Critical perspectives on health and disease MF9185 (MEDFL5185)
Free PhD-course titled "Critical perspectives on health and disease" at University of Oslo. The course is open to researchers and PhD-candidates. Master-students with strong interests in the topic are also welcome.
Most researchers in the medical and health sciences focus on health and disease, either directly or indirectly. But what do these basic concepts mean and what do they entail? Arguing that there is hardly a single answer to these questions, this course explores a variety of theories and perspectives on health, disease, sickness, and suffering. Specifically, the course will critically examine the various ways in which human health and disease is understood and engaged with in medicine and health sciences. By applying perspectives from philosophy, history, sociology, and anthropology the course aims to make you able to view medical and health research in a broader perspective, to see your research questions in new light, and to add to your abilities to interpret and understand data.
The course will investigate concepts, theories, and models of health and disease. In particular it will scrutinize various perspectives, knowledge systems, classification systems, and metaphors. The course will also investigate health management and governance, and analyze the relationship between power, interests, and gender in health and disease.
The course will use a combination of lectures, group work, video, and reflection notes in order to engage the participants in active reflection over basic concepts in health‐related research. It will actively use participants own research projects as examples.
This course will give you knowledge about
- various conceptions, definitions and explanations of health and disease
- historical perspectives on health and disease
- power and knowledge related to health and disease
- issues of equity and justice related to health and disease
- critical perspectives on health governance
- gendered perspectives on health and disease
- minority perspectives on health and disease
- critical perspectives on diagnoses and diagnostic systems
- critical perspectives on evidence and clinical guidelines related to health and disease
- anthropological and sociological perspectives on the body, health, and sickness
This course will give you skills to
- identify and apply a range of perspectives in reflection on basic concepts in health care and the life sciences (such as health and disease)
- consider own and others’ research questions and research undertakings in the light of critical
- draw on critical perspectives when analysing and interpreting data
This course will give you knowledge and skills that are helpful in
- exercising theoretical reflexivity
- reflecting on your own research and placing it in a wider landscape of science
- maintaining a critical attitude to established conceptions and paradigms in the life sciences and in health care
Christoph Gradmann, professor ‐ Department of Community Medicine and Global Health, UiO Dag Album, professor, Department of Sociology and Human Geography, UiO
Eli Feiring, associate professor at Department of Health Management and Health Economics, UiO Jeanette H. Magnus, senior advisor, Management Section, Faculty of Medicine, UiO
Kåre Moen, associate Professor ‐ Department of Community Medicine and Global Health, UiO Nina K. Vøllestad, professor and head of Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo.
Kari Nyheim Solbrække, professor, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, UiO Eivind Engebretsen, Vice‐Dean of Postgraduate Studies & Professor, Faculty of Medicine, UiO Vegard von Wachenfeldt MD, Department of Community Medicine and Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, UiO.
Bjørn Hofmann, professor, Institute for the health sciences, NTNU Gjøvik and Centre for medical ethics, HELSAM, UiO.
Each day you are asked to reflect on the relevance of the topics for your own research. You will make reflection notes which can become valuable entries for your exam (essay).
Each participant should put together an individual reading list of 350 pages where at least 200 pages stems from the core reading list of the course. The reading list has to be submitted by the end of the lectures.
The course entails a mix of lectures, discussions, group work, and presentation of reflection notes.
Take‐home course exam: write an essay that discusses a specific topic (e.g., from your own research) in the light of the perspectives discussed in the course. The essay should be between 7 and 10 pages and be submitted before September 18 at 16.00. Use Times New Roman font size 12, line spacing 1.5). The topic of the essay has to be approved of in advance and the content has to be within the scope and stated learning outcome of the course.
Professor Ingrid Christina Foss, Department of Nursing Science, HELSAM
Associate Professor Eli Feiring, Department of Health Management and Health Economics, HELSAM. Associate professor Kåre Moen, Department of Community Medicine and Global Health, HELSAM. Professor Bjørn Hofmann, NTNU Gjøvik and Centre for medical ethics, HELSAM.Course leader
Professor Bjørn Hofmann, Institute for the health sciences, NTNU Gjøvik and Centre for medical ethics, HELSAM, UiO.Place
Room 218 (to be confirmed), Fredrik Holsts Hus, Ullevål: https://www.uio.no/english/about/getting‐ around/areas/geitmyrsveien‐ulleval/gv05/.
Course plan (preliminary)
Concepts of health and disease
Perspectives on health and disease
Perspectives on health and disease (broad)
Power and knowledge in health and disease
Equity and justice in health and disease
09.00 – 09.45
Presentation and discussion of reflection notes
10.00 – 10.45
What is health and what is disease? Bjørn Hofmann
Perspectives on disease: Disease, Illness, Sickness. Bjørn Hofmann
Gender health and gendered perspectives on health and disease.
Kari Nyheim Solbrække*
Knowledge and power in handling health and disease
Health, disease, dys‐ function, disability in law and in clinical practice. Vegard von Wachenfeldt*
11.00 – 11.45
Concepts at work: the power of health and disease
Experiencing illness and well‐being
Historical perspectives on health and disease.
Critical perspectives on diagnoses and diagnostic systems. Bjørn Hofmann
Responsibility for health and disease: personal, professional, or public? Eli Feiring
11.45 – 12.30
12.30 – 13.15
How to define health and disease? Concepts, definitions, and theories Bjørn Hofmann
Valuing health and disease (ethics).
Biological, biomedical, and clinical perspectives on health and disease.
Nina K. Vøllestad*
Enhancing health and expanding disease: The dynamics of health and disease.
Measuring Health and Disease in a global and local perspective.
13.30 – 14.15
What is the relationship between health and disease? Bjørn Hofmann
The prestige hierarchy of diseases and its importance for the sick role, identity, and stigma.
Experiencing health and disease: anthropological perspectives. Kåre Moen
The practical making of health and disease: the role of technology.
Health and disease: critical perspectives, now and in the future
14.30 – 15.15
Group work on the concepts of health and disease
Group work on the various perspectives of health and disease
Group work on the various perspectives of health and disease
Group work on the power of knowledge about health and disease
Information about exam
15.30 – 16.00
Summary of group work
Summary of the day
Summary of the day
Summary of the day
Evaluation of the course
Based on the literature list below, course participants will set up their own reading lists for their participation in this course, choosing 400 pages from the following literature.
Album, Dag, Lars EF Johannessen, and Erik B. Rasmussen. "Stability and change in disease prestige: A comparative analysis of three surveys spanning a quarter of a century." Social Science & Medicine (2017).
Aronowitz R. Framing disease: an underappreciated mechanism for the social patterning of health. Social science & medicine. 2008;67(1):1‐9.
Aronowitz R. Making Sense of Illness: Science, Society, and Disease. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Boorse C. A Second Rebuttal on Health. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 2014; 39:683‐724. Boorse C. On the Distincion Between Disease and Illness. Philosophy and Public Affairs 1975;5: 49‐68. Carel H. Can I Be Ill and Happy? Philosophia, 2007; 35: 95–110
Clouser KD, Culver CM, Gert B. Malady. In: Almeder RF, Humber JM (eds). What is a disease? Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 1997: 173‐217. (Følgende kan være lettere å få tak i: Clouser, K. D., Culver, C. M., & Gert, B. (1981). Malady: a new treatment of disease. Hastings Cent Rep, 11(3), 29‐37.)
Conrad, Peter, and Kristin K. Barker. "The social construction of illness key insights and policy implications." Journal of health and social behavior 51.1 suppl (2010): S67‐S79.
Csordas, Thomas J. "Embodiment as a Paradigm for Anthropology." Ethos 18.1 (1990): 5‐47. D’Amico R. Is disease a natural kind? Jornal of Medicine and Philosophy 1995; 20: 551‐69.
Doust J, Vandvik PO, Qaseem A, Mustafa RA, Horvath AR, Frances A, et al. Guidance for Modifying the Definition of Diseases: A Checklist. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2017;177(7):1020‐5.
Feiring E. Lifestyle, responsibility and justice. Journal of Medical Ethics 2008;34:33‐36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jme.2006.019067
Fulford KW. ‘What is (mental) disease?’: an open letter to Christopher Boorse. Journal of Medical Ethics 2001;27:80–85.
Gabbay J, Le May A. Evidence based guidelines or collectively constructed “mindlines?” Ethnographic study of knowledge management in primary care. BMJ 2004 Oct 30;329(7473):1013.
Greenhalgh, Trisha. Evidence‐based medicine: A movement in crises? BMJ, 2014;348(3725)
Grue, Jan. Discourse analysis and disability: Some topics and issues. Discourse & Society 2011;22 (5):532‐546.
Haldar, Marit; Engebretsen, Eivind & Album, Dag (2015). Legitimating the illegitimate: How doctors manage their knowledge of the prestige of diseases. Health. ISSN 1363‐4593. . doi: 10.1177/1363459315596798
Hesslow G. Do we need a concept of disease. Theor Med 1993; 14, 1‐14.
Hofmann B. Complexity of the concept of disease as shown through rival theoretical frameworks. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2001; 22(3): 211‐37.
Hofmann B. Disease. In: ten Have H, ed. Encyclopedia of Global Bioethics: Springer International Publishing; 2015:1‐8
Hofmann B. Hva er sykdom? Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk, 2014. (229 sider)
Hofmann B. Medicalization and overdiagnosis: different but alike. Medicine, health care, and philosophy. 2016;19:253‐264.
Hofmann B. Simplified models of the relationship between health and disease. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2005; 26(5): 355 ‐ 377.
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