CNA literature and software

This page collects relevant literature and software links.


We divide the peer-reviewed CNA literature up into methodological pieces, which further develop CNA as a method or compare it to other methods, and applied pieces, which use CNA for data analysis purposes. A Zotero CNA Group library providing more detailed bibliographical information is available here. We also list recent PhD theses on or using CNA.


The details of the state of the art of the CNA method, as implemented in the cna R package, are described here:

The following paper introduces CNA robustness scoring, as implemented in the frscore R package:

The following paper discusses a protocol for finding optimally obtainable consistency and coverage scores for a given data set. (The algorithms introduced in this paper are implemented in the cnaOpt R package):

This paper compares CNA and QCA:

This paper compares CNA and Logic Regression:

Older versions of the CNA method are introduced/discussed here:



Book chapters

  • D. Cragun (2020), Configurational Comparative Methods, in: Handbook on Implementation Science, eds. P. Nilsen & S. A. Birken, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. doi:10.4337/9781788975995.00034.(First textbook or handbook in implementation science or health services research to mention CNA as an analytic method.)

PhD theses using or on CNA

  • Kelly Coates, 2021 (Portland State), “Affecting Absenteeism Through School-Based Health Services Delivery: A Configurational Comparative Methods Study of Oregon's Public Secondary Schools.” (First standalone use of CNA in an applied analysis in any doctoral-level dissertation in any subject.)
  • Jessica Dodge, 2021 (USC), “Exploring the Social Determinants of Health in a Population with Similar Access to Healthcare: Experiences from United States Active-Duty Army Wives.”(First formal pairing of CNA and QCA in an applied analysis in any doctoral-level dissertation in any subject.)
  • Christoph Falk, 2020 (University of Geneva), “Konfigurationales kausales Modellieren. Ein theoretisches Fundament und Verfahren für Kausalanalysen mit crisp-set Konfigurationen.”
  • Rebecca Whitaker, 2019 (UNC-Chapel Hill), “A Study of Preventable Hospital Utilization Among Medicaid-Insured Pediatric Patients in North Carolina’s Federally Qualified Health Centers.”(First doctoral-level dissertation in the United States to prominently feature CNA in an applied analysis.)
  • Rui Fernando Correia Ferreira, 2018 (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG/Brazil), “Estratégia de influência: O ganho de vantagens competitivas de empresas em suas relações com o Estado”. [ENG: “Influence strategy: Gaining competitive advantages for companies in their relations with the State”]
  • Sepheen Byron, 2022 (University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill). “State Medicaid Policy Levers Related to Successful Health Information Exchange Among Providers.”