Literature on CNA and using CNA
The methodological literature on CNA and the literature using CNA is constantly growing. This page provides an overview and attempts to keep track of the latest developments.
We divide the peer-reviewed CNA literature up into methodological pieces, which further develop CNA as a method or compare it to other methods, and applied pieces, which use CNA for data analysis purposes. A Zotero CNA Group library providing more detailed bibliographical information is available here. We also list recent PhD theses on or using CNA.
The details of the state of the art of the CNA method, as implemented in the cna R package, are described here:
M. Baumgartner and M. Ambühl (2023), cna: An R Package for Configurational Causal Inference and Modeling. R package vignette: The Comprehensive R Archive Network. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/cna/vignettes/cna.pdf.
M. Baumgartner and M. Ambühl (2020), Causal Modeling with Multi-Value and Fuzzy-Set Coincidence Analysis, Political Science Research and Methods 8, 526-542, doi: 10.1017/psrm.2018.45. Replication material at https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/YIEAF1; [penultimate draft]
The following paper introduces CNA robustness scoring, as implemented in the frscore R package:
- V.P. Parkkinen and M. Baumgartner (2021), Robustness and Model Selection in Configurational Causal Modeling, Sociological Methods & Research. [penultimate draft]
The following paper discusses a protocol for finding optimally obtainable consistency and coverage scores for a given data set. (The algorithms introduced in this paper are implemented in the cnaOpt R package):
- M. Baumgartner and M. Ambühl (2021), Optimizing Consistency and Coverage in Configurational Causal Modeling, Sociological Methods & Research. [penultimate draft]; [replication material].
These papers compare CNA and QCA:
M. Swiatczak (2022), Different Algorithms, Different Models, Quality & Quantity, 56:1913–1937
Haesebrouck T and Thomann E. (2022), Introduction: Causation, inferences, and solution types in configurational comparative methods. Quality & Quantity, 56:1867–1888.
This paper compares CNA and Logic Regression:
M. Baumgartner and C. Falk (2021), Configurational Causal Modeling and Logic Regression, Multivariate Behavioral Research. [penultimate draft]; [replication material]
Older versions of the CNA method are introduced/discussed here:
M. Baumgartner and A. Thiem (2015), Identifying Complex Causal Dependencies in Configurational Data with Coincidence Analysis, The R Journal 7, 176-184. [penultimate draft]
M. Baumgartner (2013), Detecting Causal Chains in Small-N Data, Field Methods 25, 3-24. [penultimate draft]
M. Baumgartner (2009), Uncovering Deterministic Causal Structures: A Boolean Approach, Synthese 170, 71-96. [Springer Nature SharedIt] [penultimate draft]
M. Baumgartner (2009), Inferring Causal Complexity, Sociological Methods & Research 38, 71-101. [penultimate draft]
Dodge J, Sullivan K, Miech E, Clomax A, Riviere L, Castro C. (2023), Exploring the social determinants of mental health by race and ethnicity in Army wives, Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, doi:10.1007/s40615-023-01551-3.
dos Santos LF, Martins RS, Freitas JS. (2023), Configurações explicativas do desenvolvimento da resiliência nas redes de suprimentos da administração pública, Revista de Administração Pública, 57(1): e-2022-0209. (ENG: "Explanatory settings of the development of resilience in public administration supply networks," Brazilian Journal of Public Administration).
(Full text of article also available in English).
Cragun, DL, PP Hunt, M Dean, A Weidner, AK Shields, A Tezak, and T Pal. (2023), Applying the Framework for Developing and Evaluating Complex Interventions to Increase Family Communication About Hereditary Cancer, PEC Innovation, doi: 10.1016/j.pecinn.2023.100133.
Rattray, N, Miech EJ, True G, Natividad D, Laws B, Frankel RM, Kukla M. (2023), Modeling Contingency in Veteran Community Reintegration: A Mixed Approach, Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 17(1), 70–92, doi: 10.1177/15586898211059616.
(First publication to formally pair qualitative thematic analysis with CNA.)
Damschroder LJ, Miech EJ, Freitag MB, Evans R, Burns JA, Raffa SD, Goldstein MG, Annis A, Spohr SA, Wiitala WL. (2022), Facility-level program components leading to population impact: a coincidence analysis of obesity treatment options within the Veterans Health Administration, Translational Behavioral Medicine, 12(11):1029-1037. doi: 10.1093/tbm/ibac051.
(Designated as an "Editor's Choice" article.)
Sánchez Ibáñez A, Franco Hidalgo-Chacón MdlM, Sánchez-Romero EA, Cuenca-Zaldivar JN. (2022), Situation of Physiotherapy Clinics in the Community of Madrid in Relation to the Concept of Sustainability: A Survey Study, Sustainability, 14(24):16439, doi: 10.3390/su142416439.
Adams KK, Miech EJ, Sobieraj DM. (2022), Factors that distinguish opioid withdrawal during induction with buprenorphine microdosing: a configurational analysis, Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 17(1):55. doi: 10.1186/s13722-022-00336-z.
(This is the second study ever to apply CNA in the field of pharmacy, and draws upon a subset of data from an earlier systematic review.)
Rich JA, Miech EJ, Semenza DC, Corbin TJ. (2022), How combinations of state firearm laws link to low firearm suicide and homicide rates: A configurational analysis, Preventive Medicine, doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2022.107262.
(The 2nd "geoconfigurational" analysis integrating CNA solutions with maps.)
Charns MP, Lerner B , Yakovchenko V, MS, Urech TH, Shin MH, Kim B, Engle RL, Vashi AA. (2023), Achieving transformation to Lean Management Systems in health care, Health Services Research 58(2), 343-355, doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.14072.
(The 1st CNA analysis to be published in HSR, an AcademyHealth journal.)
Sperber NR, Miech EJ, Clary AS, Perry K, Edwards-Orr M, Rudolph JL, Van Houtven CH, Thomas KS. (2022), Determinants of inter-organizational implementation success: A mixed-methods evaluation of Veteran Directed Care, Healthcare 10(4), 100653. doi: 10.1016/j.hjdsi.2022.100653.
(First multi-level cna analysis to be published in the literatures for health services research and implementation science.)
Womack DM, Miech EJ, Fox NJ, Silvey LC, Somerville AM, Eldredge DH, Steege LM. (2022), Coincidence Analysis: A Novel Approach to Modeling Nurses' Workplace Experience, Applied Clinical Informatics (4), 794-802, doi: 10.1055/s-0042-1756368.
(First published CNA analysis in medical informatics.)
Gwayi-Chore, MC., Aruldas, K., Avokpaho, E. et al. (2022), Defining optimal implementation packages for delivering community-wide mass drug administration for soil-transmitted helminths with high coverage, BMC Health Serv Res 22, 792. doi: 10.1186/s12913-022-08080-5
Miech EJ, Perkins AJ, Zhang Y, Myers LJ, Sico JJ, Daggy J, Bravata DM (2022), Pairing regression and configurational analysis in health services research: modelling outcomes in an observational cohort using a split-sample design. BMJ Open 12, e061469, doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-061469
(This analysis of over 3000 cases uses a split-sample design and directly compares results from conducting CNA and logistic regression on the same dataset.)
Rich JA, Miech EJ, Bilal U, Corbin TJ (2022), How education and racial segregation intersect in neighborhoods with persistently low COVID-19 vaccination rates in Philadelphia, BMC Public Health 22, 1044, doi: 10.1186/s12889-022-13414-3
(This article combines CNA and GIS to create a new "geoconfigurational" approach.)
Mulrooney M, Smith M, Sobieraj D, Shipley B, Miech E. (2022), Factors Influencing Primary Care Organization Commitment to Technical Assistance Services for Clinical Pharmacist Integration Using Configurational Comparative Methods. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, doi: 10.1016/j.japh.2022.03.019.
(This is the first article to apply CNA in pharmacy.)
Davis MM, Schneider JL, Petrik AF, Miech EJ, Younger B, Escaron AL, Rivelli JS, Thompson JH, Nyongesa D, Coronado GD (2022), Clinic Factors Associated With Mailed Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) Completion: The Difference-Making Role of Support Staff, Ann Fam Med. 20(2), 123-129, doi: 10.1370/afm.2772.
Edianto, Achmed, Gregory Trencher, and Kazuyo Matsubae (2022), Why Do Some Countries Receive More International Financing for Coal-Fired Power Plants than Renewables? Influencing Factors in 23 Countries, Energy for Sustainable Development 66, 177–88, doi: 10.1016/j.esd.2021.12.004.
Winchester, B., Cragun, D., Redlinger-Grosse, K., et al., Zierhut, H. (2022), Application of motivational interviewing strategies with the extended parallel process model to improve risk communication for parents of children with familial hypercholesterolemia, Journal of Genetic Counseling, doi: 10.1002/jgc4.1554.
(First application of CNA in genetic counseling.)
- Yakovchenko V, Morgan TR, Miech EJ, et al., Rogal SS. (2022), Core implementation strategies for improving cirrhosis care in the Veterans Health Administration. Hepatology Feb 6, doi: 10.1002/hep.32395.
(Hepatology has an impact factor of >17, ranking it among the Top 200 science journals in the world.)
Knott CL, Miech EJ, Slade J, Woodard N, Robinson-Shaneman BJ, Huq M. (2022), Evaluation of Organizational Capacity in the Implementation of a Church-Based Cancer Education Program. Glob Implement Res Appl. doi: 10.1007/s43477-021-00033-0
(First publication to apply CNA in health services research to health promotion activities outside of a traditional healthcare setting; first configurational study of any kind to appear in GIRA, a brand-new implementation science journal; open access.)
Dy SM, Acton RM, Yuan CT, Hsu YJ, et al., Scholle SH. (2022), Association of Implementation and Social Network Factors With Patient Safety Culture in Medical Homes. A Coincidence Analysis, The Journal of Patient Safety 18(1), e249-e256, doi: 10.1097/PTS.0000000000000752
(One of the first publications in health services research to list Coincidence Analysis in the title of an article; first 2022 CNA publication of any kind (officially published 01 January 2022).)
Schlick CJ, Huang R, Brajcich BC, Halverson, AL, Yang AD, Kreutzer L, et al. (2022), Unbundling bundles: Evaluating the effectiveness of individual colorectal surgical site infection reduction bundle elements in a statewide collaborative, Diseases of the Colon and Rectum 65(8), 1052-1061, doi: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000002223.
Swiatczak, M.D. (2021), Towards a neo-configurational theory of intrinsic motivation. Motivation and Emotion. doi: 10.1007/s11031-021-09906-1
(First CNA application in the behavioral sciences.)
- Miech, E.J., Freitag, M.B., Evans, R.R. et al. (2021), Facility-level conditions leading to higher reach: a configurational analysis of national VA weight management programming. BMC Health Serv Res 21, 797, doi: 10.1186/s12913-021-06774-w
(First publication anywhere to use the “7cs” solution visualization; open access.)
Cohen, D.J., Shannon M. Sweeney, William L. Miller, et al., Miguel Marino (2021), Improving smoking and blood pressure outcomes: The interplay between operational changes and local context, The Annals of Family Medicine 19 (3), 240-248, doi: 10.1370/afm.2668
(First application of CNA to appear in Annals of Family Medicine, the top-ranked peer-reviewed primary care research journal in North America; open access.)
Coury, J., E. Miech, P. Styer et al. (2021), What’s the “secret sauce?” How implementation variation affects the success of colorectal cancer screening outreach. Implement Sci Commun 2, 5, doi: 10.1186/s43058-020-00104-7
(First configurational study of any kind to appear in Implementation Science Communications, a relatively new implementation science journal; open access.)
Nunes, F. A. S. F., J. S. Freitas (2021), Combination of factors for the presence of the public: a look at the lower levels of football in Minas Gerais. Revista Intercontinental de Gestão Desportiva 11 (e1122), 1-11. doi: 10.51995/2237-3373.v11i1e110022
Whitaker, R.G., N. Sperber, M. Baumgartner, et al. (2020), Coincidence analysis: a new method for causal inference in implementation science, Implementation Science 15, 108, doi: 10.1186/s13012-020-01070-3
(First time in its history that the journal Implementation Science – the top journal in the field – has ever published a full-length configurational analysis of any kind; > 9880 accesses to date; open access.)
Petrik, A., B. Green, J. Schneider et al. (2020), Factors influencing implementation of a colorectal cancer screening improvement program in community health centers: an applied use of configurational comparative methods, Journal of General Internal Medicine, doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06186-2.
(Article appeared in a special issue of JGIM devoted to implementation science; open access.)
Hickman, S. E., E. Miech et al. (2020), Identifying the Implementation Conditions Associated With Positive Outcomes in a Successful Nursing Facility Demonstration Project , The Gerontologist 60(8) December 2020, 1566–1574, doi: 10.1093/geront/gnaa041
(The Gerontologist is one of the top three journals in gerontology; open access.)
Yakovchenko, V., E. Miech et al. (2020), Strategy Configurations Directly Linked to Higher Hepatitis C Virus Treatment Starts. An Applied Use of Configurational Comparative Methods, Medical Care 58(5), p. e31-e38, doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000001319
(Top-cited CNA publication in health services research; first published CNA article in health services research; first reference to using E. Miech’s msc routine for data reduction; appeared as part of “Applied Methods” section in Medical Care; open access.)
Moret, W. and L. Lorenzetti (2020), Realistic expectations: exploring the sustainability of graduation outcomes in a program for children affected by HIV in Kenya’s Northern Arid Lands. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. doi: 10.1080/17450128.2020.1738022
Haesebrouck, T. (2019), Who follows whom? A coincidence analysis of military action, public opinion and threats, Journal of Peace Research, doi: 10.1177/0022343319854787
(An exemplary CNA application in International Relations.)
Epple. R. and S. Schief (2016), Fighting (for) gender equality: the roles of social movements and power resources, Interface: a journal for and about social movements Vol. 8, No.2., 394-432.
Baumgartner, M. and R. Epple (2014), A Coincidence Analysis of a Causal Chain: The Swiss Minaret Vote, Sociological Methods & Research 43, 280-312. [penultimate draft]
(First study to ever apply CNA to real-life data.)
McGinty EE, Seewald NJ, Bandara S, Cerdá M, Daumit GL, Eisenberg MD, Griffin BA, Igusa T, Jackson JW, Kennedy-Hendricks A, Marsteller J, Miech EJ, Purtle J, Schmid I, Schuler MS, Yuan CT, Stuart EA. (2022). Scaling Interventions to Manage Chronic Disease: Innovative Methods at the Intersection of Health Policy Research and Implementation Science. Prevention Science. doi: 10.1007/s11121-022-01427-8.
- Quintana, R. (2022), Embracing complexity in social science research, Quality & Quantity, doi: 10.1007/s11135-022-01349-1
Veri, F., and Barrowman, H. (2022), The added value of configurational meta-analyses, Swiss Political Science Review 28(1), 116-128, doi: 10.1111/spsr.12485
Rendle KA, Beidas RS. (2021), Four strategic areas to advance equitable implementation of evidence-based practices in cancer care. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 11(11):1980-1988.
M. Baumgartner and C. Falk (2023), Boolean Difference-Making: A Modern Regularity Theory of Causation, The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, doi: 10.1093/bjps/axz047
M. Baumgartner (2015), Parsimony and Causality, Quality & Quantity 49, 839-856.
M. Baumgartner (2008), Regularity Theories Reassessed, Philosophia 36, 327-354.
Roczniewska M, Rogala A, Marszałek M, Hasson H, Bakker A, Schwarz U. (2023), Job crafting interventions: what works, for whom, why, and in which contexts? Research protocol for a systematic review with coincidence analysis, Systematic Reviews, 12:10, doi: 10.1186/s13643-023-02170-z
Sperber NR, Cragun D, Roberts MC, Bendz LM, Ince P, Gonzales S, Haga SB, Wu RR, Petry NJ, Ramsey L, Uber R. (2022), A Mixed-Methods Protocol to Identify Best Practices for Implementing Pharmacogenetic Testing in Clinical Settings, Journal of Personalized Medicine 12(8), 1313. doi: 10.3390/jpm12081313.
Wasmuth S, Belkiewitz J, Bravata D, Horsford C, Harris A, Smith C, Austin C, Miech E. (2022), Protocol for evaluating external facilitation as a strategy to nationally implement a novel stigma reduction training tool for healthcare providers, Implementation Science Communications 3(1), 88. doi: 10.1186/s43058-022-00332-z.
Cragun D, Beckstead J, Farmer M, Hooker G, Dean M, Matloff E, Reid S, Tezak A, Weidner A, Whisenant JG, Pal T. (2021), IMProving care After inherited Cancer Testing (IMPACT) study: protocol of a randomized trial evaluating the efficacy of two interventions designed to improve cancer risk management and family communication of genetic test results, BMC Cancer 21(1), 1099. doi: 10.1186/s12885-021-08822-4.
Rogal SS, Yakovchenko V, Morgan T, Bajaj JS, Gonzalez R, Park A, Beste L, Miech EJ, Lamorte C, Neely B, Gibson S, Malone PS, Chartier M, Taddei T, Garcia-Tsao G, Powell BJ, Dominitz JA, Ross D, Chinman MJ. (2020), Getting to implementation: a protocol for a Hybrid III stepped wedge cluster randomized evaluation of using data-driven implementation strategies to improve cirrhosis care for Veterans, Implementation Science 15(1), 92, doi: 10.1186/s13012-020-01050-7.
Rahm AK, Cragun D, Hunter JE, Epstein MM, Lowery J, Lu CY, Pawloski PA, Sharaf RN, Liang SY, Burnett-Hartman AN, Gudgeon JM, Hao J, Snyder S, Gogoi R, Ladd I, Williams MS. (2018), Implementing universal Lynch syndrome screening (IMPULSS): protocol for a multi-site study to identify strategies to implement, adapt, and sustain genomic medicine programs in different organizational contexts, BMC Health Services Research 18(1), 824.
D. Cragun (2020), Configurational Comparative Methods, in: Handbook on Implementation Science, eds. P. Nilsen & S. A. Birken, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. doi:10.4337/9781788975995.00034.
(First textbook or handbook in implementation science or health services research to mention CNA as an analytic method.)
PhD theses using or on CNA
- Lauren Niles, 2022 (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD) “Effectiveness of Maryland Opioid Treatment Program Response During the COVID-19 Pandemic and National Regulatory Exemption Period.”
- Claire Gwayi-Chore, 2022 (University of Washington, Seattle). “Scaling up deworming programs: implementation science approaches to guide the transition from school-based to community-wide mass drug administration for soil-transmitted helminths.”
(This multi-method study included a CNA analysis to identify necessary and/or sufficient combinations of intervention delivery activities related to successful implementation of a community-wide public health intervention in three different countries: Benin, India and Malawi.)
- Sepheen Byron, 2022 (University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill). “State Medicaid Policy Levers Related to Successful Health Information Exchange Among Providers.”
- Laysse Fernanda Macêdo dos Santos, 2022 (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG/Brazil), “O desenvolvimento da resiliência nas redes de suprimentos da administração pública: a perspectiva do capital social.” (ENG: “The development of resilience in public administration supply networks: the perspective of social capital”)
- Kelly Coates, 2021 (Portland State), “Affecting Absenteeism Through School-Based Health Services Delivery: A Configurational Comparative Methods Study of Oregon's Public Secondary Schools.”
(First standalone use of CNA in an applied analysis in any doctoral-level dissertation in any subject.)
- Jessica Dodge, 2021 (USC), “Exploring the Social Determinants of Health in a Population with Similar Access to Healthcare: Experiences from United States Active-Duty Army Wives.”
(First formal pairing of CNA and QCA in an applied analysis in any doctoral-level dissertation in any subject.)
- Davi Pires Andrade Brescia, 2021 (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG/Brazil) “Respostas gerenciais a dilemas estratégicos: capturando políticas de decisão e suas fundações morais.” (ENG: “Managerial responses to strategic dilemmas: capturing decision-making policies and their moral foundations”)
- Christoph Falk, 2020 (University of Geneva), “Konfigurationales kausales Modellieren. Ein theoretisches Fundament und Verfahren für Kausalanalysen mit crisp-set Konfigurationen.”
- Bruno de Castro Rozenberg, 2020 (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG/Brazil), “Complexidade causal na seleção de startups para programas públicos de aceleração: uma abordagem configuracional comparativa.” (ENG: “Causal complexity in the selection of startups for public acceleration programs: a comparative configurational approach.”)
- Felipe Alexandre de Souza Félix Nunes, 2020 (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG/Brazil), “Comportamento de não consumo de produtos dos patrocinadores de Cruzeiro e Atlético-MG pelos torcedores do clube rival.” (ENG: “Non-consumption of products from the sponsors of Cruzeiro and Atlético-MG by fans of the rival club”)
- Rebecca Whitaker, 2019 (UNC-Chapel Hill), “A Study of Preventable Hospital Utilization Among Medicaid-Insured Pediatric Patients in North Carolina’s Federally Qualified Health Centers.”
(First doctoral-level dissertation in the United States to prominently feature CNA in an applied analysis.)
- Rui Fernando Correia Ferreira, 2018 (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG/Brazil), “Estratégia de influência: O ganho de vantagens competitivas de empresas em suas relações com o Estado”. [ENG: “Influence strategy: Gaining competitive advantages for companies in their relations with the State”]