Literature on CNA and using CNA
The methodological literature on CNA and the literature using CNA is constantly growing. This page provides an overview and attempts to keep track of the latest developments.
We divide the peer-reviewed CNA literature up into methodological pieces, which further develop CNA as a method or compare it to other methods, and applied pieces, which use CNA for data analysis purposes. A Zotero CNA Group library providing more detailed bibliographical information is available here. We also list recent PhD theses on or using CNA.
The details of the state of the art of the CNA method, as implemented in the cna R package, are described here:
M. Baumgartner and M. Ambühl (2021), cna: An R Package for Configurational Causal Inference and Modeling. R package vignette: The Comprehensive R Archive Network. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/cna/vignettes/cna_vignette.pdf.
M. Baumgartner and M. Ambühl (2020), Causal Modeling with Multi-Value and Fuzzy-Set Coincidence Analysis, Political Science Research and Methods 8, 526-542, doi: 10.1017/psrm.2018.45. Replication material at https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/YIEAF1; [penultimate draft]
The following paper introduces CNA robustness scoring, as implemented in the frscore R package:
- V.P. Parkkinen and M. Baumgartner (2021), Robustness and Model Selection in Configurational Causal Modeling, Sociological Methods & Research. [penultimate draft]
The following paper discusses a protocol for finding optimally obtainable consistency and coverage scores for a given data set. (The algorithms introduced in this paper are implemented in the cnaOpt R package):
- M. Baumgartner and M. Ambühl (2021), Optimizing Consistency and Coverage in Configurational Causal Modeling, Sociological Methods & Research. [penultimate draft]; [replication material].
This paper compares CNA and QCA:
M. Swiatczak (2021), Different Algorithms, Different Models, Quality & Quantity.
This paper compares CNA and Logic Regression:
M. Baumgartner and C. Falk (2021), Configurational Causal Modeling and Logic Regression, Multivariate Behavioral Research. [penultimate draft]; [replication material]
Older versions of the CNA method are introduced/discussed here:
M. Baumgartner and A. Thiem (2015), Identifying Complex Causal Dependencies in Configurational Data with Coincidence Analysis, The R Journal 7, 176-184. [penultimate draft]
M. Baumgartner (2009), Uncovering Deterministic Causal Structures: A Boolean Approach, Synthese 170, 71-96. [Springer Nature SharedIt] [penultimate draft]
Miech EJ, Perkins AJ, Zhang Y, Myers LJ, Sico JJ, Daggy J, Bravata DM (2022), Pairing regression and configurational analysis in health services research: modelling outcomes in an observational cohort using a split-sample design. BMJ Open; 12:e061469. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-061469
(This analysis of over 3000 cases uses a split-sample design and directly compares results from conducting CNA and logistic regression on the same dataset.)
Rich JA, Miech EJ, Bilal U, Corbin TJ (2022), How education and racial segregation intersect in neighborhoods with persistently low COVID-19 vaccination rates in Philadelphia, BMC Public Health 22, 1044, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-13414-3
(This article combines CNA and GIS to create a new "geoconfigurational" approach.)
Mulrooney M, Smith M, Sobieraj D, Shipley B, Miech E. (2022), Factors Influencing Primary Care Organization Commitment to Technical Assistance Services for Clinical Pharmacist Integration Using Configurational Comparative Methods. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, doi: 10.1016/j.japh.2022.03.019.
(This is the first article to apply CNA in pharmacy.)
Davis MM, Schneider JL, Petrik AF, Miech EJ, Younger B, Escaron AL, Rivelli JS, Thompson JH, Nyongesa D, Coronado GD (2022), Clinic Factors Associated With Mailed Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) Completion: The Difference-Making Role of Support Staff, Ann Fam Med. 20(2):123-129, doi: 10.1370/afm.2772.
Rattray, Nicholas, Edward J. Miech, Gala True, Diana Natividad, Brian Laws, Richard M. Frankel, and Marina Kukla (2022), Modeling Contingency in Veteran Community: A Mixed Approach, Journal of Mixed Methods Research. doi: 10.1177/15586898211059616.
(First publication to formally pair qualitative thematic analysis with CNA.)
Edianto, Achmed, Gregory Trencher, and Kazuyo Matsubae (2022), Why Do Some Countries Receive More International Financing for Coal-Fired Power Plants than Renewables? Influencing Factors in 23 Countries, Energy for Sustainable Development 66: 177–88, doi: 10.1016/j.esd.2021.12.004.
Winchester, B., Cragun, D., Redlinger-Grosse, K., et al., Zierhut, H. (2022), Application of motivational interviewing strategies with the extended parallel process model to improve risk communication for parents of children with familial hypercholesterolemia, Journal of Genetic Counseling, doi: 10.1002/jgc4.1554.
(First application of CNA in genetic counseling.)
- Yakovchenko V, Morgan TR, Miech EJ, et al., Rogal SS. (2022), Core implementation strategies for improving cirrhosis care in the Veterans Health Administration. Hepatology. 2022 Feb 6, doi: 10.1002/hep.32395.
(Hepatology has an impact factor of >17, ranking it among the Top 200 science journals in the world.)
Knott CL, Miech EJ, Slade J, Woodard N, Robinson-Shaneman BJ, Huq M. (2022), Evaluation of Organizational Capacity in the Implementation of a Church-Based Cancer Education Program. Glob Implement Res Appl. doi: 10.1007/s43477-021-00033-0
(First publication to apply CNA in health services research to health promotion activities outside of a traditional healthcare setting; first configurational study of any kind to appear in GIRA, a brand-new implementation science journal; open access.)
Dy SM, Acton RM, Yuan CT, Hsu YJ, et al., Scholle SH. (2022), Association of Implementation and Social Network Factors With Patient Safety Culture in Medical Homes. A Coincidence Analysis, The Journal of Patient Safety, Jan 1;18(1):e249-e256, doi: 10.1097/PTS.0000000000000752
(One of the first publications in health services research to list Coincidence Analysis in the title of an article; first 2022 CNA publication of any kind (officially published 01 January 2022).)
Schlick CJ, Huang R, Brajcich BC, Halverson, AL, Yang AD, Kreutzer L, et al. (2021), Unbundling bundles: Evaluating the effectiveness of individual colorectal surgical site infection reduction bundle elements in a statewide collaborative, Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, Nov 22 2021, doi: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000002223.
Swiatczak, M.D. (2021), Towards a neo-configurational theory of intrinsic motivation. Motivation and Emotion. doi: 10.1007/s11031-021-09906-1
(First CNA application in the behavioral sciences.)
- Miech, E.J., Freitag, M.B., Evans, R.R. et al. (2021), Facility-level conditions leading to higher reach: a configurational analysis of national VA weight management programming. BMC Health Serv Res 21, 797, doi: 10.1186/s12913-021-06774-w
(First publication anywhere to use the “7cs” solution visualization; open access.)
Cohen, D.J., Shannon M. Sweeney, William L. Miller, et al., Miguel Marino (2021), Improving smoking and blood pressure outcomes: The interplay between operational changes and local context, The Annals of Family Medicine, May 2021, 19 (3) 240-248, doi: 10.1370/afm.2668
(First application of CNA to appear in Annals of Family Medicine, the top-ranked peer-reviewed primary care research journal in North America; open access.)
Coury, J., E. Miech, P. Styer et al. (2021), What’s the “secret sauce?” How implementation variation affects the success of colorectal cancer screening outreach. Implement Sci Commun 2, 5, doi: 10.1186/s43058-020-00104-7
(First configurational study of any kind to appear in Implementation Science Communications, a relatively new implementation science journal; open access.)
Nunes, F. A. S. F., J. S. Freitas (2021), Combination of factors for the presence of the public: a look at the lower levels of football in Minas Gerais. Revista Intercontinental de Gestão Desportiva, 11 (e1122), 1-11. doi: 10.51995/2237-3373.v11i1e110022
Whitaker, R.G., N. Sperber, M. Baumgartner, et al. (2020), Coincidence analysis: a new method for causal inference in implementation science, Implementation Science 15, 108, doi: 10.1186/s13012-020-01070-3
(First time in its history that the journal Implementation Science – the top journal in the field – has ever published a full-length configurational analysis of any kind; > 7500 accesses to date; open access.)
Petrik, A., B. Green, J. Schneider et al. (2020), Factors influencing implementation of a colorectal cancer screening improvement program in community health centers: an applied use of configurational comparative methods, Journal of General Internal Medicine, doi: 10.1007/s11606-020- 06186-2.
(Article appeared in a special issue of JGIM devoted to implementation science; open access.)
Hickman, S. E., E. Miech et al. (2020), Identifying the Implementation Conditions Associated With Positive Outcomes in a Successful Nursing Facility Demonstration Project , The Gerontologist, 60(8) December 2020, 1566–1574, doi: 10.1093/geront/gnaa041
(The Gerontologist is one of the top three journals in gerontology; open access.)
Yakovchenko, V., E. Miech et al. (2020), Strategy Configurations Directly Linked to Higher Hepatitis C Virus Treatment Starts. An Applied Use of Configurational Comparative Methods, Medical Care 58(5), p. e31-e38, doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000001319
(Top-cited CNA publication in health services research; first published CNA article in health services research; first reference to using E. Miech’s msc routine for data reduction; appeared as part of “Applied Methods” section in Medical Care; open access.)
Moret, W. and L. Lorenzetti (2020), Realistic expectations: exploring the sustainability of graduation outcomes in a program for children affected by HIV in Kenya’s Northern Arid Lands. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. doi: 10.1080/17450128.2020.1738022
Haesebrouck, T. (2019), Who follows whom? A coincidence analysis of military action, public opinion and threats, Journal of Peace Research, doi: 10.1177/0022343319854787
(An exemplary CNA application in International Relations.)
Epple. R. and S. Schief (2016), Fighting (for) gender equality: the roles of social movements and power resources, Interface: a journal for and about social movements, Vol. 8, No.2., 394- 432.
Baumgartner, M. and R. Epple (2014), A Coincidence Analysis of a Causal Chain: The Swiss Minaret Vote, Sociological Methods & Research 43, 280-312. [penultimate draft]
(First study to ever apply CNA to real-life data.)
- Quintana, R. (2022), Embracing complexity in social science research, Quality & Quantity, doi: 10.1007/s11135-022-01349-1
Veri, F., and Barrowman, H. (2021), The added value of configurational meta-analyses, Swiss Political Science Review, doi: 10.1111/spsr.12485
M. Baumgartner and C. Falk (2019), Boolean Difference-Making: A Modern Regularity Theory of Causation, The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, doi: 10.1093/bjps/axz047
M. Baumgartner (2008), Regularity Theories Reassessed, Philosophia 36, 327-354.
D. Cragun (2020), Configurational Comparative Methods, in: Handbook on Implementation Science, eds. P. Nilsen & S. A. Birken, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. doi:10.4337/9781788975995.00034.
(First textbook or handbook in implementation science or health services research to mention CNA as an analytic method.)
PhD theses using or on CNA
- Kelly Coates, 2021 (Portland State), “Affecting Absenteeism Through School-Based Health Services Delivery: A Configurational Comparative Methods Study of Oregon's Public Secondary Schools.”
(First standalone use of CNA in an applied analysis in any doctoral-level dissertation in any subject.)
- Jessica Dodge, 2021 (USC), “Exploring the Social Determinants of Health in a Population with Similar Access to Healthcare: Experiences from United States Active-Duty Army Wives.”
(First formal pairing of CNA and QCA in an applied analysis in any doctoral-level dissertation in any subject.)
- Christoph Falk, 2020 (University of Geneva), “Konfigurationales kausales Modellieren. Ein theoretisches Fundament und Verfahren für Kausalanalysen mit crisp-set Konfigurationen.”
- Rebecca Whitaker, 2019 (UNC-Chapel Hill), “A Study of Preventable Hospital Utilization Among Medicaid-Insured Pediatric Patients in North Carolina’s Federally Qualified Health Centers.”
(First doctoral-level dissertation in the United States to prominently feature CNA in an applied analysis.)
- Rui Fernando Correia Ferreira, 2018 (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG/Brazil), “Estratégia de influência: O ganho de vantagens competitivas de empresas em suas relações com o Estado”. [ENG: “Influence strategy: Gaining competitive advantages for companies in their relations with the State”]
- Sepheen Byron, 2022 (University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill). “State Medicaid Policy Levers Related to Successful Health Information Exchange Among Providers.”