Coincidence Analysis
CNA literature

Literature on CNA and using CNA

The methodological literature on CNA and the literature using CNA is constantly growing. This page provides an overview and attempts to keep track of the latest developments.

Main content



We divide the peer-reviewed CNA literature up into methodological pieces, which further develop CNA as a method or compare it to other methods, and applied pieces, which use CNA for data analysis purposes. A Zotero CNA Group library providing more detailed bibliographical information is available here. We also list recent PhD theses on or using CNA.


The details of the state of the art of the CNA method, as implemented in the cna R package, are described here:

This paper introduces CNA robustness scoring, as implemented in the frscore R package:

This paper discusses a protocol for finding optimally obtainable consistency and coverage scores for a given data set. (The algorithms introduced in this paper are implemented in the cnaOpt R package):

This paper uncovers shortcomings of consistency and coverage and introduces two additional evaluation measures:

These papers compare CNA and QCA:

This paper compares CNA and Logic Regression:

This paper investigates the impact of data imbalances (skewness) on CNA's performance:

Older versions of the CNA method are introduced/discussed here:




Book chapters

  • Curran, Geoffrey M., Justin D. Smith, John Landsverk, Wouter Vermeer, Edward J. Miech, Bo Kim, Gracelyn Cruden, Maria E. Fernandez, and C. Hendricks Brown. “Design and Analysis in Dissemination and Implementation Research.” In Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health,Third Edition. Oxford University Press, 2023.
    (Includes a subsection on CNA contributed by Edward Miech.)

  • D. Cragun (2020), Configurational Comparative Methods, in: Handbook on Implementation Science, eds. P. Nilsen & S. A. Birken, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. doi:10.4337/9781788975995.00034.
    (First textbook or handbook in implementation science or health services research to mention CNA as an analytic method.)

PhD theses using or on CNA

  • Lauren Niles, 2022 (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD) “Effectiveness of Maryland Opioid Treatment Program Response During the COVID-19 Pandemic and National Regulatory Exemption Period.”
  • Claire Gwayi-Chore, 2022 (University of Washington, Seattle). “Scaling up deworming programs: implementation science approaches to guide the transition from school-based to community-wide mass drug administration for soil-transmitted helminths.”
    (This multi-method study included a CNA analysis to identify necessary and/or sufficient combinations of intervention delivery activities related to successful implementation of a community-wide public health intervention in three different countries: Benin, India and Malawi.)
  • Sepheen Byron, 2022 (University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill). “State Medicaid Policy Levers Related to Successful Health Information Exchange Among Providers.”
  • Laysse Fernanda Macêdo dos Santos, 2022 (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG/Brazil), “O desenvolvimento da resiliência nas redes de suprimentos da administração pública: a perspectiva do capital social.” (ENG: “The development of resilience in public administration supply networks: the perspective of social capital”)
  • Kelly Coates, 2021 (Portland State), “Affecting Absenteeism Through School-Based Health Services Delivery: A Configurational Comparative Methods Study of Oregon's Public Secondary Schools.” 
    (First standalone use of CNA in an applied analysis in any doctoral-level dissertation in any subject.)
  • Jessica Dodge, 2021 (USC), “Exploring the Social Determinants of Health in a Population with Similar Access to Healthcare: Experiences from United States Active-Duty Army Wives.”
    (First formal pairing of CNA and QCA in an applied analysis in any doctoral-level dissertation in any subject.)
  • Davi Pires Andrade Brescia, 2021 (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG/Brazil) “Respostas gerenciais a dilemas estratégicos: capturando políticas de decisão e suas fundações morais.” (ENG: “Managerial responses to strategic dilemmas: capturing decision-making policies and their moral foundations”)
  • Christoph Falk, 2020 (University of Geneva), “Konfigurationales kausales Modellieren. Ein theoretisches Fundament und Verfahren für Kausalanalysen mit crisp-set Konfigurationen.”
  • Bruno de Castro Rozenberg, 2020 (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG/Brazil), “Complexidade causal na seleção de startups para programas públicos de aceleração: uma abordagem configuracional comparativa.” (ENG: “Causal complexity in the selection of startups for public acceleration programs: a comparative configurational approach.”)
  • Felipe Alexandre de Souza Félix Nunes, 2020 (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG/Brazil), “Comportamento de não consumo de produtos dos patrocinadores de Cruzeiro e Atlético-MG pelos torcedores do clube rival.” (ENG: “Non-consumption of products from the sponsors of Cruzeiro and Atlético-MG by fans of the rival club”)
  • Rebecca Whitaker, 2019 (UNC-Chapel Hill), “A Study of Preventable Hospital Utilization Among Medicaid-Insured Pediatric Patients in North Carolina’s Federally Qualified Health Centers.”
    (First doctoral-level dissertation in the United States to prominently feature CNA in an applied analysis.)
  • Rui Fernando Correia Ferreira, 2018 (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG/Brazil), “Estratégia de influência: O ganho de vantagens competitivas de empresas em suas relações com o Estado”. [ENG: “Influence strategy: Gaining competitive advantages for companies in their relations with the State”]