Home
Trygve Skjold's picture

Trygve Skjold

Associate Professor, process safety technology
  • E-mailTrygve.Skjold@uib.no
  • Visitor Address
    Allégaten 55
    5007 Bergen
    Room 
    381
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7803
    5020 BERGEN

Journal publications

Lucas, M., Skjold, T. & Hisken, H. (2019). CFD simulations of hydrogen releases and vented deflagrations in large enclosures. Submitted to Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries.

Ghaffari, M., Hoffmann, A.C., Skjold, T., Eckhoff, R.K. & van Wingerden, K. (2019). A brief review on the effect of particle size on the laminar burning velocity of flammable dust: application in a CFD tool for industrial applications. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 62: 5 pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2019.103929

Skjold, T., Hisken, H., Lakshmipathy, S., Atanga, G., van Wingerden, M., Olsen, K.L., Holme, M.N., Turøy, N.M., Mykleby, M.  & van Wingerden, K. (2019). Vented hydrogen deflagrations in containers: effect of congestion for homogeneous and inhomogeneous mixtures. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44: 8819-8832. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.10.010

Skjold, T., Hisken, H., Lakshmipathy, S., Atanga, G., Carcassi, M., Schiavetti, M., Stewart, J.R., Newton, A., Hoyes, J.R., Tolias, I.C., Venetsanos, A.G., Hansen, O.R., Geng, J., Huser, A., Helland, S., Jambut, R., Ren, K., Kotchourko, A., Jordan, T., Daubech, J., Lecocq, G., Hanssen, A.G., Kumar, C., Krumenacker, L., Jallais, S., Miller, D. & Bauwens, C.R. (2019). Blind-prediction: estimating the consequences of vented hydrogen deflagrations for homogeneous mixtures in 20-foot ISO containers. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44: 8997-9008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.06.191

Skjold, T., Hisken, H., Bernard, L., Mauri, L., Atanga, G., Lakshmipathy, S., Lucas, M., Carcassi, M., Schiavetti, M., Rao, V.C.M., Sinha, A., Tolias, I.C., Giannissi, S.G., Venetsanos, A.G., Stewart, J.R., Hansen, O.R., Kumar, C., Krumenacker, L., Laviron, F., Jambut, R. & Huser, A. (2019). Blind-prediction: estimating the consequences of vented hydrogen deflagrations for inhomogeneous mixtures in 20-foot ISO containers. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 61: 220-236. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2019.06.013

Lakshmipathy, S., Skjold, T., Hisken, H. & Atanga, G. (2019). Consequence models for vented hydrogen deflagrations: CFD vs engineering models. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44: 8699-8710. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.08.079

Atanga, G., Lakshmipathy, S., Skjold, T., Hisken, H. & Hanssen, A.G. (2019). Structural response for vented hydrogen deflagrations: coupling CFD and FE tools. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44: 8893-8903. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.08.085

Castellanos, D., Carreto, V., Skjold, T., Chaudhari, P. & Mannan, M.S. & Mashuga, C. (2018). Construction of a 36-L dust explosion apparatus and turbulence flow field comparison with a standard 20-L dust explosion vessel. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 55: 113-123, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2018.05.014

Skjold, T. (2018). Dust explosion modelling: status and prospects. Particulate Science and Technology, 36: 489-500, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02726351.2017.1389790

Skjold, T., Souprayen, C. & Dorofeev, S. (2018). Perspective: fires and explosions. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 64: 2-3. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2017.09.003

van Wingerden, K., Ghaffari, M. & Skjold, T. (2017). Simulation of dust explosions: new developments. Sichere Handhabung brennbarer Stäube 2017, Nurnberg, 24-25 October 2017, VDI-Berichte, 2314: 221-231. ISBN 978-3-18-092314-7.

Henriksen, M., Bjerketvedt, D., Vaagsaether, K., Gaathaug, A.V., Skjold, T. & Middha, P. (2017). Accidental hydrogen release in a gas chromatograph laboratory: a case study. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 42: 7651-7656. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.05.299

Skjold, T., Siccama, D., Hisken, H., Brambilla, A, Middha, P., Groth, K.M. & LaFleur, A.C. (2017). 3D risk management for hydrogen installations. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 42: 7721-7730. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.07.006

Ghaffari, M., van Wingerden, K., Gjøvåg Hagen, J.-T., Skjold, T. & Storvik, I.E. (2016). Sensitivity analysis of dust explosion consequences in a roller mill using FLACS-DustEx. Fifteenth International Symposium on Loss Prevention and Safety Promotion in the Process Industries, Freiburg, 5-8 June 2016, published in Chemical Engineering Transactions, 48: 157-162. ISBN 978-88-95608-44-0, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3303/CET1653027

Skjold, T. & Eckhoff, R.K. (2016). Dust explosions in the process industries: research in the twenty-first century. Fifteenth International Symposium on Loss Prevention and Safety Promotion in the Process Industries, Freiburg, 5-8 June 2016, published in Chemical Engineering Transactions, 48: 337-342. ISBN 978-88-95608-39-6, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3303/CET1648057

Gant, S.E., Narasimhamurthy, V.D., Skjold, T., Jamois, D. & Proust, C. (2014). Evaluation of multi-phase atmospheric dispersion models for application to carbon capture and storage. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 32: 286-298. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2014.09.014

Woolley, R.M., Fairweather, M., Wareing, C.J., Falle, S.A.E.G., Mahgerefteh, H., Martynov, S., Brown, S., Narasimhamurthy, V.D., Storvik, I.E., Sælen, L., Skjold, T., Economou, I.G., Tsangaris, D.M., Boulougouris, G.C., Diamantonis, N., Cusco, L., Wardman, .M., Gant, S.E., Wilday, J.,  Zhang, Y.C., Chen, S., Proust, C., Hebrard, J. & Jamois, D. (2014). CO2PipeHaz: Quantitative hazard assessment for next generation CO2 pipelines. Energy Procedia, 63: 2510–2529. Special issue, Twelfth International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT-12). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.274

Woolley, R.M., Fairweather, M., Wareing, C.J., Proust, C., Hebrard, J., Jamois, D., Narasimhamurthy, V.D., Storvik, I.E., Skjold, T., Falle, S.A.E.G., Brown, S., Mahgerefteh, H., Martynov, S., Gant, S.E., Tsangaris, D.M., Economou, I.G., Boulougouris G.C. &  Diamantonis, N.I. (2014). An integrated, multi-scale modelling approach for the simulation of multiphase dispersion from accidental CO2 pipeline releases in realistic terrain. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 27: 221-238. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.06.001

Skjold, T., Castellanos, D., Olsen, K.L. & Eckhoff, R.K. (2014). Experimental and numerical investigations of constant volume dust and gas explosions in a 3.6-m flame acceleration tube. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 30: 164-176. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2014.05.010

Dahoe, A.E., Skjold, T., Roekaerts, D.J.E.M., Pasman, H.J., Eckhoff, R.K., Hanjalic, K. & Donze, M. (2013). On the application of the Levenberg–Marquardt method in conjunction with an explicit Runge–Kutta and an implicit Rosenbrock method to assess burning velocities from confined deflagrations. Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, 91: 281-317. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10494-013-9462-z

Castellanos, D., Skjold, T., van Wingerden, K., Eckhoff, R.K. & Mannan, M.S. (2013). Validation of the DESC code in simulating the effect of vent ducts in dust explosions. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 52: 6057-6067. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie4004943

Skjold, T. & van Wingerden, K. (2013). Investigation of an explosion in a gasoline purification plant. Process Safety Progress, 32: 268-276. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prs.11584

Skjold, T., Pedersen, H.H., Bernard, L., Middha, P., Narasimhamurthy, V.D., Landvik, T., Lea, T & Pesch, L. (2013). A matter of life and death: validating, qualifying and documenting models for simulating flow-related accident scenarios in the process industry. Fourteenth International Symposium on Loss Prevention and Safety Promotion in the Process Industries, Florence, 12-15 May 2013, published in Chemical Engineering Transactions, 31: 187-192. ISBN 978-88-95608-22-8, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3303/CET1331032

Hossain, M.N., Amyotte, P.R., Khan, F.I., Abuswer, M.A., Skjold, T. & Morrison, L.S. (2013). Dust explosion quantitative risk management for non-traditional dusts. Fourteenth International Symposium on Loss Prevention and Safety Promotion in the Process Industries, Florence, 12-15 May 2013, published in Chemical Engineering Transactions, 31: 115-120. ISBN 978-88-95608-22-8, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3303/CET1331020

Kosinski, P., Nyheim, R., Asokan, V. & Skjold, T. (2013). Explosions of carbon black and propane hybrid mixtures. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 26: 45-51. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2012.09.004

Skjold, T., Olsen, K.L. & Castellanos, D. (2013). A constant pressure dust explosion experiment. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 26: 562-570. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2012.08.003

van Wingerden, K., Skjold, T. & Siwek, R. (2009). Simulation von Staubexplosionen in Sprühtrocknen. Technische Überwachung, 50 (5): 18-22 (in German). ISSN 0376-1185.

Pu, Y.K., Jiaa, F., Wanga, S.F. & Skjold, T. (2007). Determination of the maximum effective burning velocity of dust–air mixtures in constant volume combustion. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 20: 462-469. ISSN 0950-4230, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2007.04.036

Skjold, T. (2007). Review of the DESC project. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 20: 291-302. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2007.04.017

Skjold, T., Arntzen, B.J., Hansen, O.J., Storvik, I.E. & Eckhoff, R.K. (2006). Simulation of dust explosions in complex geometries with experimental input from standardized tests. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 19: 210-217. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2005.06.005

Skjold, T., Arntzen, B.J., Hansen, O.R., Taraldset, O.J., Storvik, I.E. & Eckhoff, R.K. (2005). Simulating dust explosions with the first version of DESC. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 83 (B2): 151-160. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1205/psep.04237

 

Edited publications

Taveau, J. & Skjold. T. (2018). Proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention, and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions (XII ISHPMIE), Kansas City, 12-17 August 2018, Edited by Jérôme Taveau & Trygve Skjold: 1210 pp. ISBN: 978-1-5323-8443-1 (PDF).

Skjold, T. (2015). Editorial: Tenth International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention, and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 36: 185. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2015.06.012

Skjold, T., Eckhoff, R.K. & van Wingerden, K. (2014). Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention, and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions (X ISHPMIE), Bergen, 10-14 June 2014, Edited by Trygve Skjold, Rolf K. Eckhoff & Kees van Wingerden: 1726 pp. ISBN: 978-82-999683-0-0 (PDF).

 

Selected reports

Skjold, T. (2019). HySEA: Second and final periodic technical report from the HySEA project. Improving hydrogen safety for energy applications through pre-normative research on vented deflagrations (HySEA), Report HySEA‐D5.13‐2019, Bergen, 1 July 2019, Confidential: 50 pp.

Skjold, T. (2018). Experimental investigation of vented hydrogen deflagrations in containers: homogeneous and inhomogeneous mixtures. Improving hydrogen safety for energy applications through pre-normative research on vented deflagrations (HySEA), Report HySEA-D2-08-2018, Bergen, 30 November 2018: 638 pp.

Skjold, T., Hisken, H., Atanga, G., Narasimhamurthy, V.D., Lakshmipathy, S., Storvik, I.E., Pesch, L. & Braatz, A.-L. (2017). Final Report: ‘Modelling Escalating Accident Scenarios and the Use of Risk-reducing technology for Explosion safety’ (MEASURE), March 2017, Joint industry project (JIP) sponsored by Statoil Petroleum, ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Total E&P Norge, ENGIE, GL Industrial Services UK and BP Exploration Operating Company. Report Gexcon-17-F46241-C-01, rev. 10, Confidential: 355 pp.

Skjold, T., van Wingerden, K., Storvik, I.E., Pesch, L., Melheim, J.A., Ichard, M., Narasimhamurthy, V.D., Middha, P., Pedersen. H.H., Bernard, L., Hansen, O.R., Lilleberg, B. & Khalil, M. (2013). Final report: ‘FLACS 2011 and beyond’, February 2013, Joint industry project (JIP) sponsored by Statoil Petroleum, ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Total E&P Norge and IRSN. Gexcon Gexcon-13-F46240-C-1, rev. 007, Confidential.

Skjold, T., van Wingerden, K., Abiven, R. & Larsen, Ø. (2008). Ulykkesgranskning etter eksplosjon ved Vest Tank på Sløvåg Industriområde. GexCon-08-F45543-O-1, Rev. 02, Open report (in Norwegian): 67 pp.

Skjold, T., van Wingerden, K., Abiven, R. & Larsen, Ø. (2008). Accident investigation following the Vest Tank explosion at Sløvåg. GexCon-08-F45543-O-1, Rev. 03, Open report: 67 pp.

Skjold, T., Arntzen, B.J., Storvik, I.E. & Hansen, O.R. (2005). Modelling in DESC version 1.0b3. Report GexCon-05-F46200-2, Bergen, Norway, Confidential: 112 pp.

Skjold, T., Hansen, O.R. & Storvik, I.E. (2005). Validating DESC – Version 1.0b3. Report GexCon-05-F46200-3, Bergen, Norway, Confidential: 50 pp.

 

Conference papers

Lucas, M., Hisken, H. & Skjold, T. (2019). Simulating vented hydrogen deflagrations: improved modelling in the CFD tool FLACS-Hydrogen. Accepted for oral presentation at Eighth International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS 2019), Adelaide, 24-26 September 2019.

Skjold, T., Lucas, M., Hisken, H., Atanga, G., Lakshmipathy, S., Bernard, L., van Wingerden, K., Wen, J., Rao, V.C.M., Sinha, A., Carcassi, M., Schiavetti, M., Pini, T., Snoeys, J., Hanssen, A.G., Wang, C., Jallais, S., Vyazmina, E., Miller, D. & Bauwens, C.R. (2018). Summary of the HySEA project. FABIG Newsletter (in press).

Skjold, T., Hisken, H., Bernard, L. & Hanssen, A.G. (2019a). Structural response of 20-foot shipping containers during vented hydrogen deflagrations. Twenty-Seventh International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems (27 ICDERS), Beijing, 28 July – 2 August 2019, 6 pp.

Skjold, T. (2019). Vented hydrogen deflagrations in weak enclosures: experimental results and implications for industrial practice. Accepted for presentation at Sixteenth International Symposium on Loss Prevention and Safety Promotion in the Process Industries, Delft, 16-19 June 2019.

Skjold, T., Hisken, H., Bernard, L., Mauri, L., Atanga, G., Lakshmipathy, S., Lucas Pérez, M., Carcassi, M., Schiavetti, M., Rao, V.C.M., Sinha, A., Tolias, I.C., Giannissi, S.G., Venetsanos, A.G., Stewart, J.R., Hansen, O.R., Kumar, C., Krumenacker, L., Laviron, F., Jambut, R. & Huser, A. (2018b). Blind-prediction: estimating the consequences of vented hydrogen deflagrations for inhomogeneous mixtures in 20-foot ISO containers. Proceedings Twelfth International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions (XII ISHPMIE), ISBN 978-1-5323-8443-1, Kansas City, 12-17 August 2018: 875-898. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2600761

Skjold, T. (2018). Vented hydrogen deflagrations in 20-foot ISO containers. Proceedings Twelfth International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions (XII ISHPMIE), ISBN 978-1-5323-8443-1, Kansas City, 12-17 August 2018: 823-846. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2603985

Atanga, G., Lakshmipathy, S., Skjold, T., Hisken, H. & Hanssen, A.G. (2017). Structural response for vented hydrogen deflagrations: coupling CFD and FE tools. Proceedings Seventh International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS 2017), Paper # 224, Hamburg, 11-13 September 2017: 378-387. ISBN 978-88-902391. ISBN 978-88-902391. URL: https://www.hysafe.info/wp-content/uploads/2017_papers/224.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1165356

Skjold, T., Hisken, H., Lakshmipathy, S., Atanga, G., Carcassi, M., Schiavetti, M., Stewart, J.R., Newton, A., Hoyes, J.R., Tolias, I.C., Venetsanos, A.G., Hansen, O.R., Geng, J., Huser, A., Helland, S., Jambut, R., Ren, K., Kotchourko, A., Jordan, T., Daubech, J., Lecocq, G., Hanssen, A.G., Kumar, C., Krumenacker, L., Jallais, S., Miller, D. & Bauwens, C.R. (2017). Blind-prediction: estimating the consequences of vented hydrogen deflagrations for homogeneous mixtures in 20-foot ISO containers. Proceedings Seventh International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS 2017), Paper # 225, Hamburg, 11-13 September 2017: 639-652. ISBN 978-88-902391. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1165364

Lakshmipathy, S., Skjold, T., Hisken, H. & Atanga, G. (2017). Consequence models for vented hydrogen deflagrations: CFD vs. engineering models. Proceedings Seventh International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS 2017), Paper # 222, Hamburg, 11-13 September 2017: 615-626. ISBN 978-88-902391. URL: https://www.hysafe.info/wp-content/uploads/2017_papers/222.pdf ISBN 978-88-902391. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1165350

Skjold, T., Hisken, H., Lakshmipathy, S., Atanga, G., van Wingerden, M., Olsen, K.L., Holme, M.N., Turøy, N.M., Mykleby, M.  & van Wingerden, K. (2017). Vented hydrogen deflagrations in containers: effect of congestion for homogeneous mixtures. Proceedings Seventh International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS 2017), Paper # 223, Hamburg, 11-13 September 2017: 591-603. ISBN 978-88-902391. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.998039

Skjold, T., Hisken, H., Lakshmipathy, S., Atanga, G., van Wingerden, M., Olsen, K.L., Holme, M.N., Turøy, N.M., Mykleby, M & van Wingerden, K. (2017). Influence of congestion on vented hydrogen deflagrations in 20-foot ISO containers: homogeneous fuel-air mixtures. Twenty-Sixth International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems (26 ICDERS), Boston, 30 July – 4 August 2017, 6 pp. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1218170

Ghaffari, M., Mauri, L., Skjold, T., Hoffmann, A.C., van Wingerden, K. & Eckhoff, R.K. (2017). Improved modelling of particle-laden flow in the CFD simulator FLACS-DustEx. Fifth International Symposium of Reliable Flow of Particulate Solids (RELPOWFLO V), 13-15 June 2017, Skien, Norway: 6 pp.

Skjold, T. (2016). Dust explosion modelling: status and prospects. Second International Conference on Powder, Granule and Bulk Solids: Innovations and Applications (PGBSIA 2016), Hotel Ramada, Jaipur, India, 1-3 December 2016, 6 pp.

Hisken, H., Atanga, G., Skjold, T., Lakshmipathy, S. & Middha, P. (2016). Validating, documenting and qualifying models used for consequence assessment of hydrogen explosion scenarios. Proceedings Eleventh International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions (11 ISHPMIE), Dalian, 24-29 July 2016: 1069-1086. ISBN 978-7-89437-165-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.581649

Ghaffari, M., Skjold, T., van Wingerden, K., Hisken, H., Eckhoff, R.K. & Hoffmann, A.C. (2016). A model validation framework for the explosion simulator FLACS-DustEx: challenges, limitations and possibilities. Proceedings Eleventh International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions (11 ISHPMIE), Dalian, 24-29 July 2016: 223-238. ISBN 978-7-89437-165-2.

Bernard, L., Pugh, D.G., Bowen, P.J., Crayford, A.P., De la Rosa, D. & Skjold, T. (2016). Experimental investigation of multi-phase combustion with a modified Cardiff combustion bomb. Proceedings Eighth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards (8 ISFEH), 25-28 April 2016, Hefei, China, Chao, J., Liu, N.A. Molkov, V., Sunderland, P., Tamanini, F. & Torero, J. (eds.), published by USTC Press: 591-601. ISBN 978-7-312-04104-4, DOI: https://doi.org/10.20285/c.sklfs.8thISFEH.059

Skjold, T. (2016). Revisiting an accident in a gasoline purification plant. Proceedings Eighth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards (8 ISFEH), 25-28 April 2016, Hefei, China, Chao, J., Liu, N.A. Molkov, V., Sunderland, P., Tamanini, F. & Torero, J. (eds.), published by USTC Press: 776-786. ISBN 978-7-312-04104-4, DOI: https://doi.org/10.20285/c.sklfs.ISFEH.077

Narasimhamurthy, V.D., Mauri, L., Lakshmipathy, S., Skjold, T., Chen, S. & Zhang, Y.C. (2015). Large-scale release and dispersion of CO2: Experiments and simulation. 2015 AIChE Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, 8-13 November 2015: 8 pp. ISBN: 978-0-8169-1094-6.

Zdravistch, F., Siccama, D. & Skjold, T. (2015). Gestão de Riscos em 3D para Instalações de Hidrogênio. ABRISCO 2015 and Topical PSAM Meeting on Safety and Reliability of O&G Exploration and Production, Rio de Janeiro, 23-25 November 2015: 9 pp (in Portuguese).

Henriksen, M., Bjerketvedt, D., Vaagsaether, K., Gaathaug, A.V., Skjold, T. & Middha, P. (2015). Accidental hydrogen release in CG laboratory: a case study. Sixth International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS 2015), Yokohama, 19-21 October 2015: 8 pp. ISBN 978-2-9601366-1-6

Skjold, T., Siccama, D., Hisken, H., Brambilla, A., Middha, P., Groth, K.M. & LaFleur, A.C. (2015). 3D Risk management for hydrogen installations (Hy3DRM). Sixth International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS 2015), Yokohama, 19-21 October 2015: 12 pp. ISBN 978-2-9601366-1-6

Skjold, T. & Hisken, H. (2015). Numerical investigation of constant volume propane-air explosions in a 3.6-metre flame acceleration tube. Twenty-fifth International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems (ICDERS), Leeds, 2-7 August 2015: 6 pp.

Skjold, T., Pedersen, H.H., Narasimhamurthy, V.D., Lakshmipathy, S., Pesch, L., Atanga, G.F., Folusiak, M., Bernard, L., Siccama, D. & Storvik, I.E. (2014). Pragmatic modelling of industrial explosions in complex geometries: review of the state-of-the-art and prospects for the future. Zel'dovich Memorial: Accomplishments in the combustion Science in the last decade, Volume 1: 70-74. Edited by A.A. Borisov & S.M. Frolov. ISBN 978-5-94588-156-3. Torus Press, Moscow.

Skjold, T. (2014). Simulating vented maize starch explosions in a 236 m3 silo. Eleventh International Symposium on Fire Safety Science, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, 10-14 February 2014, International Association for Fire Safety Science. Fire Safety Science, 11: 1469-1480. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3801/IAFSS.FSS.11-1469

Bernard, L. & Skjold, T. (2013). CFD modeling of mist explosions experiments. Twenty-fourth International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems (24 ICDERS), Taipei, 28 July - 2 August 2013: 6 pp.

Skjold, T. & Siccama, D. (2013). From computational fluid dynamics to 3D risk management – possibilities and limitations. Nordic Conference on Disaster Management, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway, 26-27 September 2013: 15 pp.

Pedersen, H.H., Davis, S., Middha, P., Arntzen, B.J. & Skjold, T. (2013). Sensitivity analysis and parameter optimization for the improved modelling of gas explosions. Twenty-fourth International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems (24 ICDERS), Taipei, 28 July - 2 August 2013: 6 pp.

Skjold, T. (2013). An experimental investigation of flame propagation in clouds of silicon dust dispersed in air, hydrogen-air mixtures, and hybrid Si-H2-air mixtures. Twenty-fourth International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems (24 ICDERS), Taipei, 28 July - 2 August 2013: 6 pp.

Skjold, T. (2013). A fire in a drying and milling plant for a natural food additive. Proceedings Seventh International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards (7 ISFEH), Providence, 5-10 May 2013, published by Research Publishing, Singapore: 190-199. ISBN: 981-08-7724-2 / 978-981-07-5936-0. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3850/978-981-07-5936-0_03-08

Pedersen, H.H., Enstad, G., Skjold, T. & Brewerton, R.W. (2013). The effect of vegetation with various degrees of foliage on gas explosions in a 1.5 m channel. Proceedings Seventh International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards (7 ISFEH), Providence, 5-10 May 2013, published by Research Publishing, Singapore: 646–655. ISBN: 978-981-07-5936-0. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3850/978-981-07-5936-0_10-04

Skjold, T., Christensen, S.O., Bernard, L., Pedersen, H.H. & Narasimhamurthy, V.D. (2012). Urban canyon blast load calculations. Twenty-second International Symposium on Military Aspects of Blast and Shock (MABS 22), Bourges, 4-9 November 2012, 8 pp.

Skjold, T. & Eckhoff, R.K. (2012). Explosion protection in grain handling facilities: from Count Morozzo to computational fluid dynamics. International Conference of Agricultural Engineering, CIGR-Ageng2012, Valencia, 8-12 July 2012: 6 pp. ISBN: 84-615-9928-4. URL: http://cigr.ageng2012.org/images/fotosg/tabla_137_C1894.pdf

Skjold, T., Castellanos, D., Lien, K.O. & Eckhoff, R.K. (2012). Experimental and numerical investigations of constant volume dust and gas explosions in a 3.6 metre flame acceleration tube. Ninth International Symposium on Hazard, Prevention and Mitigation of industrial Explosions (9 ISHPMIE), Krakow, 22-27 July 2012: 22 pp.

Skjold, T., Olsen, K.L. & Castellanos, D. (2011). A constant pressure dust explosion experiment. Proceedings Fourteenth Annual Symposium, Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center: “Beyond regulatory compliance, making safety second nature”, College Station, 25-27 October 2011: 809-823.

Castellanos, D., Skjold, T., Carreto, V. & Mannan, M.S. (2011). Correlating turbulence flow field in dust explosion vessels of different size. Proceedings Fourteenth Annual Symposium, Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center: “Beyond regulatory compliance, making safety second nature”, College Station, 25-27 October 2011: 799-808.

Pedersen, H.H., Middha, P., van Wingerden, K., Skjold, T. & Arntzen, B.J. (2011). Modelling of flame acceleration due to intrinsic instabilities in industrial scale explosions. Twenty-third International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems (23 ICDERS), Irvine, 24-29 July 2011.

Castellanos, D., Skjold, T., van Wingerden, K., Eckhoff, R.K. & Mannan, S. (2011). Simulating dust explosion venting through ducts. Twenty-third International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems (23 ICDERS), Irvine, 24-29 July 2011.

Nolde, M. & Skjold, T. (2010). Blast resistant windows – experiments and simulations. Twenty-first International Symposium on Military Aspects of Blast and Shock (MABS 21), Jerusalem, 3-8 October 2010: 9 pp.

van Wingerden, K. & Skjold, T. (2010). Vented dust explosions: a review of the effect of vent ducts, supported by CFD calculations. Proceedings Eighth International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions (8 ISHPMIE), Yokohama, 5-10 September 2010: 11 pp.

Skjold, T. (2010). Flame propagation in dust clouds: challenges for model validation. Proceedings Eighth International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions (8 ISHPMIE), Yokohama, 5-10 September 2010: 11 pp.

Skjold, T. & van Wingerden (2010). A fatal accident caused by bacterial hydrogen production in an atmospheric storage tank. Proceedings Sixth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards (6 ISFEH), Leeds, 11-16 April 2010, Published by Research Publishing, Singapore: 516-525. ISBN: 981-08-7724-8 / 978-981-08-7724-8. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3850/978-981-08-7724-8_07-06

Dyduch, Z. & Skjold, T. (2010). An assessment of the laminar burning velocity in dust/air mixtures based on a model for dust explosions in closed 20-litre vessels. Eighth International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions (8 ISHPMIE), Yokohama, 5-10 September 2010: 11 pp.

Skjold, T., Dahoe, A.E., Melheim, J., Arntzen, B.J. & Eckhoff, R.K. (2008). Improved correlations for turbulent burning velocity and flame thickness in the CFD code DESC. Proceedings Seventh International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions (7 ISHPMIE), St. Petersburg, 7-11 July 2008, Vol. I: 208-216.

Skjold, T., van Wingerden, K., Hansen, O.R. & Eckhoff, R.K. (2008). Modelling of vented dust explosions – empirical foundation and prospects for future validation of CFD codes. HAZARDS XX, Manchester, 23–25 November 2008, IChemE Symposium Series No. 154, Institution of Chemical Engineers, Rugby, UK: 838-850. ISBN: 978-0-85295-523-9.

van Wingerden, K. & Skjold, T. (2008). Simulation of explosion suppression systems and extinguishing barriers using the CFD code FLACS. American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 2008 Annual Spring Meeting, Forty-second Annual Loss Prevention Symposium, New Orleans, 7-9 April 2008: 397-410.

Skjold, T. (2007). Simulating the effect of release of pressure and dust lifting on coal dust explosions. Twenty-first International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems (21 ICDERS), Poitiers, 23-27 July 2007: 5 pp.

Skjold, T., Eckhoff, R.K., Arntzen, B.J., Lebecki, K., Dyduch, Z., Klemens, R. & Zydak, P. (2007). Simplified modelling of explosion propagation by dust lifting in coal mines. Proceedings Fifth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards (5 ISFEH), Edinburgh, 23-27 April 2007: 302-313. ISBN: 978-0-9557497-2-8. Available (August 2017): www.see.ed.ac.uk/feh5/pdfs/FEH_pdf_pp302.pdf

Skjold, T. (2006). Review of the DESC project. Proceedings Sixth International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention, and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions (6 ISHPMIE), Vol. I, Dalhousie University, Halifax Nova Scotia, 27 August 27 – 1 September 2006: 1-21.

Skjold, T., Larsen, Ø. & Hansen, O.R. (2006). Possibilities, limitations, and the way ahead for dust explosion modelling. HAZARDS XIX, Manchester, 28-30 March 2006, IChemE Symposium Series No. 151, Institution of Chemical Engineers, Rugby, UK: 282-297. ISBN: 10-0-85295-492-1.

Hansen, O.R., Skjold, T. & Storvik, I.E. (2005). FLACS & DESC: the use of CFD for evaluating explosion risk. Proceedings Second Jornadas Internacionales de Seguridad Industrial ATEX, Barcelona, 16-17 November 2005: 7-19.

Skjold, T. & Hansen, O.R. (2005). The development of DESC: a dust explosion simulation code. Proceedings International European Safety Management Group (ESMG) Symposium, Nuremberg, 11-13 October 2005: 24 pp. ISBN: 3-9807567-4-2.

Skjold, T., Arntzen, B.J., Hansen, O.R., Taraldset, O.J., Storvik, I.E. & Eckhoff, R.K. (2004). Simulating dust explosions with the first version of DESC. HAZARDS XVIII, Manchester, 23-25 November 2004, IChemE Symposium Series No. 150, Institution of Chemical Engineers, Rugby, UK: 451-468. ISBN 0-85295-460-3. URL: http://www.icheme.org/resources/hazards%20symposium.aspx

Skjold, T., Arntzen, B.J., Hansen, O.J., Storvik, I.E. & Eckhoff, R.K. (2004). Simulation of dust explosions in complex geometries with experimental input from standardized tests. Proceedings Fifth International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions (5 ISHPMIE), Krakow, 10-14 October 2004: 199-208.

Hansen, O.R., Skjold, T. & Arntzen, B.J. (2004). DESC – a CFD-tool for dust explosions. Proceedings International European Safety Management Group (ESMG) Symposium, Nuremberg, 16-18 March 2004: 13 pp. ISBN: 3-9807567-3-4.

 

Poster presentations

Skjold, T. (2018). Improving hydrogen safety for energy applications (HySEA) through pre-normative research on vented deflagrations. FCH JU Programme Review Days, Brussels, 14-15 November 2018.

Skjold, T. (2018). Vented hydrogen deflagrations in 20-foot containers: effect of confinement, congestion, stratification and initial flow conditions on the maximum reduced explosion pressure and structural response. Poster Thirty-seventh International Symposium on Combustion, Dublin, 29 July-3 August 2018.

Skjold, T. (2017). Improving hydrogen safety for energy applications (HySEA) through pre-normative research on vented deflagrations. FCH JU Programme Review Days, Brussels, 23-24 November 2017.

Skjold, T. (2017). Estimating the consequences of dust explosions in industry: Uncertainty associated with sampling, testing and modelling. Poster Twelfth International Symposium on Fire Safety Science, Lund University (12 IAFSS), Sweden, 12-16 June 2017.

Skjold, T. (2016). Improving hydrogen safety for energy applications (HySEA) through pre-normative research on vented deflagrations. FCH JU Programme Review Days, Brussels, 21-22 November 2016.

Folusiak, M., Skjold, T. & Storvik, I. (2016). Urban canyon blast load calculations with FLACS-Blast and adaptive mesh refinement. Poster presentation, Twenty-fourth Symposium on Military Aspects of Blast and Shock (MABS 24), 18-23 September 2016, Halifax, Canada: 7 pp.

Skjold, T. (2014). Turbulent flame propagation in dust clouds. Work-in-progress poster, Thirty-fifth International Symposium on Combustion, San Francisco, 3-8 August 2014.

Mahgerefteh, H., Martynov, S., Brown, S., Fairweather, M., Woolley, R.M., Falle, S.A.E.G., Narasimhamurthy, V.D., Skjold, T., Economou, I.G., Tsangaris, D.M., Boulougouris, G., Diamantonis, N., Wardman, M., Gant, S.E., Batt, R., McGillivray, A.,  Lisbona, D., Wilday, J., Zhang, Y.C., Chen, S., Proust, Ch. & Hebrard, J. (2013). CO2PipeHaz: quantitative hazard assessment for next generation CO2 pipelines. Poster Seventh Trondheim CCS Conference (TCCS-7), Trondheim, 4-6 June 2013.

Skjold, T. & Eckhoff, R.K. (2012). A brief history of dust explosion research. Poster Thirty-fourth International Symposium on Combustion, Warsaw, 29 July - 3 August 2012.

Skjold, T. & Castellanos, D. (2011). Experimental investigation of flame propagation in turbulent propane-air mixtures and dust-air suspensions. Poster Twenty-third International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems (23 ICDERS), Irvine, 24-29 July.

Skjold, T. & Castellanos, D. (2011). Influence of ignition energy and fuel concentration on turbulent flame propagation in propane-air mixtures and dust-air suspensions. Poster Tenth International Association of Fire Safety Science (10 IAFSS) Symposium, University of Maryland, 19-24 June 2011.

Skjold, T. (2010). Experimental investigation of turbulent flame propagation through propane-air and dust-air suspensions in a 3.6 metre flame acceleration tube. Poster Thirty-third Symposium on Combustion, Beijing, 1-6 August 2010.

Melheim, J.A., Jenkins, A.D., Barstad, I., Skjold, T. & Dahl, E.O. (2009). Norwegian centre of offshore wind energy (NORCOWE) – overview of research activities. Poster European Offshore Wind, Stockholm, 13-16 September 2009.

Skjold, T., Kalvatn, I.B., Enstad, G.E. & Eckhoff, R.K. (2009). Experimental investigation of the influence of obstacles on flame propagation in propane-air mixtures and dust-air suspensions in a 3.6 m flame acceleration tube. Poster Twenty-second International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems (22 ICDERS), Minsk, 27-31 July 2009.

Skjold, T., Eckhoff, R.K., Enstad, G.E., Kalvatn, I.B., van Wingerden, M. & van Wingerden, K. (2008). A modified balloon experiment for dust explosions. Poster Thirty-second Symposium on Combustion, Montreal, 3-8 August 2008.

Middha, P., Skjold, T. & Dahoe, A.E. (2006). Turbulent and laminar burning velocities of hydrogen-air mixtures from constant volume explosions in a 20-litre vessel. Poster Thirty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion, Heidelberg, 6-11 August 2006.

Skjold, T. & Eckhoff, R.K. (2006). A balloon experiment for dust explosions. Poster Thirty-first Symposium on Combustion, Heidelberg, 6-11 August 2006: 606.

Skjold, T., Pu, Y.K., Arntzen, B.J., Hansen, O.J., Storvik, I.E., Taraldset, O.J. & Eckhoff, R.K. (2005). Simulating the influence of obstacles on accelerating dust and gas flames. Poster Twentieth International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems (20 ICDERS), Montreal, 31 July – 5 August 2005: 5 pp.

 

Publications in national current research information system (CRIStin)