• E-mailGunnar.Skirbekk@uib.no
  • Phone+47 55 58 28 45
  • Visitor Address
    Parkveien 9
    5007 Bergen
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7805
    5020 Bergen

On the basis of extensive discussions, i.a. in the philosophy environment at the University of Bergen in the 1960s and 1970s, Gunnar Skirbekk has worked with colleagues at home and abroad to develop a philosophical way of thinking that combines context-pragmatic forms of thought as in the late Wittgenstein, which works with example-based presupposition-analyses, e.g. with so-called "absurdity arguments", and transcendental-pragmatic forms of thought as in Apel and the early Habermas, where one works reflectively with universal preconditions for basic speech-acts, e.g. in scientific research and serious discussions. Cp. the anthology Die pragmatische Wende: Sprachspielpragmatik oder Transzendentalpragmatik?, eds. Dietrich Böhler, Tore Nordenstam and Gunnar Skirbekk, Suhrkamp 1986. The way of thinking that Skirbekk defends is often referred to as "transcendental praxeology" or "the praxeology of modernity" (German book title, Praxeologie der Moderne). The point, briefly stated, is a defense of different varieties of situated and binding validity, with a sting both against (postmodernist) relativism and (scientistic) dogmatism. See e.g. his article "Contextual and Universal Pragmatics: Mutual Criticism of Praxeological and Transcendental Pragmatics", in Philosophy beyond Borders. An Anthology of Norwegian Philosophy, eds. Ragnar Fjelland et al., 1997, in Chinese 1999 and revised edition 2016.

Themes and projects

Existentialism: the problem of evil and a search for universally valid principles, in a post-WWII-setting. Nihilisme? Eit ungt menneskes forsøk på å orientere seg, 1958;  Nihilism? A Young Man’s Search for Meaning, 1972. Literary essays in Ord, 1984, and Undringa, 2002.

Praxeology: case-oriented studies of what is necessarily (and most often ‘tacitly’) presupposed in basic human acts of different kinds; early Heidegger versus late Wittgenstein. Praxeology. An Anthology, ed./co-auth., 1983.  

Theory of Truth: first, Heidegger’s theory of truth, in a critical analytic perspective, Dei filosofiske vilkår for sanning, 1966, Truth and Preconditions. An Interpretation of Heidegger’s Theory of Truth, 1970; later, by the pragmatic turn, focusing on arguments in public reasoning and self-reflection, both as to universality and contextuality (in between Apel, Habermas, and late Wittgenstein), e.g. Rationality and Modernity. Essays in Philosophical Pragmatics, 1993; Wahrheitstheorien, ed./co-auth., 1977; “Wahrheit und Begründung. Überlegungen zu epistemischen Begriffen und Praktiken“ in Reflexion und Verantwortung, co-ed./co-auth., 2003.

Transcendental Pragmatics, conceived melioristically, focusing on improvement, in critical self-reflection, public reasoning, and ‘thinking through examples’, e.g. by ‘arguments from absurdity’. Mutual learning-processes and mutual recognition as fallible and reasonable human beings, by discursive will-formation. E.g. Rationality and Modernity. Essays in Philosophical Pragmatics, 1993; Timely Thoughts. Modern Challenges and Philosophical Responses: Contributions to Inter-Cultural Dialogues, 2007; “On the Advantage and Disadvantage of Transcendental Pragmatics for Life. A historical perspective on the late Frankfurt School (Apel, Habermas, Wellmer)”, 2016.

Political theory: neo-marxism, alienation, critique of ideology, Nymarxisme og kritisk dialektikk, 1970; Er ideologiane døde? ed./co-auth., 1970. The notion of a Welfare State under difficult conditions, “The Idea of a Welfare State in a Future Scenario of Great Scarcity”, in The Rationality of the Welfare State, 1996: 28-54; updated version, Ideen om ein velferdsstat under vanskelege vilkår, 2015. The notion of citizenship in modern democracies haunted by multiple and complex crises. Personal autonomy (Mündigkeit) as a regulative idea. E.g. Krise og medansvar (Crisis and co-responsibility), 2016.

Eco-philosophy: Marxism and ecology, “Marxisme et écologie”, Esprit 11/1974, English version in The Greening of Marxism, 1996: 129-136. Science and ecology, “Technological expertise and global ethics in an age of scientization and ecological crisis”, Timely Thoughts, 2007. Capitalism and ecology, The Commercial Ark, co-ed./co-auth., 1992, The Notion of Sustainability, ed./co-auth., 1994, Økonomi, økologi, etikk, 1999. Ethical gradualism, in Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 31/1995; revised English version, “Ethical Gradualism, beyond Anthropocentrism and Biocentrism?” in Environment, Embodiment, and Gender, 2005: 149-177.

Philosophy of the sciences and the humanities: Objektivitetsproblemet i vitskapane, ed./co-auth., 1984. Vit og vitskap, 1998. Vitskapsteori – positive eller kritisk? 2004. “A crisis in the humanities?”, Timely Thoughts, 2007.  At Senter for vitskapsteori (Center for the studies of the sciences and the humanities), when it was established at the University of Bergen in 1987, there was a research project (financed by the Norwegian Research Council) called “Modernitet – differensiering og rasjonalisering” (Modernity – differentiation and rationalization, in a Weberian sense). See next theme:

Theory of Modernization, conceived in terms of development of different scientific/scholarly and practice-based forms of rationality and ‘tacit knowing’ (not merely instrumental rationality, but also interpretive and argumentative rationality), historically situated in decisive actors, institutions, and collective experiences. A focus on general modernization processes, but also on special ones – e.g. in Scandinavia: Multiple Modernities. A Tale of Scandinavian Experiences, 2011 (Norwegian version Norsk og moderne, 2010). These countries are characterized by general trust, rule of law, and a general and generous welfare state – how come? (Cf Francis Fukuyama’s ideal: “getting to Denmark!”) Also, in a modern world: general pathologies and challenges; imbalance between institutions; imbalance between institutions and their cultural preconditions; globalized, technology-based capitalism, with ecological challenges, and mass migration. Also in Krise og medansvar, 2016.

History of Western Thought: A history of philosophy from ancient Greece to the twentieth century, with special emphasis on the history of the sciences and the humanities and on political thinking. English version, A History of Western Thought, 2000, together with Nils Gilje. Available in 17 languages. Norwegian original, Filosofihistorie, first version 1970, 8th edition 2007.

Freedom of expression: its justification and challenges, Vit og vitskap, 1998: 88-128. Member of the Norwegian commission for the revision of § 100 (on freedom of expression) in the Norwegian Constitution (1993-1996). Freedom of expression as a precondition for science and democracy, not merely a “western value”. E.g. “On the normative foundation of the freedom of expression: the same freedom for all expressions?” in I første, andre og tredje person. Festskrift for Audun Øfsti, 1999: 319-326. “Ytringsfridom i ei globalisert verd. Med striden om Muhammed-teikningane friskt i minne: korleis kan vi grunngje rettsprinsippet om ytringsfridom i eit globalisert verdssamfunn? ” Årbok for Det norske videnskaps-akademi 2007:266-282.

Critique of Religion: the problem of evil in monotheism (Judaism, Christianity, Islam) and its theological and practical implications (cf Nihilism? 1958). The inherent need for an open and enlightened critique of religion. The need to avoid unintended blasphemy among strong believers without cultural enlightenment. E.g. Herausforderungen der Moderne aus wissenschaftsphilosophischer Sicht, 2012. Challenges caused by a politicization of religion, without the moderating virtues of cultural enlightenment (be it in the Middle East or the Mid-West); especially in cases of “half-modernization” in terms of modern weaponry and means of communication and premodern mentalities and actions (as in ISIL and Boko Haram). Krise og medansvar, 2016: 67-120.

Crisis in the modern world: The modern world is in crisis, a double crisis, as it were: at the factual level, with various challenges that tend to interact and reinforce each other, and at the epistemic level, where no single science or expertise alone can grasp the complexity of what is going on. In this publication, such basic epistemic challenges are addressed, critically and constructively; and in this perspective four current cases are discussed and assessed, such as the United Nations Agenda 2030 for sustainable development. On this background, some proposals for epistemic and institutional improvements are considered. Cp. Gunnar Skirbekk, Epistemic Challenges in a Modern World.  From “fake news” and “post truth” to underlying epistemic challenges in science-based risk-societies. LIT Verlag, Zeitdiagnose, Zürich 2019.


Interviews, talks and presentations

Gunnar Skirbekk: Religion i moderne samfunn. Meeting at Forum for Science and Democracy, UiB, 09.03.2022

Religion i moderne samfunn. Academic lunch at Bergen public library, 26.01.2022

Religionen forsvinn aldri. Dag og Tid (weekly newspaper for culture and politics), 12.11.21 (in Norwegian, behind paywall)

Professor: Meir opning for gudstru i filosofien. Norwegian Christian daily Dagen, 10.11.21 (in Norwegian, behind paywall)

– Håper Jonas Gahr Støre les boka og tar seg tid til tenkje igjennom det særnorske opplegget for økonomisk støtte av alskens trussamfunn. Interview, Dagens perspektiv, 28.10.21 (in Norwegian)

Opinion pieces

Ikkje rom for kritikk? Opinion piece in Norwegian daily Klassekampen, 22.03.22 (in Norwegian, behind paywall)

Språktvang og begrepsfattigdom. Opinion piece in Norwegian daily Bergens Tidende, 09.09.21 (in Norwegian)

Auschwitz for dei små. Opinion piece in Norwegian daily Klassekampen, 23.03.21 (in Norwegian, behind paywall)

SS og IS - kva lærte vi? Comment in Norwegian daily Klassekampen, 12.03.21 (in Norwegian, behind paywall)

Nynorsk på nettet - ei lita gåte. Opinion piece in Norwegian daily Klassekampen, 17.02.2021 (in Norwegian, behind paywall)

Derfor må det bli omkamp om arbeidslivsrelevans. Opinion piece in Uniforum, 04.09.2020 (in Norwegian)


Gunnar Skirbekk: Religion i moderne samfunn - recording of meeting at Forum for Science and Democracy, UiB, 09.03.2022 (in Norwegian)

Religion i moderne samfunn - recording of Academic lunch at Bergen public library, 26.01.2022 (in Norwegian)

Gunnar Skirbekk: Komplekse problem og spesialiserte kunnskaper. Podcast by Bergen Global, 2020 (in Norwegian).

Framtidige generasjonar, demokrati og klima. Podcast episode, November, 2020 (in Norwegian)

History of Western Thought.  Enlightenment and Modernization (A History of Western Thought, English version 2001, together with Nils Gilje; by 2015 in 18 languages).


Academic article
  • Show author(s) (2022). "Religion med moderne briller"? Tilsvar til bokomtale ved Ragnar Misje Bergem, i Prosa 6/2021. Prosa - tidsskrift for skribenter. 87-87.
  • Show author(s) (2021). "The epistemic status of the principles of justice in Habermas and Rawls". Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Philosophica. 7-14.
  • Show author(s) (2019). "The Idea of a Global History of Philosophy / Chinese translation". Zhexue fenxi. 111-118.
  • Show author(s) (2018). "Processes of Modernization. Scandinavian Experiences". Transcultural Studies. 133-149.
  • Show author(s) (2018). "Language history and the power of symbols". Acta Academiae Regiae Gustavi Adolphi. 141-154.
  • Show author(s) (2018). "Gradualizm etyczny?". Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Linguistica Rossica. 81-108.
  • Show author(s) (2017). "Reflections on Norwegian Philosophy after World War II", translated into Urdu by Dr. Khalid Almas. Journal of Pakistan. 5-17.
  • Show author(s) (2017). "Den argumenterande fornuft, i modernitetsteoretisk perspektiv". Norsk Filosofisk tidsskrift. 57-71.
  • Show author(s) (2015). "Norsk filosofi?". Norsk Filosofisk tidsskrift. 149-160.
  • Show author(s) (2015). "Bruno Latour's anthropology of the moderns. A reply to Maniglier". Radical Philosophy.
  • Show author(s) (2014). "Tanken er fri". Røyst.
  • Show author(s) (2014). "Språkhistorie og symbolmakt". Prosa - tidsskrift for skribenter. 28-35.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Om transcendentalpragmatikkens nytte og ulempe for livet. Norsk Filosofisk tidsskrift. 155-167.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Konferanserapport: "Kva skal vi med norskfaget?". Nynorskopplæring. 15-24.
  • Show author(s) (2013). "Religion i moderne demokrati. Kritisk kommentar til Stålsett-utvalet". Syn og Segn.
  • Show author(s) (2013). "On the Advantage and Disadvantage of Transcendental-Pragmatics for Life" (in Chinese translation). Journal of East China Normal University. 1-13.
  • Show author(s) (2013). "Multiple Modernities? A Tale of Scandinavian Experiences: A Summary of the 3rd Symposioum of Philosophical Analysis. Zhexue fenxi. 157-162.
  • Show author(s) (2013). "Multiple Modernities; On Scandinavian Experiences" (in Chinese translation). Zhexue fenxi. 3-18.
  • Show author(s) (2012). "Multikulturalisme, ei utfordring for velferdsstaten?". Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning. 304-313.
  • Show author(s) (2011). "Religionskritikk - kvifor og korleis?". Religion og livssyn : Tidsskrift for religionslærerforeningen i Norge. 12-16.
  • Show author(s) (2010). Å tale om Gud i lys av det vondes og det latterleges problem om behovet for teologi og faren for ufrivillig blasfemi. Kirke og kultur. 97-113.
  • Show author(s) (2009). Ex.phil. Eit reformforslag. Nytt Norsk Tidsskrift. 6 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2009). "On the Concept of Personal Autonomy as a Constitutive, Regulative Idea". Skepsis.
  • Show author(s) (2007). Ytringsfridom i ei globalisert verd. Årbok / Det norske videnskaps-akademi. 266-282.
  • Show author(s) (2007). Alternativni protseci modernisatsi? Ukranian translation by Vladimir Kuznetsov, of "Alternative processes of modernization?". Filosofska dumka. 12-39.
  • Show author(s) (2005). Science Studies and Moral Challenges. Making it explicit: an updating of science studies. Sats: northern european journal of philosophy. 51-78.
  • Show author(s) (2005). Russisk omsetjing: "The Modernity Debate: Rationality - Universal and Plural?". Scepsis. 130-139.
  • Show author(s) (2005). Arabisk omsetjing: "On the possibility of a philosophical justification for universally binding principles in an age of one-state supremacy and shrinking inter-state institutions". Nizwa. 29-43.
  • Show author(s) (2004). Vitskapsteori - positiv eller kritisk? SVT Arbeidsnotat. 22 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2004). Striden om sanninga. SVT Arbeidsnotat. 19 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2004). Spådommen om 'poetokratiets død' - ein feilaktig prognose? Nytt Norsk Tidsskrift. 432-443.
  • Show author(s) (2004). On the possibility of a philosophical justification for universally binding principles in an age of one-state supremacy and shrinking inter-state institutions. Sats: northern european journal of philosophy. 27-53.
  • Show author(s) (2004). On the possibility for philosophically binding principles in an age of one-state supremacy and shrinking inter-state institutions. SVT Arbeidsnotat. 24 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2004). La philosophie gagne du terrain en Norvège. Vogue ou instrument pour surmonter la crise des sociétés modernes ? Nordiques. 65-75.
  • Show author(s) (2003). Le débat sur la modernité : la rationalité - universelle ou plurielle ? Une contribution au débat entre modernes universalistes et postmodernes contextualistes. http://perso.wanadoo.fr/b.p.c./.
  • Show author(s) (2003). Le débat sur la modernité : la rationalité - universelle et plurielle? Une contribution au débat entre modernes universalistes et post-modernes contextualistes. Noesis - revue de philosophie. 25-58.
  • Show author(s) (2002). Sanning og grunngiving. Norsk Filosofisk tidsskrift. 64-70.
  • Show author(s) (1999). Jürgen Habermas on the post-national constellation. The 21th Century Bimonthly, Hong Kong, nr. 25. 56-61.
  • Show author(s) (1998). Crisis in the Humanities. Journal of East China Normal University.
  • Show author(s) (1997). "The Discourse Principle and Those Affected". Inquiry (Oslo). 63-72.
  • Show author(s) (1996). Vitskapsteori - nyttig eller nødvendig? Forskningsnytt fra Norges almenvitenskapelige forskningsråd. 17-17.
  • Show author(s) (1996). Filosofi på frammarsj. Syn og Segn. 355-360.
  • Show author(s) (1995). Politisk kultur. Philosophia : tidsskrift for filosofi. 21-34.
  • Show author(s) (1995). Ethischer Gradualismus: jenseits von Anthropozentrismus und Biozentrismus? Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie. 419-434.
  • Show author(s) (1995). Eco-Crisis and the Welfare State. Thesis Eleven. 19-35.
  • Show author(s) (1994). "Marxism and Ecology". Capitalism Nature Socialism. 95-104.
  • Show author(s) (1993). "Det som er". Jærteiken, Nytt frå Hå gamle prestegard. 22-23.
  • Show author(s) (1991). The World Reconsidered. A Brief Aggiornamento for Leftist Intellectuals. (Tilknyttet prosjektet: Modernitet - differensiering og rasjonalisering). Praxis International. 224-235.
  • Show author(s) (1991). The World Reconsidered. A Brief Aggiornamento for Leftist Intellectuals. (Tilknyttet prosjektet: Modernitet - differensiering og rasjonalisering). Thesis Eleven. 17-32.
  • Show author(s) (1991). Jest li o ekspertisi etitsjeskie osnovy? (Tilknyttet prosjektet: Modernitet - differensiering og rasjonalisering). Tsjelavjek. 86-93.
  • Show author(s) (1991). Contextual and Universal Pragmatics. A Mutual Criticism of Praxeological and Transcendental Pragmatics. (Tilknyttet prosjektet: Modernitet - differensiering og rasjonalisering). Thesis Eleven. 35-51.
  • Show author(s) (1974). "Marxism et égologie". Esprit (1940). 643652.
Academic lecture
  • Show author(s) (2022). 'Diskusjon ut frå boka "Religion i moderne samfunn"'.
  • Show author(s) (2022). "Realism versus anti-realism; truth, 'justification', presuppositions".
  • Show author(s) (2021). Modernity and Multiple Modernities.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Global History of Philosophy - Principles and Experiences.
  • Show author(s) (2021). "Textbook: History of Philosophy; the idea of a global history of philosophy".
  • Show author(s) (2020). "Komplekse problem, spesialisert kunnskap - kva må gjerast?" (Lansering "Epistemic Challenges in a Modern World).
  • Show author(s) (2019). Freedom of Expression. A Normative Justification of the Legal Protection of Freedom of Expression".
  • Show author(s) (2019). "Without Boundaries, no Modernity" "Ohne Abgrenzungen, keine Moderne".
  • Show author(s) (2019). "Scientific/scholarly pluralism; normative justification by self-reflective speech-act preconditions and by Institutional preconditions".
  • Show author(s) (2019). "Samtale med Ove Jakobsen ved lansering av boka hans, 'Anarchism and Ecological Economics' (Routledge 2019)".
  • Show author(s) (2019). "Kunnskapsrelaterte utfordringar i moderne samfunn".
  • Show author(s) (2019). "Epistemiske utfordringar: universitet, skule, media".
  • Show author(s) (2019). "Epistemic Challenges in a Modern World" - work in progress.
  • Show author(s) (2018). "Vernunft - vielfältig und verpflichtend".
  • Show author(s) (2018). "The Idea of a Global History of Philosophy" (revised).
  • Show author(s) (2018). "Scandinavian Modernization - a Background for the Nordic Model?".
  • Show author(s) (2018). "Learning to be human, in higher education".
  • Show author(s) (2018). "Ideen om ei global filosofihistorie".
  • Show author(s) (2018). "Globalization versus Modernization".
  • Show author(s) (2018). "Er flyktningretten utdatert?" Diskusjon med Jan Fridthjof Bernt.
  • Show author(s) (2018). "1968 - refleksjonar ut frå erfaringar og observasjonar, nasjonalt og internasjonalt".
  • Show author(s) (2017). "The Idea of a Global History of Philosophy".
  • Show author(s) (2017). "Statsborgar i moderne demokrati".
  • Show author(s) (2017). "Språkpolitiske tabu og andre utfordringar".
  • Show author(s) (2017). "Post-truth - a Challenge?".
  • Show author(s) (2017). "Menschenwürde und die Verletzbarkeit des Lebens. Der Mensch zwisichen Tier und Roboter".
  • Show author(s) (2017). "Freedom of Expression. A normative justification of the legal protection of freedom of expression".
  • Show author(s) (2017). "Flyktningkrise i vår tid".
  • Show author(s) (2017). "Er vitskapsteori nyttig for politikken?".
  • Show author(s) (2016). Innlegg på seminar for lansering av reviderte og utvida utgåver av "A History of Western Thought" og "Philosophy Beyond Borders" på kinesisk.
  • Show author(s) (2016). "Velferdsstaten - unik og sårbar".
  • Show author(s) (2016). "Processes of modernization. Scandinavian Experiences".
  • Show author(s) (2016). "Krise og medansvar. Flyktningkrise? Kva slags krise? Kva slags utfordringar?".
  • Show author(s) (2016). "Flyktningkrise - kva slags krise?".
  • Show author(s) (2016). "Facts and evidence in Law and philosophy" .
  • Show author(s) (2016). "Die Gedanken sind frei..." Zur Begründung des rechtlichen Schutzes der Meinungsfreiheit.
  • Show author(s) (2016). "Den argumenterande fornuft, i modernitetsteoretisk perspektiv".
  • Show author(s) (2016). "Den argumenterande fornuft".
  • Show author(s) (2015). 'Ytringsfridom, med utgangspunkt i NOU 1999/27 og med referanse til aktuelle hendingar'.
  • Show author(s) (2015). "On the Advantage and Disadvantage of Transcendental-Pragmatics for Life. A Historical Perspective on the Late Frankfurt School (Habermas, Apel, Wellmer)".
  • Show author(s) (2015). "Den seine Habermas og transcendentalpragmatikken".
  • Show author(s) (2015). "Deliberative Democracy and Citizenship in Modern Societies".
  • Show author(s) (2014). "Staatsbürgerschaft in modernen (nicht-nachhaltigen, krisenbezogenen) Gesellschaften".
  • Show author(s) (2014). "Soutenance HDR Jean-Luc Gautero".
  • Show author(s) (2014). "Religion i moderne samfunn. Grunnlova og moderniseringa av Noreg".
  • Show author(s) (2014). "On the Advantage and Disadvantage of Transcendental-Pragmatics for Life - and the Need for Gradual (Melioristic) Reasoning".
  • Show author(s) (2014). "Norsk og moderne - tankar kring Grunnlovsjublieet".
  • Show author(s) (2014). "Comments on Bruno Latour's book 'Enquête sur les modes d'existence, une anthropologie des Modernes'".
  • Show author(s) (2014). "Bakgrunnen for logisk positivisme og kontroversen mellom Næss og Skjervheim".
  • Show author(s) (2013). Lecture on Bruno Latour's latest book: "Enquête sur les modes d'existence, une anthropologie des Modernes".
  • Show author(s) (2013). "Religion og samfunn. Er multikulturalisme ei utfordring for velferdsstaten?".
  • Show author(s) (2013). "Kva er det med Norden? Historiske føresetnader for "den norske modellen", i eit modernitetsteoretisk perspektiv.".
  • Show author(s) (2013). "Intercultural Dialogue through History Teaching" (Teaching of the History of Western Thought).
  • Show author(s) (2013). "Grunngjeving for ytringsfridom - nasjonalt og internasjonalt - i moderne vitskapsbaserte samfunn og i moderne demokrati".
  • Show author(s) (2013). "Bemerkungen über das letzte Buch von Bruno Latour".
  • Show author(s) (2012). "Vom Nutzen und Nachteil der Transzendentalpragmatik für das Leben".
  • Show author(s) (2012). "Transcendental-pragmatics, situated and reconsidered".
  • Show author(s) (2012). "Textbook: History of Philosophy, conceived as the idea of a global history of philosophy".
  • Show author(s) (2012). "Politics of Liberation".
  • Show author(s) (2012). "On the advantage and disadvantage of transcendental pragmatics".
  • Show author(s) (2012). "Multiple Modernities".
  • Show author(s) (2012). "Multikulturalisme som utfordring for velferdsstaten?".
  • Show author(s) (2012). "Monotheism in Modern Science-Based Societies?".
  • Show author(s) (2012). "Lecture on the book 'Multiple Modernities'".
  • Show author(s) (2012). "Conceptualizing Modernization Processes. The Norwegian Case".
  • Show author(s) (2012). "A Tale of Scandinavian Experiences".
  • Show author(s) (2011). 'The role of religion in the public discourse of a pluralistic societiy'.
  • Show author(s) (2011). 'Moral Imaginaries. Emerging Normative Regimes'.
  • Show author(s) (2011). "Unfreiwillige Blasphemie".
  • Show author(s) (2011). "Religion og menneskerettar".
  • Show author(s) (2011). "Diskursive Universalität".
  • Show author(s) (2010). "Three approaches to the philosophy/study of the sciences".
  • Show author(s) (2010). "The Relevance of Science-Related Concepts in the Study of Modern China".
  • Show author(s) (2010). "Rettskultur - kulturens betydning for retten".
  • Show author(s) (2010). "Merknader til religion og religionskritikk".
  • Show author(s) (2010). "Kvifor filosofi?".
  • Show author(s) (2010). "How to conceptualize socio-historical phenomena? Case: aspects of Norwegian history conceived as modernization processes".
  • Show author(s) (2010). "A Crisis in the Humanities? - Reconsidered".
  • Show author(s) (2009). On Democracy, Discursive Rationality and Personal Autonomy.
  • Show author(s) (2009). Demokratiebegriffe.
  • Show author(s) (2009). "Norsk filosofi (?)".
  • Show author(s) (2009). "Mangfaldig modernitet".
  • Show author(s) (2009). "Fagkritikk, universitet, offentlegheit".
  • Show author(s) (2009). "Ex.phil. - spørsmålet om reform".
  • Show author(s) (2008). The Concept of a Person as a Constitutive Regulative Idea.
  • Show author(s) (2008). Talen om Gud i lys av theodice-problemet.
  • Show author(s) (2008). Kor finn vi - og kva skal vi med - etikk i akademia?
  • Show author(s) (2008). Fragen über begriffliche Angemessenheit.
  • Show author(s) (2007). The need for modernization of consciousness and criticism of religion.
  • Show author(s) (2007). Rettsvitskapen i vitskapsteoretisk perspektiv.
  • Show author(s) (2007). Philosophical education: What, why, how and for whom? (A lecture marking the publication of the book "Timely Thoughts" in Chinese).
  • Show author(s) (2007). Modernitet og religion - eit spenningsfullt samliv.
  • Show author(s) (2007). Arguments from conceptual adequacy in the interface between modern challenges and philosophical responses.
  • Show author(s) (2007). Alternative processes of modernization? With special reference to a Scandinavian case.
  • Show author(s) (2006). Ytringsfridom i ei globalisert verd.
  • Show author(s) (2006). Truth and Justification.
  • Show author(s) (2006). The question of alternative processes of socio-cultural modernization.
  • Show author(s) (2006). Religion and modernity.
  • Show author(s) (2006). Reflexionen über die Transzendentalpragmatik: wie und wozu?
  • Show author(s) (2006). Institutseminar om boka "Den filosofiske uroa".
  • Show author(s) (2006). Finst det særdrag ved norsk modernisering?
  • Show author(s) (2006). Alternative moderniseringsprosessar med utgangspunkt i norsk historie.
  • Show author(s) (2005). Vitskapsstudiar og vitskapens moralske utfordringar.
  • Show author(s) (2005). The Role of Religion in the Public Sphere.
  • Show author(s) (2005). Profesjon og fornuft.
  • Show author(s) (2005). Popular movements and elites in the process of modernization. Reflections on the Norwegian case.
  • Show author(s) (2005). Nordisk språkpolitikk - kommentar til innleiingane.
  • Show author(s) (2005). Handlungsimmanentes Wissen: eine praxeologische Analyse.
  • Show author(s) (2004). The "Marco Polo" program (between East China Normal University, Shanghai, and University of Bergen, Norway) for comparative studies in cultural modernization in East Asia and in Western Europe.
  • Show author(s) (2004). Reflexion und Theorie in der Transzendentalpragmatik.
  • Show author(s) (2004). Praxeologie der Moderne.
  • Show author(s) (2004). Praxeologie als Grundlagenwissenschaft für die Kulturwissenschaften.
  • Show author(s) (2004). Person og anerkjenning.
  • Show author(s) (2004). On the possibility of a philosophical justification for universally binding principles.
  • Show author(s) (2004). Handlungsimmanentes Wissen - eine praxeologische Analyse.
  • Show author(s) (2004). Forskingsetiske problem, særleg for samfunnsvitskap og humaniora.
  • Show author(s) (2002). Vitskapsfilosofi.
  • Show author(s) (2002). Utfordringar for morsmålet.
  • Show author(s) (2002). Philosophy and Fiction - Controversies on Validity Claims and "Redescriptions".
  • Show author(s) (2002). Modernitet og media. Kunnskap, makt og offentlegheit i diskusjonen om det moderne prosjekt.
  • Show author(s) (2002). Kunnskap og makt.
  • Show author(s) (2002). Filosofisk essayistikk på nynorsk: Vinje, Garborg, Raknes.
  • Show author(s) (2002). Comments on Eli Zaretski's paper "Trauma and Dereification: September 11 and the Problem of Ontological Security".
  • Show author(s) (2001). Ytringsfridom, i skjeringspunktet mellom filosofi og jus.
  • Show author(s) (2001). Wittgenstein's Place in the History of Philosophy.
  • Show author(s) (2001). Truth Questions. Praxeological comments on the recent debate on truth and justification.
  • Show author(s) (2001). The Debate on Modernity.
  • Show author(s) (2001). Skandinavisk tenking - i eit historisk perspektiv.
  • Show author(s) (2001). Reconstructed learning processes to the recent debates on pragmatic rationality.
  • Show author(s) (2001). Nihilisme? 40 år etter.
  • Show author(s) (2001). Har vi ein språkleg utanrikspolitikk?
  • Show author(s) (2001). (1) Eine Praxeologie der Moderne - über die Universalität und Kontextualität der diskursiven Vernunft, 6 Vorlesungen an der Freien Universität, Berlin (Gastprofessur Wintersemester 2000-2001). (2) Kontinentale und anglosächsische Philosophie, 3 Vorlesungen (ditto). (3) Diskursive Vernunft - ein einheitliches oder vielfähtiges Verfahren? 6 Vorlesungen (ditto).
  • Show author(s) (1995). Ytringsfridom i forhold til argumentative og estetiske ytringar.
Academic anthology/Conference proceedings
  • Show author(s) (2016). "Philosophy Beyond Borders" revidert og utvida utgåve. Zhejiang University Press.
  • Show author(s) (2012). "Alternative Processes of Modernization?". Berghahn Books.
  • Show author(s) (2009). Religion og kultur. Ein fleirfagleg samtale. Universitetsforlaget.
  • Show author(s) (2009). Filosofi i vår tid : festskrift til Jon Hellesnes. Det Norske Samlaget.
  • Show author(s) (2007). Shi Dai Zhi Si ("Timely Thoughts"). Shanghai Yiwenchu Banshe.
  • Show author(s) (2006). Religion, Modernity, and Rationality. SVT Press.
  • Show author(s) (2004). Striden om sanningen. Daidalos.
  • Show author(s) (2003). Reflexion und Verantwortung: Auseinandersetzungen mit Karl-Otto Apel. Suhrkamp Verlag.
  • Show author(s) (2002). On Pragmatics --- Contributions to current debates. Auseinandersetzungen über die Pragmatik. Filosofisk institutt, Universitetet i Bergen.
Feature article
  • Show author(s) (1999). Sidemål, sjølvmål og andre mål. Bergens Tidende.
  • Show author(s) (1999). NATO og heilage krigar. Aftenposten (morgenutg. : trykt utg.).
  • Show author(s) (1999). Ein norsk Sokrates (minneord for Hans Skjervheim). Bergens Tidende.
  • Show author(s) (1996). Hannah Arendts aktive liv. Bergens Tidende.
  • Show author(s) (1993). Intervju. Stavanger Aftenblad.
  • Show author(s) (1993). ...døden ikke heller... : ettertankar om norsk leiarstil. Lederbulletin. s 10-11.

More information in national current research information system (CRIStin)

Multiple Modernities, Hong Kong 2011

Herausforderungen der Moderne aus wissenschaftsphilosophiscer Sicht, Berlin 2012

Krise og medansvar, Oslo 2016

cf home page


Multiple modernities: how to conceptualize processes of modernization.

Crises in modern societies.


Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities

Philosophical Pragmatics

Theories of Modernization