Guidelines for writing essays/articles
Guidelines for submission of an Essay Assignement or Article
- The paper should be 4000-7000 words in length, including an abstract of usually no more than 300 words and 4-8 keywords, but excluding references (unless otherwise stated in the course documentation).
- The paper can be written in English or Norwegian.
- The paper should be based upon the oral presentation given by the candidate at the GRS seminar, and should take into account the feedback given during the course and/or presentation.
- The candidate is free to choose the format of the paper i.e. whether it is theoretical or empirical in nature. Choice of format should be specified when submitting the essay
- Standard academic requirements concerning form, argument, use of references etc. should be respected (within the conventions of the discipline, research field, and genre in question).
- The paper should clearly demonstrate the appropriate academic knowledge, skills and competences expected of doctoral level written work. (See Uib general guidelines for required learning outcomes for Ph.d Candidates)
- If audio-visual material is used during the oral presentation, candidates should submit this together with the written paper, if feasible and ethically appropriate. If the paper is submitted without supplementary audio-visual materials candidates must ensure that the text is intelligible and complete without it.
- The paper should not have been submitted previously to other PhD courses where credits have been granted.
The GRS offers the following guidelines about co-authored essays:
- Candidates are offered the option of submitting co-authored essays.
- Permission to submit a co-authored essay must be gained from the Scientific Advisory board before the essay is submitted.
- The candidate must be the first author.
- The essay should be accompanied by an exact description of the roles of both the candidate and the co-author.
- A co-authored article will give the same amount of credits as a single authored article.
- Candidates should follow the University of Bergen guidelines regarding plagiarism. Follow this link for further information Plagiarism and Research Misconduct.
- The GRS recommends that candidates use either the APA or Chicago styles for referencing/citations (see APA Style Manual and Chicago Manual of Style for more information).