Mulige prosjekter til masteroppgaver
En kort presentasjon av veilederne finner du her.
What drives the fate of icebergs in the Arctic?
Being able to forecast the trajectory and decay of icebergs is an important issue both for safe navigation and fixed assets in the Arctic. Iceberg movements are driven by ocean currents, tides, winds, waves and sea ice motions, but which of these factors are the most important?
The master project will consist in testing an iceberg simulation module using high-quality forecasts of winds, currents and sea ice drift and comparing the simulations against icebergs tagged by the International Ice Patrol. The technical implementation of the iceberg model into the OpenDrift package is taken care of by researchers at NERSC and MET Norway. The work will consist in testing the respective contributions of tides, waves and sea ice on the trajectory and melting of icebergs.
The work will take place at NERSC, as part of the European funded project ACCIBERG, in collaboration with MET Norway and DMI, Denmark. The project will become the first freely available iceberg forecast, triggered on demand from a mobile phone.
The work can either be a 6-months full-time project from January to June 2024 or a more flexible arrangement finishing in June 2024.
Current and wave dynamics in inlets
The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) is planning the ‘Ferry Free’ E39 coastal highway route from Kristiansand to Trondheim. A substantial part of the existing E39 route will be upgraded with bridges, and various smaller inlets and fjords, such as Bårdsundet and Bokansundet, will need to be crossed. The bridges can be vulnerable to environmental forces like wind, waves, and currents during their construction phase. To help determine the environmental loads due to wave and currents, NPRA deployed a Nortek Signature500 Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) in Bårdsundet and Bokansundet, recording current velocity, waves, and pressure for three months. The aim of the analysis is to help characterise and better understand the wave and hydrodynamic environment at the location. More details here.
Contact: Øyvind Thiem (Statens vegvesen)
Overturning in the Nordic Seas
We offer several topics for MSc projects in physical oceanography through the "Resilient northern overturning in a warming climate" group (ROVER). The overall objectives of the group are to better understand the ocean-atmosphere interaction that leads to dense-water formation in the Nordic Seas, with particular focus on the marginal ice zone along east Greenland, and its importance to the global overturning circulation. Suggested topics are
- air-sea-ice interaction in the marginal ice zone east of Greenland
- water mass transformation in the Greenland and Iceland Seas
- boundary current dynamics
The approach will be to use a combination of shipborne and autonomous measurements as well as numerical models.
Contact: Kjetil Våge
Antarctic Polar oceanography
Shelf break exchange in the Weddell Sea
Why do warm water enter the continental shelf during summer but not in winter? The cross shelf break flow will be studied using results from laboratory experiments and/or numerical modelling supported by observations
Hydrography near an ice shelf front
How does the hydrography near an ice shelf front change throughout the year / from year to year? The hydrography will be studied using moored instrumentation and CTD profiles
Contact: Elin Darelius
Drivers of decadal variability in the Atlantic: role of wind stress
Climate predictions in the North Atlantic are especially promising on decadal timescales. However, what the major drivers of decadal variations in the North Atlantic is still uncertain. The atmosphere forces variability in the Atlantic, but is it only the heat fluxes or can the wind stress itself change the temperature and circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean on decadal timescales?
Tasks: Analyze the Atlantic Ocean circulation in an experiment with the Norwegian earth system model (NorESM) where observed wind stress is prescribed to the ocean surface over the Atlantic, and compare the circulation with a fully coupled historical simulation with the same model.
Current-induced wave refraction along great circles and their impact on the wave height variability
Refraction of ocean waves due to near-surface currents causes areas with focusing and de-focusing of wave energy, which pose a severe threat for navigation at sea. This project aims on further developing a recently published open-source ray tracing model in Python by solving the governing equations in spherical coordinates, as well as including other relevant functionality. The code will be applied on already existing wave buoy observations in the Agulhas current to further understand the physics behind the observed wave height variability. The student should be familiar with Python programming.
Lagrangian analysis of large scale North Atlantic dynamics
How are advection pathways affected by natural variability and abrupt changes in ocean circulation? Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the North Atlantic ocean may exhibit abrupt circulation changes. The characteristics and drivers of these changes pose a puzzle to the prediction of future changes in the North Atlantic. This project will investigate the pathways of the signals of abrupt decadal events using Lagrangian analysis of general ocean circulation models. The aim is to investigate and create an understanding for the physical processes involved. The project is part of the Bjerknes strategic project DYNASOR which aims to clarify how currents and other features of the North Atlantic Ocean interact. Fundamental programming knowledge is necessary; however, ample supervision and support will be provided.
Exchange of freshwater between the east Greenland shelf and the interior ocean basins
A high-resolution numerical simulation will be used to quantify the net freshwater flux from the east Greenland shelf into the interior basins of the western Nordic Seas. Freshwater in the interior basins inhibits dense-water formation through open-ocean convection. The exact locations and dynamical processes of the freshwater exchange will be identified (i.e., where the freshwater leaves the shelf and whether the freshwater export mainly follows advective pathways or occurs through instabilities in the East Greenland Current). Potentially, satellite data will complement the analysis to characterise the interannual variability of the freshwater movement.
Transformation of Atlantic Water in the East Greenland Current
In this project, a numerical model will be used to assess the transformation of Atlantic Water in the East Greenland Current, with particular focus on the potential for dense-water formation. The role of air-sea interaction, in particular modifications of both the atmosphere and ocean boundary layers, will be investigated in collaboration with meteorologists at GFI.
Water-mass transformation in the Atlantic Water Boundary Current system
In this project, historical hydrographic observations will be used to quantify the along-stream modification of the Atlantic Water in the boundary current system that encircles the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean.
High-frequency variability in the northwestern Iceland Sea
The northwestern Iceland Sea has not been studied much previously due to the lack of wintertime measurements. Only with the recent retreat of sea ice toward Greenland, this area has become more accessible. A mooring that was deployed in the northwestern Iceland Sea returned two-year long time series of temperature with a temporal resolution of up to 30 s. This unique data set will be used to investigate small-scale processes and high-frequency variability in the upper water column.
Klimatrender i kyst og fjordstrøk
Kombinere målinger fra Hardangerfjorden og faste overvåkningsstasjoner på kysten med NorKyst800, modellarkiv med 800m oppløsning langs hele norskekysten 1995-2020, for å identifisere endringer i det fysiske miljøet og mulige konsekvenser for fjordøkosystemene.
Kontaktperson: Mari Myksvoll (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Spredning av lakselus langs norskekysten
Kjøre partikkelspredningsmodell for lakselus langs hele norskekysten med det eksisterende modellarkivet NorKyst800 (1995-2020) for å kartlegge innstrømningsepisoder i ulike fjordsystemer, og diskuterer hvordan det fysiske miljøet påvirker bæreevnen for akvakultur i produksjonsområdene.
Kontaktperson: Mari Myksvoll (email@example.com)
Measuring ocean currents with an autonomous vessel
Near surface ocean current data are important for ocean trajectory predictions (e.g. for salmon lice, marine plastic and oil pollution). MET Norway is involved in a project led by Aanderaa Xylem where the Offshore Sensing SailBuoy (www.sailbuoy.no) has been equipped with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) for ocean current profiles near the surface. The project is sponsored by the Norwegian Research Council. The SailBuoy is world leading technology developed in Bergen and it was the first autonomous vessel to cross the Atlantic. This pioneering project will provide data that can be used for ocean model validation, for data assimilation and for comparison with other measurements such as permanent rigs and HF radars. The SailBuoy will carry out cruises along the coast of mainland Norway and hopefully on Svalbard. Publication of results in an international journal is highly likely.
Contact: Lars R. Hole (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Ocean Mixing Processes
We conduct observation-based research on ocean mixing processes. Typically data sets are already collected and available for analysis. But we also try to integrate the student in a research cruise for collecting own data for the Master's study.
- investigate the hydrography and mixing in Førdefjorden (using the high-quality data collected during the fjord oceanography class)
- internal wave field properties inferred from moored observations near Yermak Plateau, Arctic Ocean
- eddies in the Lofoten Basin (using data collected under the PROVOLO project)
- frontal processes across the Mohn Ridge inferred from shipboard and Seaglider observations (using data collected under the PROVOLO project)
Contact: Ilker Fer
Arctic Polar Oceanography and sea ice
We offer topics on the longer term changes and variability of sea ice and oceanography in the Arctic Ocean, using a mix of climate models, process models,and observations. The existing climate model simulations, through cooperation with the Climate group using the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM), can be used for evaluation and analysis.
- Barents Sea Ice Cover variability the last 450 years
- Rapid Ice Loss events in NorESM simulations
Contact: Lars Henrik Smedsrud
Stormflo i Sognefjorden
Sjøkartverket har en unik måleserie av vannstand på flere posisjoner i Sognefjorden. Målingene begynte i juli 2018, og pågår fremdeles. Det betyr at disse måleseriene dekker de to store stormflo episodene vi hadde i vinter 2019-2020, og vil gi ny innsikt i hvordan vannstand i Sognefjorden varierer med forskjellige pådrag fra atmosfære, tidevann og ferskvannsavrenning. Havforskingen har også strømmålere ute som dekker de samme episodene, og disse dataene vil være tilgjengelige for en Master student. Havforskingen kan også hjelpe til med modelleringsdata. Studenten får dermed tilgang til veiledning fra to av våre institusjoner som ansetter mange oseanografer: Sjøkartverket og Havforskingsinstituttet.
Kontakt på GFI: Elin Darelius
A wave energy climatology for Norwegian waters.
The wave energy flux is the relevant quantity for estimating the potential for wave energy production. Using the 10-km resolution hindcast archive NORA10 which spans the period 1957 to present, the student will investigate the wave energy potential in Norwegian waters. The NORA10 archive was developed and is maintained by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute and is the authoritative reference data set for historical wind and wave climate in the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea and the BarentsSea.
Supervisor: Øyvind Breivik (email@example.com)
Wave effects in the upper ocean.
The ocean surface boundary layer is influenced by the presence of surface waves. The waves affect the ocean through wave breaking, modification of the momentum flux from the atmosphere (wind stress) and through the Stokes drift, a second-order wave effect that causes material transport. The NEMO model has recently been set up on a regional scale and can be used to quantify the impact of the wave field on a high-resolution ocean model. Relevant questions are how the upwelling and the mixing is affected by waves in the North Sea. Good coding skills are required.
Supervisors: Øyvind Breivik (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Lichuan Wu (SMHI)
Bølgeenergipotensiale fra Runde bølgekraftverk
Analyse av to år med simuleringer fra bølgemodellen SWAN som er kjørt for Runde ved Runde Miljøsenter og Meteorologisk institutt. Oppgradere modellen med finere oppløsning. Waves4Power http://www.waves4power.com/projects/ er igang med å installere deres prototype WaveEL ved Runde. Analysen av bølgedata kan ha som formål å beregne bølgeenergien for denne lokalitet, og bølgeklimaet i området. Artikkel vedlagt. Det er mulighet for å sitte på Runde i en periode.
Veileder: Birgitte Furevik
Vindklima i norske fjorder beregnet med syntetisk aperturradar (SAR):
SAR-bilder leverer observasjoner av havoverflaten som kan omdannes til detaljerte vindfelter. Vindobservasjoner er mangelvare i kystområder og oppgaven går på å analysere vinden i norske fjorder med SAR, in situ-observasjoner og den operasjonelle værvarslingsmodellen AROME.
Veileder: Birgitte Furevik (email@example.com)
Geophysical modelling of real oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico.
A generic ocean trajectory framework (OpenDrift) has recently been developed at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute. Through partners in Florida we have obtained satellite observations (shape files) describing the development of a real spill from the Taylor pipeline in the Gulf of Mexico over several days. Ocean surface drifter data from the region are also available. A master student is sought to run experiments with the Open Oil module using various parameterizations and to compare with observations for analysis. Forcing will be provided from a high resolution ocean model and atmospheric and wave models from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). The project will involve collaboration with the University in Miami and other US partners, and travels to Florida can be expected. The student should be confident in Python programming.
Supervisor: Lars Robert Hole (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Storm surge modeling in Vietnam using ROMS and analytical models.
The Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET Norway) collaborates with the National Hydro-Meteorological Service of Vietnam (NHMS) on a capacity building project sponsored by the Norwegian government. The main purpose of the project is geohazard disaster prevention. NHMS plan to upgrade their ocean model system to the Regional Ocean Models System (ROMS) (http://myroms.org). MET Norway uses ROMS in a nested configuration from 20km (entire Arctic Ocean) to 4km to 800m(the Norwegian coast). This model system also acts as input for the oil drift and search and rescue models. In this master project we propose to use a simple 2D setup of ROMS and compare with tidal observation in Vietnam. Vietnam currently has 17 operational tidal stations with hourly or 6 hourly observations. The data can also be compared with analytical formulas. The work will involve numerical simulations and statistical analysis. The student will collaborate with scientists at MET Norway and NHMS and can also expect to travel to Vietnam.
Supervisor: Lars R. Hole (email@example.com) at MET Norway, Bergen.