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Neurons, synapses, and the proteins required for their function are critical to the biology and behaviour of animals, but little is known about how they first evolved. In neurons, the transmission of chemical signals (called neuropeptides or neurotransmitters) from the presynapse to the postsynapse requires distinct sets of pre- and postsynaptic protein networks. Understanding when the proteins required for synaptic activity first evolved and how they functioned in the first animals promises to illuminate evolutionary processes underlying the origin of neurons. We are particularly interested in:
- The origin and functional evolution of synaptic proteins
- Co-option of these proteins into ancient synaptic scaffolds
- Evolution of the first neuron-like cell type in animals
We use a comparative approach and work with choanoflagellates, the closest unicellular relatives of animals, sponges, early branching animals with no synapses and neurons, and ctenophores, early branching animals with synapses and neurons, as model organisms. We aim to understand when the proteins required for synaptic activity first evolved, how they functioned at a molecular level and which combinations of synaptic proteins resulted in the origin of the synapse. Our approach is to use a variety of techniques, ranging from comparative genomics, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, current state-of-the-art biochemical methods to X-ray crystallography to study synaptic protein homologs in choanoflagellates, sponges and ctenophores. Through our work we will be able to reconstruct the evolutionary history of these proteins and understand the evolution of the first synapses and neurons.
- Laundon D, Larson B, McDonald K, King N, Burkhardt P (2018) The architecture of cell differentiation in choanoflagellates and sponge choanocytes. bioRxiv 452185.
- Morey C, Kienle CN, Klöpper TH, Burkhardt P and Fasshauer D (2017) Evidence for a conserved inhibitory binding mode between the membrane fusion assembly factors Munc18 and syntaxin in animals. JBC (292) 20449-20460.
- Burkhardt P and Sprecher SG (2017) Evolutionary origin of synapses and neurons – Bridging the gap. BioEssays (39) 1700024.
- Hoffmeyer TT and Burkhardt P (2016) Choanoflagellate models – Monosiga brevicollis and Salpingoeca rosetta. Curr. Opin. Gen. & Dev. (39) 42-47.
- Bhattacharyya M*, Stratton MM*, Going CC*, McSpadden E, Huang Y, Susa AC, Elleman A, Cao YM, Pappireddi N, Burkhardt P, Gee C, Barros T, Schulman H, Williams ER and Kuriyan J. Molecular mechanism of activation-triggered subunit exchange in Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. (2016) eLife 10.7554/eLife.13405 (*joint 1stauthor).
- Burkhardt P (2015) The origin and evolution of synaptic proteins – choanoflagellates lead the way. (2015) J Exp Biol (218), 506-514.
- Burkhardt P, Gronborg M, McDonald K, Tulur T, Wang Q and King N (2014) Evolutionary insights into premetazoan functions of the neuronal protein Homer. Mol. Biol. Evol. (31), 2342–2355.
- Demircioglu FD, Burkhardt P, Fasshauer D (2014) The SM protein Sly1 accelerates assembly of the ER-Golgi SNARE complex. PNAS (111), 13828-13833.
- Sebe-Pedros A*, Burkhardt P*, Sánchez-Pons N, Fairclough SR, Lang F, King N and Ruiz- Trillo I (2013) Insights into the origin of metazoan filopodia and microvilli. Mol. Biol. Evol. 30 (9): 2013-2023 (*joint 1st author).
- Colbert KN, Hattendorf DA, Weiss TM, Burkhardt P, Fasshauer D and Weis WI (2013) Syntaxin1a variants lacking an N-peptide or bearing the LE mutation bind to Munc18a in a closed conformation. PNAS 110 (31): 12637-42.
- Meijer M*, Burkhardt P*, de Wit H, Toonen RF, Fasshauer D and Verhage M (2012) Munc18-1 mutations that strongly impair SNARE-complex binding support normal synaptic transmission. EMBO Journal (31): 2156-2168 (*joint 1st author).
- Burkhardt P, Stegmann CM, Cooper B, Kloepper TH, Imig C, Varoqueaux F, Wahl MC and Fasshauer D (2011) Primordial neurosecretory apparatus identified in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis. PNAS, 108 (37): 15264-15269.
- Burkhardt P, Hattendorf DA, Weis WI, Fasshauer D (2008) Munc18 controls SNARE assembly through its interaction with the syntaxin N-peptide. EMBO Journal (27): 923-933.
Pawel Burkhardt is a research group leader at the Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology in Bergen, Norway. His research has the primary focus on using marine organisms to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie the origin of synapses and neurons. He studied Biology at the University of Göttingen, Germany and Manchester, UK and joined the lab of Dirk Fasshauer at the Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Germany for his Master's thesis and PhD, where he worked on rat and choanoflagellate (neuro-) secretory proteins (Burkhardt et al, 2008 EMBO J; Burkhardt et al, 2011 PNAS; Meijer*, Burkhardt et al, 2012 EMBO J). For his postdoc he studied choanoflagellate postsynaptic protein homologs, in the lab of Nicole King at the University of California, Berkeley, USA (Burkhardt et al, 2014 MBE; Bhattacharyya et al, 2016 eLife). Prior to starting his research group "Evolutionary Origin of Synapses and Neurons" at the Sars Centre in 2018 he worked as a Research Fellow at the Marine Biological Association, UK. He was awarded the Anne Warner endowed Fellowship in 2014 and the Royal Society University Research Fellowship in 2017.