Research group for Infection and Microbiology

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Publications from Beta-SIG

Beta-SIG is active in the production and discriminating of scientific information; a list of peer-reviewed articles (by year of publication) and conference abstract produced by the group is listed below.


Anders Rosén, Per Arnell, Martin Bruun Madsen, Bjørn Gunnar Nedrebø, Anna Norrby-Teglund, Ole Hyldegaard, Vitor A.P. Martins dos Santos,  François Bergey, Edoardo Saccenti, INFECT Study Group and Steinar Skrede.  Diabetes and necrotizing soft tissue infections – a prospective observational cohort study: statistical analysis plan.  Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2018; 62 (8): 1171-77. doi: 10.1111/aas.13130. PMID: 29671865

Anshu Babbar, Trond Bruun, Ole Hyldegaard, Michael Nekludov, Per Arnell, INFECT study group, Dietmar H. Pieper, Andreas Itzek. Pivotal role of prexexisting pathogen-spesific antibodies in the development og necrotizing soft-tissue infections.  J Infect Dis. 2018 Jun 5;218(1):44-52. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy110.  PMID: 29878263

Oppegaard O, Mylvaganam H, Skrede S, Kittang BR. Exploring the arthritogenicity of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. BMC Microbiol. 2018 Feb 27;18(1):17. doi: 10.1186/s12866-018-1160-5. PMID: 29482512

Eivind Rath, Steinar Skrede,  Mylvaganam H, Bruun T. Aetiology and clinical features of facial cellulitis: a prospective study.  Infect Dis (Lond). 2018 Jan;50(1):27-34. doi: 10.1080/23744235.2017.1354130.  PMID: 28768452


Oppegaard O, Mylvaganam H, Skrede S, Lindemann PC, Kittang BR. Emergence of a Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis stG62647-lineage associated with severe clinical manifestations. Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 8;7 (1):7589.

Oppegaard O, Mylvaganam H, Skrede S, Jordal S, Glambek M, Kittang BR. Clinical and molecular characteristics of infective β-haemolytic streptococcal endocarditis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017 Jun 20.

Oppegaard O. Unravelling pathogenetic mechanisms of epidemic lineages. Editorial. Virulence. 2017 May;10:1-3.

Hansen MB, Rasmussen LS, Svensson M, Chakrabodi B, Bruun T, Madsen MB, Perner A, Garred P, Hyldegaard O, Norrby-Teglund A, INFECT study group. Association between cytokine response, the LRINEC score and outcome in patients with necrotizing soft tissue infection: a multicentre, prospective study. Sci Rep. 2017 Feb 8;7:42179.

Kittang BR, Pettersen VK, Oppegaard O, Skutlaberg DH, Dale H, Wiker HG, Skrede S. Zoonotic necrotizing myositis caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in a farmer. BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Feb 15;17(1):147.


Bruun T, Oppegaard O, Hufthammer KO, Langeland N, Skrede S. Early response in Cellulitis: A prospective Study of Dynamics and Predictors. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Oct 15;63(8):1034-1041.

Oppegaard O, Skrede S, Mylvaganam H, Kittang BR. Temporal trends of β-haemolytic streptococcal osteoarticular infections in western Norway. BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Oct 4;16(1):535.

Siemens N, Chakrabodi B, Shambat SM, Morgan M, Bergsten H, Hyldegaard O, Skrede S, Arnell P, Madsen MB, Johansson L, INFECT Study Group, Juarez J, Bosnjak L, Mörgelin M, Svensson M, Norrby-Teglund A. Biofilm in group A streptococcal necrotizing soft tissue infections. JCI Insight. 2016 Jul 7;1(10):e87882.

Bruun T, Oppegaard O, Kittang BR, Mylvaganam H, Langeland N, Skrede S. Etiology of Cellulitis and the Validity of New and Old Methods. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Apr 1;62(7):954-5.


Bruun T, Oppegaard O, Kittang BR, Mylvaganam H, Langeland N, Skrede S. Etiology of cellulitis and Clinical Prediction of Streptococcal Disease: A Prospective Study. Open Forum Infect Dis 2015 Nov 25;3(1):ofv181.

Siemens N, Kittang BR, Chakrakodi B, Bruun T, Johansson L, Oppegaard O, INFECT Study Group, Svensson M, Skrede S, Norrby-Teglund A. Increased cytotoxity and streptolysin activity in group G streptococcal strains causing invasive tissue infections. Sci Rep 2015 Nov 25;5: 16945.

Jordal S, Glambek M, Oppegaard O, Kittang BR. New tricks from an old cow: infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae. J Clin Microbiol. 2015 Feb;53(2):731-4.

Oppegaard O, Mylvaganam H, Kittang BR. Beta-haemolytic group A, C and G streptococcal infections in Western Norway: a 15-year retrospective survey. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015 Feb;21(2):171-8.


Trond Bruun, Bård R.Kittang, Bram de Hoog, Sidsel Aardal, Hans K. Flaatten, Nina Langeland, Haima Mylvaganam, Hallvard A. Vindenes and Steinar Skrede.  2013.  Necrotizing soft tissue infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in western Norway.  Clin Microbiol Infect. DoI: 10.1111.1469-0691.12276.  PMID 23795951.

Oppegaard O, Mylvaganam H, Skrede S, Langeland N, Kittang BR. Sequence diversity of sicG among group C and G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis isolates associated with human infections in western Norway. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;33(2):273-7.


Torbjørn Nedrebø, Trond Bruun, Rune Skjåstad, Gunhild Holmaas, and Steinar Skrede.  2012. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in three cases of necrotizing infection of the neck. Infect Dis Reports, 4;e21:73-76. doi: 10.4081/idr.2012.e21. PMID 24470928.


Bård Reiakvam Kittang, Steinar Skrede, Nina Langeland, Christel Gill-Haanshuus and Haima Mylvaganam. 2011.  Emm diversity, superantigen profiles and prescence of SlaA among clinical isolates of group A, C and G streptococci from western Norway.  Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 30;(3):423-433. doi: 10.1007/s10096-010-1105-x. PMID 21103900.

Bård Reiakvam Kittang, Trond Bruun, Nina Langeland, Haima Mylvaganam, Marte Glambek and Steinar Skrede.  2011.  Invasive group A, C and G streptococcal disease in western Norway: virulence gene profiles, clinical features and outcomes. Clin Microbiol Infect 17;(3):758-764 doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03253.x.  PMID: 20456456


Nordal HH, Kittang BR, Bindoff LA. Rhabdomyolysis after group C streptococcal  infection. Infect Dis Rep. 2010 Oct 1;2(2):e15. doi: 10.4081/idr.2010.e15. eCollection 2010 Aug 4.PMID: 24470895

Trond Bruun, Bård Reiakvam Kittang, Haima Mylvaganam, Morten Lund-Johansen and Steinar Skrede.  2010. Clinical, microbiological and molecular characteristics of six cases of group A streptococcal meningitis in western Norway. Scand J Infect Dis 42;(9):665-671 doi: 10.3109/00365548.2010.483477.  PMID: 20465489

Bård Reiakvam Kittang, Nina Langeland, Steinar Skrede and Haima Mylvaganam.  2010. Two unusual cases of severe soft tissue infection caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. J Clin Microbiol 48;(4):1484-1487. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01737-09. PMID: 20147644


Haima Mylvaganam, Trond Bruun, Hallvard Andreas Vindenes, Nina Langeland and Steinar Skrede.  2009. Molecular epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of invasive β-hemolytic streptococcal infection in Western Norway. Clin Microbiol Infect, 15;(3):245-52 doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.02664.x.  PMID: 19178544



Jessica Darenberg, Nahla Ihendyane, Jan Sjölin, Ewa Aufwerber, Sven Haidl, Per Follin, Jan Andersson, Anna Norrby-Teglund, and The Streptlg Study Group: Investigators. Sweden: Erling B. Myhre, Jonas Cronqvist, Birgitta Svanteson, Sven Haidl, Inga Odenholdt, Jan Sjölin, Mia Furebring, Bo Söderquist, Per Follin, Vanda Friman, Ewa Aufwerber, Bengt Gårdlund, Jan Häggqvist, Gunilla Sundelin, Anders Håkansson, Björn Eriksson, Göran Gönther, and Jan Smedjegård. Norway: Claus Ola Solberg, Stein Lund-Tønnessen, Steinar Skrede, Haakon Sjursen, Elisabeth von der Lippe, Oddbjørn Brubakk, Bjørn Myrvang, Kjell B. Hellum, Nils Smith-Erichssen, Øystein Strand, and Aira Bucher. Finland: Asko Järvinen. The Netherlands: Jaap van Dissel, Peter Veldkamp, Jos van der Meer, Bart Jan Kullberg, Jan Verhoef, and Ellen Mascini. United Kingdom: Jonathan Cohen and Shiranee Sriskandan. Denmark: Gitte Kronborg and Christian Fischer. 2003.  Intravenous Immunoglobulin G Therapy in Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome: A European Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.  Clin Infect Dis 37;(3):333-340 PMID: 12884156


Mylvaganam H, Bjorvatn B, Osland A. Distribution and sequence variations of selected virulence genes among group A streptococcal isolates from western Norway. APMIS. 2000 Nov;108(11):771-8.PMID: 11211972

Mylvaganam H, Bjorvatn B, Hofstad T, Osland A. Molecular characterization and allelic distribution of the phage-mediated hyaluronidase genes hylP and hylP2 among group A streptococci from western Norway. Microb Pathog. 2000 Sep;29(3):145-53. PMID: 10968946

Mylvaganam H, Bjorvatn B, Hofstad T, Osland A. Emm gene polymorphism among temporally clustered group A streptococcal isolates in western Norway. APMIS. 2000 Apr;108(4):303-12.PMID: 10843420 2003


Mylvaganam H, Bjorvatn B, Hofstad T, Hjetland R, Hoiby EA, Holm SE.  Small-fragment restriction endonuclease analysis in epidemiological mapping of group A streptococci.  J Med Microbiol. 1994 Apr;40(4):256-60.  PMID: 8151676

Conference abstracts

Ole Hyldegaard, Torbjørn Nedrebø, Michael Nekludov, Anders Rosen, Per Arnell, Ylva Karlsson, Martin Bruun Madsen, Steinar Skrede, Anna Norrby-Teglund, The INFECT Study Group.  Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections – Experiences from the prospective, observational INFECT study. 2nd Tricontinental Scientific Conference on Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine, TRICON2018, September 23-29, 2018, Durban, South Africa

Eivind Rath, Steinar Skrede and Trond Bruun.  Severity scores, appropriateness of treatment, and outcome in non-purulent skin and soft tissue infections: A prospective study.  28th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID), April 21.-24., 2018 Madrid, Spain

Trond Bruun, Ole Hyldegaard, Martin Bruun-Madsen, Michael Nekludov, Per Arnell, Ylva Karlsson, Andreas Itzek, Anna Norrby-Teglund, Steinar Skrede and  INFECT Study Group.  Clinical features of necrotizing soft tissue infections caused by beta-hemolytic Group A, C and G streptococci:  analysis of the Scandinavian INFECT study cohort.  LISSSD 2017; 20th Lancefield International Symposum on Streptococci and Streptococcal Diseases, Fiji, October 16.-20. 2017 (oral presentation)

Dag Harald Skutlaberg, Haima Mylvaganam, Harald Wiker, Anna Norrby-Teglund and Steinar Skrede. The contribution of biofilm to antibiotic resistance in betahemolytic streptococci.  5th European Congress on Microbial Biofilms, Amsterdam The Netherlands 19.-22.September 2017

Eivind Rath, Steinar Skrede, Haima Mylvaganam and Trond Bruun. Etiologi og kliniske aspekter ved ansiktscellulitt: En prospektiv studie.  Vårmøtet, Norsk forening for infeksjonsmedisin/Norsk forening for medisinsk mikrobiologi, Sarpsborg, Norway, 31.mai-1.juni 2017 (oral presentation)

Eivind Rath, Steinar Skrede, Haima Mylvaganam and Trond Bruun.  Aetiology and clinical features of facial cellulitis: A prosepective study.  Abstract reference No., 27th ECCMID, Vienna, Austria, April 22.-25.2017

Oppegaard O, Mylvaganam H, Skrede S, Kittang BR. Økende forekomst av invasive gruppe C og G streptokokk-infeksjoner i Helse-Bergen. Folkehelseinstituttets årskonferanse i mikrobiologi, Oslo, Norway, 1-2. December 2016.

Oppegaard O, Skrede S, Mylvaganam H, Kittang BR. Increasing incidence of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis osteoarticular infections. ECCMID, Amsterdam, Holland, 9-12. April 2016.

Anshu Babbar, Patrick Nitsche Schmitz, Guarran Singh Chhatwal, Andreas Itzek, INFECT study group.  Identification of pathogen traits and host immune responses affecting the outcome of necrotising soft tissue infections.  XIX Lancefield 2014, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Nov. 9.-12.2014

Nikolai Siemens, Bård R. Kittang, Linda Johansson, B. Chakrakodi, Y Kai Larsson, Oddvar Oppegaard, Trond Bruun, Steinar Skrede, INFECT study group, and Anna Norrby-Teglund.  Pathogenic mechanisms of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in severe soft tissue infections.  XIX Lancefield 2014, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Nov. 9.-12.2014 (oral presentation)

Mattias Svensson, Nikolai Siemens, J.Juarez, L. Bosnak, Anna Norrby-Teglund, INFECT study group. Modelling early events of bacterial infection in an organotypic model of human skin.  XIX Lancefield 2014, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Nov. 9.-12.2014 (oral presentation)

Anna Norrby-Teglund, Mattias Svensson, Ole Hyldegaard, Folke Lind, Ylva Karlsson, Per Arnell, Steinar Skrede, Malak Kotb, Dietmar Pieper, Vitor Martins dos Santos, Francois Vandenesch, Christoph Reschreiter, Doreen Marsden, Eytan Ruppin, INFECT study group.  The INECT-project: A systems medicine approach to advance our understanding of necrotizing soft tissue infection.  XIX Lancefield 2014, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Nov. 9.-12.2014 (oral presentation)

Glambek M, Jordal S, Oppegaard O. Group A and G streptococcal endocarditis in western Norway – clinical parameters, emm types and genes encoding fibronectin-binding proteins. XIX Lancefield International Symposium, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 9-12. November 2014

Trond Bruun, Oddvar Oppegaard, and Steinar Skrede.  Early Treatment Response in Cellulitis.  53 rd ICAAC, Denver, Colorado, USA, September 10.-13. 2013

Bruun T, Oppegaard O, Kittang BT, Langeland N, Mylvaganam H, Skrede S. Clinical characteristics and the role of beta-hemolytic management of Group A Streptococcal infections. Rome, Italy, 21-23. March 2013.

Trond Bruun, Bård R. Kittang, Bram de Hoog, Hans K. Flatten, Sidsel Aardal, Nina Langeland, and Steinar Skrede.  Necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A, C and G streptococci: clinical features, management and molecular characteristics of 62 cases in western Norway.  XVIII Lancefield 2011 International Symposium on Streptococci and Streptococcal Diseases.  Palermo, Italy September 5-8, 2011

Bård Kittang, Steinar Skrede, Nina Langeland, Haima Mylvaganam.  Molecular and clinical characteristics of invasive group A, C and G streptococcal disease in western Norway.  20th ECCMID Vienna, Austria April 10-13, 2010