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CNA literature and software

This page collects relevant literature and software links.


  • September 21-25, 2020, Michael Baumgartner and Alrik Thiem (University of Lucerne) will hold a seminar on configurational causal modeling with a heavy focus on CNA at the Regenstrief Institute in Indianapolis.



Base package cna

The cna package provides all the functionalities required to analyze data by means of CNA.

  • On 05/13/2020, update 2.2.3 has been realised on CRAN.
  • On 06/12/2019, update 2.2.2 has been released on CRAN.
  • On 08/09/2019, update 2.2.1 has been released on CRAN.
  • On 13/04/2019, version 2.2.0 of the cna R-package has been released on CRAN.
  • On 13/06/2018, update 2.1.1 has been released on CRAN.
  • On 01/06/2018, version 2.1.0 of the cna R-package has been released on CRAN.

Add-on package cnaOpt

The cnaOpt package provides various functions for optimizing consistency and coverage scores of models of configurational comparative methods as CNA and QCA.

  • On 09/12/2019, update 0.1.1 has been released on CRAN.
  • On 21/10/2019, version 0.1.0 of the cnaOpt R-package has been released on CRAN.




The details of the most recent version of CNA, which is implemented in the cna package, are described here:

The following draft provides a theoretical introduction the functions of the cnaOpt package:

Older CNA versions are introduced/discussed here: