet i Bergen. 1: 2-5.
- 1994. Environmental controls of the dynamics of harmful algal blooms in Norwegian waters, with contributions from the research programme "Harmful algae blooms". Proceedings published by Elsevier.
- 1991. Kartlegging av potensielle områder for skadelige planktonalger i norske farvann del 1: kyst og hav. Fisken og Havet. 4.
- 1990. Diel variations in photosynthetic activity of summer phytoplankton in Lindåspollene, western Norway. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 65: 73-85.
- 1989. Ecological studies on the phytoplankton of Boknafjorden, western Norway. 1. the effect of water exchange processes and environmental factors on temporal and verical variability of biomass. Sarsia. 74: 161-176.
- 1989. Ecological studies on the phytoplankton of Boknafjorden, western Norway. II. Environmental control of photosynthesis. Journal of Plankton Research. 11: 785-812.
- 1988. Phosphorus and nitrogen limitation of phytoplankton in the inner Oslofjord (Norway). Sarsia. 73: 229-243.
- 1984. Ecological studies on the phytoplankton of Korsfjorden, western Norway. The dynamics of a spring bloom seen in relation to hydrographical conditions and light regime. Journal of Plankton Research. 6: 67.
- 2000. FJORDCULT: Økt biologisk produksjon i fjorder ved kunstig oppstrømning av kystvann. Fisken og Havet. 11. Havforskningsinstituttet, Bergen. 30 pages.
- 1996. Primærproduksjonsforholdene i Ytre Oslofjord. Prosjektrapport. Havforskningsinstituttet. 19 pages.
- 1996. Mutagenesis and characterization of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase expressed in <I>E. coli</I>: Modulation of structure and function based on computer analysis (cand. scient. avhandling i bioteknologi). UiB.
- 1993. Administrativ sluttrapport for forskningsprogrammet "Skadelige alger". [Mangler utgivernavn].
- 2018. Sampling gears and equipment. Kapittel 3, pages 75-120. In:
- 2018. Marine Ecological Field Methods - A guide for marine biologists and fisheries scientists. John Wiley & Sons. 218 pages. ISBN: 9781119184300.
Scientific papers published in international journals:
Erga, S.R. and Heimdal, B.R. 1984. Ecological studies on the phytoplankton of Korsfjorden, western Norway. The dynamics of a spring bloom seen in relation to hydrographical conditions and light regime. J. Plankton Res. 6: 67-90
Erga, S.R. 1989. Ecological studies on the phytoplankton of Boknafjorden, western Norway. I. The effect of water exchange processes and environmental factors on temporal and vertical variability of biomass. Sarsia 74: 161-176
Erga, S.R. 1989. Ecological studies on the phytoplankton of Boknafjorden, western Norway. II. Environmental control of photosynthesis. J. Plankton Res. 11: 785-812
Erga, S.R. and Skjoldal, H.R. 1990. Diel variations in photosyntheticactivity of summer phytoplankton in Lindåspollene, western Norway. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 65: 73-85
Erga, S.R., Omar, A.M., Singstad, I., Steinseide, E. 1999. An optical detection system for the study of fine-scale vertical displacement of microalgae in an artificial water column. J. Phycol. 35:425-432
Erga, S.R., Dybwad, M., Frette, Ø., Lotsberg, J.K., Aursland, K. 2003. New aspects on migratory behaviour of phytoplankton in stratified waters: Effects of halocline strength and light on Tetraselmis sp. (Prasinophyceae) in an artificial water column. Limnol. Oceanogr. 48: 1202-1213
Erga, S.R., Aursland, K., Frette, Ø., Hamre, B., Lotsberg, J.K., Stamnes, J.J., Aure, J., Rey, F., Stamnes, K. 2005. UV transmission in Norwegian waters: controlling factors and possible effects on primary production and vertical distribution of phytoplankton. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 305: 79-100
Paasche, E., Erga, S.R. 1988. Phosphorus and nitrogen limitation of phytoplankton in the inner Oslofjord (Norway). Sarsia 73: 229-243
Frette, Ø., Erga, S.R., Stamnes, J.J., Stamnes, K. 2001. Optical remote sensing of waters with vertical structure. Appl. Opt. 40:1478-1487
Hamre, B., Frette, Ø., Erga, S.R., Stamnes, J.J., Stamnes, K. 2003. Parameterisation and analysis of the optical absorption and scattering coefficients in a Western Norwegian fjord – A case II water study. Appl. Opt. 42:883-892
Kjeldstad, B., Frette, Ø., Erga, S.R., Browman, H.I., Kuhn. P., Davis, R., Miller, W., Stamnes, J.J. 2003. UV (280-400 nm) optical properties in a Norwegian fjord system and an intercomparison of underwater radiometers. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 256: 1-11
Larsen, A., Flaten, G.A.F., Sandaa, R.A., Castberg, T., Thyrhaug, R., Erga, S.R. Jaquet, S., Bratbak, G. 2004. Spring phytoplankton bloom in Norwegian coastal waters: Microbial community dynamics, succession and diversity. Limnol. Oceanogr. 49: 180-190
Frette, Ø., Erga, S.R., Hamre, B., Aure, J., Stamnes, J.J. 2004. Seasonal variability in inherent optical properties in a western Norwegian fjord. Sarsia 89: 276-291
Lotsberg, J.K., Marken, E., Stamnes, J.J., Erga, S.R., Aursland, K., Olseng, C.D. 2007. Laboratory measurements of light scattering from marine particles. Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 5: 34-40
Svensen, Ø., Frette, Ø, Erga, S.R. 2007. Scattering properties of microalgae: the effect of cell size and cell wall. Appl. Optics 46: 5762-5769
Aure, J., Strand, Ø., Erga, S.R., Strohmeier, T. 2007. Primary production enhancement by artificial upwelling in a western Norwegian fjord. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 352: 39-52
Hamre, B., Stamnes, J.J., Frette, Ø, Erga, S.R., Stamnes, K. 2008. Could stratospheric ozone depletion lead to enhanced aquatic primary production in polar regions. Limnol. Oceanogr. 53: 332-338
Erga, S.R., Lie, G.C., Aarø, L.H., Aursland, K., Olseng, C.D., Frette, Ø., Hamre, B. 2010. Fine scale vertical displacement of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae) in stratified waters: Influence of halocline and day length on buoyancy control. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 384: 7-17
Magnesen, T., Erga, S.R., Christophersen, G. 2010. Growth of scallop spat in a raceway nursery during autumn conditions in western Norwegian coastal waters. J. Shellfish Res. 29: 45-54
Paulson, R., Knutsen, G., Erga, S.R. 2010. Isocitrate lyase activity patterns during cell cycle in synchronous cultures of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae). Alogological. Stud. 133: 43-64
Cand.real in Marine Biology, University of Bergen, 1980, Dr.Scient. in Marine Biology, University of Bergen, 1990 within the field: phytoplankton ecology and biological oceanography. Main interests: primary production, phytoplankton species succession, vertical distribution, optical properties, vertical displacements, element composition, UV effects on growth, photosynthetic response to environmental stress factors, weighting function for different species, life stage studies in synchronous cultures, exchange processes between coastal waters and fjord waters, deep maximum chlorophyll layers, stimulated primary production by artificial upwelling.
Initiation and conduction of special research projects – Projects funded by the Norwegian Research Council are: 1. “Pysiological effects of UV-radiation on key species of marine phytoplankton”, 1993-1995, in collaboration with senior scientist Francisco Rey, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen. 2. “Light and Life in Norwegian Waters (LLNW)”, a pilot project, 1997. 3. “LLNW - Program for Advanced equipment”, with the overall objective of purchasing optical equipment and instruments for laboratory and field measurements, 1998. 4. “LLNW”, a continuation and expansion of project 2, with the overall objective of developing optical instrumentation and methods to characterize optical properties, composition, underwater light levels, ocean colour, and primary production of high latitude coastal waters, 1998-2000. 5. “Light and Life in Icy Arctic Waters”, with the overall objective of modelling irradiance and primary production in a coupled atmosphere-snow-ice-ocean system, 2000-2002. 6. "Light and Life in African Environment", with the overall objective of studying the connection between light and life in Lake Victoria, in collaboration with Makarere University, Kampala, Uganda, 1998. 7. and “LLNW: Physics/Biology Based Approach to Satellite Monitoring of Primary Production and Algal Blooms”, with the overall objective of developing, implementing, testing, and validating quantitative algorithms for characterizing and monitoring marine constituents, underwater light levels, and primary production in Norwegian coastal waters from satellite measurements of ocean colour, medio 2002- medio 2005. All the “Light and Life” projects have been conducted in close collaboration with professor Jakob J. Stamnes and associated professor Øyvind Frette at the Department of Physics and Technology, UoB.
I also have a collaboration with the senior scientists Jan Aure and Øivind Strand, and scientist Tore Strohmeier at the Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Bergen since 2005. The work is executed in the Lysefjord, Rogaland (east of Stavanger) and is funded by the Strategic Institute Programme ”CANO; Carrying capacity in Norwegian Aquaculture" and the research programme "GATE; Growth performance and detoxification of mussels cultured in a fjord enhanced by forced upwelling of nutrients from deep water", both projects at IMR.