Centre for Interprofessional Workplace Learning
Its21 conference 2023

Abstracts day 1

The 7th conference on interdisciplinary teamwork skills for the 21st century in Bergen, Norway on 27th-28th April 2023.

Logo ITS21-konferansen
Logo Its21

Main content

Its21 day 1; 27th of April 2023

View Abstracts Friday

Session #1 Transition to worklife (parallel)

10:15-11:15 Terminus Hall// Chair: Liv Marit Kleppe

1A: Developing interprofessional mindsets and future work life through collaboration between industry and university. Helen Jøsok Gansmo

Developing interprofessional mindsets and future work life through collaboration between industry and university 

Professor Helen Jøsok Gansmo, Department of Interdisciplinary studies of culture, Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Trondheim. Norway. (helen.gansmo@ntnu.no


Previous years have been marked by uncertainty due to the pandemic, the climate crises, debt crisis, etc. Parallel to these crises, we have also witnessed that many people have lost trust in the institutions of the knowledge society. This leaves the production of the skills needed in the (future) labor market under stress as seen in challenges and debates related to sustainability, employability and changes related to the autonomy and accountability of universities, partly related to debates regarding the work life relevance of education (OECD 2018).  As studies of innovation and interdisciplinarity have highlighted the importance of university-industry collaboration (as described by for instance Modus 2 (Gibbons, Nowotny et al.), Triple Helix (Etzkowitz & Leydesdorffer), recent challenges towards democracy and expertise (Jasanoff, Latour, Nelkin), and responsible research and innovation (RRI) (Åm) etc.) several actors point towards a need for dialogue building interprofessional learning between universities and industry.  

Inter- and transdisciplinary collaboration is in many regards seen as essential for knowledge building/sharing, innovations and for sustainable development. Hence students are often expected to on the one hand learn to collaborate in interdisciplinary teams at the same time as they learn their discipline. In the quest for constructing more robust and sustainable knowledge students are on the other hand also regarded as agents for inter- and transdisciplinarity in business-university collaborations – as they are seen to “disrupt” the day-to-day routines of the established and bring new perspectives, as well as a link to the university researchers. Internships are hence by many regarded as a key for both bridging disciplines and enabling co-learning across the boundaries between universities and industry, and also as safeguarding both the students’ employability and the work life relevance of education.  

Drawing on reviews of the portfolio of study programs offered at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, and qualitative interviews with students, teaching and administrative staff as well as collaborating industry partners and governmental offices for innovation, as well as a case study of a placement program for students in the humanities – Humanities in Practice (HiP) - this paper will elaborate on the effect of internships, particularly for students from the humanities who in several debates are claimed to be the least work life relevant in Norway. The paper will further elaborate on some success stories on diversification in the range of work based and placement learning opportunities and demonstrate how (humanities) students benefit from the internships, particularly because of the interdisciplinary meetings and the reflection exercises they complete. The paper will also describe how the internships create arenas for mutual interprofessional learning between faculty, industry and students, also because the student learning requires process management (from either industry or university, or both). Hence, the paper will also argue that internships are valuable not only for students. Even though internships may be valuable in developing interprofessional mindsets and as co-learning opportunities for both students, faculty and industry, this paper will also highlight some potential pitfalls of leaving university development up to industry’s perceived short term needs for specific skills.  

1B: «Practice placement as a door-opener to the job market» - Music therapy student’s reflections on the value of practice placement. Viggo Krüger (et al.)

«Practice placement as a door-opener to the job market» - Music therapy student’s reflections on the value of practice placement 

Viggo Krüger, Associate Professor, Grieg Academy, University of Bergen 

Ingrid Trefall, Student, Grieg Academy, University of Bergen 

Håkon Albert Gåskjenn, Student, Grieg Academy, University of Bergen 

Contact: viggo.kruger@uib.no 

Background: This paper concerns music therapy students’ experiences on the value of practice placement during their five-year music therapy education program. We present findings from a qualitative research project where we interviewed 10 students. As researchers, we are specifically interested in how music plays a role in the process of gaining an identity as a music therapist, receiving supervision from professional music therapists who works in interdisciplinary communities of practice (in health care, child welfare etc.).  

Method: We used focus group interviews for our study. In the interviews, we focused on the students’ experiences concerning topics such as job opportunities, alumni networks, self-care, relations with colleges etc. Inspired by a narrative, episodic interview approach, we chose to follow the participants narratives freely, rather than having a fixed questionnaire. This allowed the students to elaborate on what they regarded important. The data was analyzed using a thematic analysis procedure. 

Results: We will present the following main and sub themes.   

  • Relational competence (Learning to work relationally to promote health, in a sustainable way, Ethical considerations and thinking critically, The importance of self-care and alumni networks). 
  • Width vs narrowing? (Should one dip a toe in everything, or create cutting-edge expertise? Support in the learning process vs being independent, Finding your own personal style through practice placement. 
  • Developing a professional identity as a music therapist (Gaining competence in interdisciplinary work, Using interdisciplinary language during practice, placement, Becoming part of a reflective interdisciplinary team, Developing a theoretical toolbox, Learning to improvise in communities of practices. 

Discussion: Our findings suggest that music therapy students in the transition from student to therapist, in the first months of practice, often experience a personal process where they learn about their own resources and strengths, as well as experiencing challenges related to taking ownership. The students expressed aspects like learning to see the patient as a whole and finding that the roles became clearer – due to working with other professions and exploring new perspectives. We regard the role as practice supervisor as being a facilitator of a scaffolding process, but also allowing the students to be free and to discover the world of knowledge on their own. Following this line of thinking, the study program should pay close attention to the learning processes and support the students on an individual basis. What works for one student may not work for another student. The program also carries responsibilities to develop courses for the practice teachers, and to keep close contact with the various workplaces where the students gain their knowledge. 

1C: Power dynamics and interprofessional collaboration: How do community pharmacists position general practitioners, and how do general practitioners position themselves? Hilde Rakvaag (et al.)

Power dynamics and interprofessional collaboration: How do community pharmacists position general practitioners, and how do general practitioners position themselves?

Rakvaag, H, Kjome, RLS, Søreide, GE.

Topic: Research results, interprofessional practice

(This abstract is a summary of the paper: Rakvaag, Kjome & Søreide (2023). Power dynamics and interprofessional collaboration: How do community pharmacists position general practitioners, and how do general practitioners position themselves? Journal of Interprofessional Care, DOI: 10.1080/13561820.2022.2148637).

Power, defined as being in possession of control, authority, or influence over others, is highly relevant to the collaboration between general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists. These groups interact through the pharmacists’ task of dispensing GPs’ prescriptions. Studies have described how the presence of medical dominance negatively affects collaboration between physicians and pharmacists (1,2). Norway is recognized as having an egalitarian work sector, which could affect power differentials. We used positioning theory (3) as a framework to explore the aspect of power dynamics between Norwegian general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists. Positioning theory focuses on the rights and duties among people to speak or behave in certain ways, with the aim of highlighting practices that inhibit certain groups of people from performing certain acts or saying certain things. By engaging in positioning, people can claim, deny, and give certain rights, as well as demand or accept certain duties (4). We used the concepts of reflexive and interactive positioning to identify how GPs positioned themselves and how they were positioned by pharmacists in six focus groups. Data were analyzed using systematic text condensation. We identified 5 reflexive positions – ways the GPs positioned themselves, and 5 interactive positions – ways the pharmacists positioned the GPs. Reflexive positions were “GPs are autonomous, responsible, and in charge”, “GPs are health care quality gatekeepers”, “GPs are threatened”, GPs’ time is precious” and “GPs are not infallible”. Interactive positions were “GPs are skilled, but busy”, “GPs are on top of the hierarchy”, GPs are cooperative and open to input”, GPs are not very helpful or cooperative” and “GPs must be looked after and controlled”. Our findings imply that the presence of medical dominance poses challenges even in an egalitarian Norwegian setting. Still, promising possibilities for collaboration are visible in instances of ambiguity and overlap across and within the interactive and reflexive positioning. Giving medical and pharmacy students interprofessional experiences during their educations may demonstrate the positive effects of collaboration and help integrate an interprofessional mindset into both professions. Also, training pharmacy students to share responsibility with the GPs, may reduce the power dispairities.

  1. Luetsch, K., & Scuderi, C. (2020). Experiences of medical dominance in pharmacist-doctor interactions - An elephant in the room? Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 16(9), 1177–1182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2019.12.013
  2. Rakvaag, H., Søreide, G. E., & Kjome, R. L. S. (2020). Positioning each other: A metasynthesis of pharmacist-physician collaboration. Professions and Professionalism, 10(1), e3326–e3326. https://doi.org/10.7577/pp.3326
  3. Harré, R., & van Langenhove, L. (1999). Introducing positioning theory. In R. Harré & L. van Langenhove (Eds.), Positioning theory: Moral contexts of intentional action (pp. 14–31). Blackwell.
  4. Kayı-Aydar, H. (2019). Positioning theory in applied linguistics: Research design and applications. Springer.

Session #2 Co-Creator-workshop, part I (parallel)

10:15-11:15 Terminus Forum

Co-Creator: A learning game about collaborative innovation in the public sector. Anne Merete Bjørnerud 

Anne Merete Bjørnerud, Researcher SESAM, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University of South-Eastern Norway, anne.m.bjornerud@usn.no  

Workshop summary: The participants will be introduced to the game CO-CREATOR © NORGE. The workshop creates a space to reflect upon various aspects of co-creation and gives the participants an opportunity to share knowledge, experiences and learn from each other. All while being engaged in problem solving and trying to make decisions on behalf of the game’s project group. 

The game can be used to teach innovation and project management. It can be a process tool in connection with specific projects, allow people to get to know each other, and gain common understanding. The game is developed by Gametools in collaboration with KS and Lillehammer University College. 


Workshop style

  • Introduction (10 minutes): Brief description of the workshop and facilitator(s). The participants choose between four cases and are divided into teams of 4-6 persons accordingly: School dropout, Environmental and climate challenges, Reorganization of care services and Site development.
  • Gaming (60 minutes + 15 minutes break + 50 minutes): Introduction to the groups’ cases and different scenarios. For each scenario the groups discuss the situation before agreeing upon which choice to make (A, B or C). This process will be facilitated by the workshop runner(s). After 3x3 scenarios the groups will end up with scores on goal achievement, innovation culture and innovative solution.
  • Rounding up and learnings (15 minutes): Why did your group end up with this outcome? Reflections on using this tool in higher education. Group discussions and plenary sharing.

Expected outcomes

The purpose of the game is to disseminate and utilize research knowledge and educate practitioners in collaborative innovation. The game simulates a project that provides players with:

  • An overview of management principles in collaborative innovation processes
  • A collective learning process based on the participants' shared experiences
  • An opportunity for risk-free testing and gaining own experience and recognition
  • Experience with a gamified approach to experience-based learning and promoting co-creation, and decision making in a new group

The game might inspire the participants to consider applying game-based approaches in their respective courses and other learning situations.

We have no vested interest in promoting the game, other than sharing a learning tool which has received positive response from previous conference participants. It is desirable to only have the workshop in Norwegian/Scandinavian. Recommended game duration is approximately 2.5 hours, included discussions and a break. We have several copies of the game.

Related research

CO-CREATOR © NORGE is a version of the original Danish game, which was developed together with the research project CLIPS (Collaborative Innovation in the Public Sector). It is related to the book Samarbejdsdrevet innovation i den offentlige sektor (Sørensen & Torfing, 2011) or Collaborative Innovation in the Public Sector (Torfing, 2016).


Sørensen, E. & Torfing, J. (2011). Samarbejdsdrevet innovation i den offentlige sektor. Jurist- og Økonomforbundet.

Torfing, J. (2016). Collaborative Innovation in the Public Sector. Georgetown University Press.

Co-creator-workshop, part II @11:45-12:30

Session #3 E-poster discussions (parallel)

11:30-12:30 Terminus Hall // Chair: Reidun Lisbet Skeide Kjome

3A: TUR, the council for educational development in Uppsala. Malin Östman

TUR, the council for educational development in Uppsala.

Malin Östman TUR/Uppsala University

TUR, the Council for Educational Development at the Faculty of Science and Technology at Uppsala University Sweden, provides support and guidance for the faculty's pedagogical development. TUR acts to ensure that students, teachers and educational leaders at all levels work together based on reflection and scientifically based practice. An increased knowledge of university pedagogy and subject didactics guarantees well-founded decisions and leads to thoughtful renewal of teaching and examination, courses and programs.

TUR is responsible for the faculty's continuing education of university teachers through courses as well as seminars, workshops and conferences (TUK). TUR provides support in the form of different networks and offers adapted support to educational leaders and teachers, educational programs and departments. TUR conducts studies among students and teachers, which is the basis for further pedagogical development.

TUR' mission is also to provide support in developing prioritized areas in relation to Uppsala university's pedagogical program and development focus for educational evaluations. Furthermore, TUR is working strategically to promote dialogue on education and training at local, national and international level. (from TUR -Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology -Uppsala University, Sweden uu.se)

For this proposed e-poster, I would like to discuss how TUR works interdisciplinary within the faculty. In TUR the members come from many different STEM disciplines and work together to provide educational training support to all teachers at the faculty of technology and science. The different members receive from 5-20% to work within TUR. Together the council discusses and develops courses, seminars, support and training within the pedagogical field (this can be anything from International classroom challenges to specific sessions on different pedagogical tools). TUR also works as a reference for faculty leadership. From a practitioners perspective I would like to discuss the unique TUR work environment and exemplify using activities from TUR. For me the experience within TUR has been very developing both personally and professionally. Part of this has been learning to work within the interdisciplinary group.

I would like to present TUR through an e-poster and mini-presentation/slam. The council is a unique way of working with collegial pedagogical training and support within the HE context and I hope to discuss this further with conference participants.

3B: MEST-ERN: Peer-assistedlearning and assessment in clinical placement in nutrition education. Anna Kleppe Moe (et al.)

MEST-ERN: Peer-assisted learning and assessment in clinical placement in nutrition education

Anna Kleppe Moe1,2, Helene Dahl1, Monika Kvernenes2, Aslaug Drotningsvik1, Hanne Rosendahl-Riise11 Department of Clinical Medicine(K1), University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway2 Centre for medical education, Faculty of Medicine, Universityof Bergen, Bergen, Norway

Background: Clinical placement is supposed to strengthen students’ clinical competence, professional identity, cooperative skills and confidence in their profession. There are, though, two important obstacles limiting the quality of clinical placement within nutrition education: the first being a lack of clinical dietitians in primary healthcare who can supervise students, the second a lack of fitting tools for assessing nutrition students’ clinical competence during placement. These are common challenges within several health professions where clinical placement is an important part of educating new professionals.

Aim: In this project our aim is to develop, implement and evaluate a model for peer-assisted learning and assessment for nutrition students in clinical placement in primary health care.

Methods: The project will consist of three work packages (WP): In WP1 we will develop an educational package for bachelor students in human nutrition enabling them to function as peer supervisors while in clinical placement, where they might have other professions than dietitians supervising them. The training will include the use of Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise (Mini-CEX), feedback literacy and collegial support. The aim is to prepare the students to support each other in the planning and utilization of the placement period as well as reaching the intended learning outcomes. WP2 will further develop and validate Mini-CEX as a tool for peer-assisted learning in nutrition education. In WP3 we will assess the students’ experiences with peer-assisted learning as well as assess the effects of this model for supervision in clinical placement. As similar challenges can be found in other health professions as well, this project will be relevant and possibly transferable to other health professions where supervision resources in the municipalities are scarce, e.g., pharmacists and psychologists.

3C: «It takes a village» to develop character. Lea Sørensen

«It takes a village» to develop character - Design opportunities of learning activities to promote the integration of 21st Century Skills in part-time education 

Lea Sørensen 

Background/Introduction: The abstract originates from Business Academy Aarhus' work to integrate 21st Century Skills in the field of part-time education, and it is therefore based on the learning from the implementation of 21st Century Skills and character development in the full-time educations and expands the field to the field of part-time education. The aim is to integrate 21st Century Skills (which cf. Fadel et al. deal with knowledge, skills, character traits, and meta-learning) in current and future learning activities in the fields of part-time education –it is thus a question of adapting the didactics of the programs to support the students' opportunities to match the demands of the 21st century labour market.  

Purpose: As the typical student in part-time education has a significantly different profile and background than the typical full-time student, e.g. in relation to age, experience, and educational needs, the focus is to examine how the work with 21st Century Skills can take place in a part-time education context, including how 21st Century Skills are integrated into learning activities (didactic initiatives) in part-time education.This E-poster will provide suggestions on how facilitators can design learning activities, which can promote the integration of 21st Century Skills in part-time education.   

Methods: In this abstract, the literature search on 21st Century Skills and part-time education was based on research articles, which included part-time education of managers at universities and business schools primarily in England and the USA as well as discussions, workshops, and interviews with teachers, a manager from the part-time department at EAAA, and expert interviews with resource persons from the project: Program on character formation in vocational education(Aalborg University, UC Syd,  Pluss Leadership, and Center for Youth Research).  

The E-poster will provide three approaches to how facilitators can design learning activities. One method: «Three character-forming dimensions» (Figure 1) must support that the facilitators have three dimensions in mind (culture, professionalism and reflection) in their teaching design. 

«Give voice to the values» and «Guided self-reflection» are the two more explicit learning activities. The purpose is to provide concrete suggestions on how the facilitators can help the individual student discover their own dominant behavioral preferences and at the same time develop their character. This is best done by letting the students work together and share reflections and experiences because it provides the opportunity to reflect on themselves -and recognize other people's feelings, thoughts, or behaviors -in a safe learning environment. 

Conclusion: The ancient African proverb «It takes a village to raise a child» implies that raising a child is a communal effort and it is a good summary of how to integrate a focus on character development into part-time education and programs  –it is necessary to understand, relate to, and involve the surroundings and context when students in Part-Time Education need to develop their character. 

Session #2 Co-Creator-workshop, part II (parallel)

11:30-12:30 Terminus Forum

Session #4 Developing interprofessional education, part I (parallel)

13:30-14:30 Terminus Hall // Chair: Merethe Hustoft

4A: Balancing freedom and structure through gamification in team-based learning: a case from entrepreneurship education. Matthew Lynch (et al.)

Balancing freedom and structure through gamification in team-based learning: A case from entrepreneurship education 

Matthew Lynch, Nils Sanne, Amalie Henriette Finrud Jøsendal and Elin Kubberød; Handelshøyskolen NMBU  

Relevance and background: In the 21st-century labour market, being able to work effectively and productively with others in teams is no longer regarded as desirable, but more a necessity. Proponents of experiential learning suggest that a learning through ‘doing’ is effective when designing team-based courses (Riebe, Girardi & Whitsed, 2016; Pittaway & Cope, 2007). Despite a clear mandate for teamwork training in higher education programs, the optimal learning design is much less certain. The aim of this research is to provide new perspectives on how to effectively design team-based learning through a gamified pedagogy, exemplified with a practice-based course from entrepreneurship education where students work in entrepreneurial teams on their own business ideas.  

It appears to be a need for pedagogical approaches that balance structure around what students should be doing to ensure progress, independence, and perseverance in the teamwork with sufficient freedom (Powell, 2013) and ambiguity to give students an authentic taste of working together to solve real problems and come up with new innovative ideas (Neck & Corbett, 2018; Peschl Deng a, Nicole Larson, 2021). Gamification, the use of gameplay mechanisms in nongame settings, has been suggested as one approach that accommodates many challenges in experiential team-based courses (Isabella, 2018). Unlike simulations, which focuses on modelling real phenomena in unreal settings (Fox, Pittaway og Uzuegbunam, 2018), gamification can model reality using “un-real” gameplay mechanisms like points, levels, leaderboards, status, trophies and rewards in real-life settings (Deterding et al., 2011; Seaborn & Fels, 2015). Gamification inspires learning by doing and enables engagement, motivation and hence resilience in the team process over time (Hyams-Ssekasi og Taheri, 2022). An intriguing research question is whether gamification can assist in striking a balance between sufficient freedom and the structure needed in order to ensure continued and effective learning in teams?  

Approach: The research employs a phenomenological, qualitative approach that emphasizes understanding students' experiences from the learning process. A total of 11 in-depth interviews were conducted with students who took a practice-based semester long course in 2021/2022 (4 group and 7 individual interviews), which made up a total sample of 18 students. The exploratory problem made it natural to use thematic analysis (Bell et al., 2018). The aim was to uncover patterns and tendencies that could form themes that deepened and nuanced the theoretical framework.  

Findings: The analysis uncovered three key themes: The game heightens emotional exposure, where the gamified elements challenged the students on several levels; Social calibration through the open game, provided a security net for student teams to make decisions and; The rules of the game trigger the team, that laid the foundation for effective teamwork – but also pinpoint dilemmas in the balance between structure and freedom in the group process.  

Value/Originality: This gamified pedagogical approach is unique and therefore represents an additional contribution in the academic conversation around balancing structure with freedom in team-based learning.  

Key words: Team-based learning, learning design, gamification, entrepreneurship education

4B: Sub-acute simulation scenarios from primary care to train interprofessional collaboration in healthcare education. Lene Lunde (et al.)

Sub-acute simulation scenarios from primary care to train interprofessional collaboration in healthcare education 

Lene Lunde1, Anne Moen1, Rune Bruhn Jakobsen2, Elin Olaug Rosvold3 & Anja Maria Brænd3 

1Department of Public Health Science, University of Oslo

2Department of Health Management and Health Economics, University of Oslo and

3Department of General Practice, University of Oslo 

Corresponding author: Lene Lunde, email: lene.lunde@medisin.uio.no 

Background: Healthcare students need to develop competence in interprofessional collaboration (IPC) during their education. Simulation-based learning is recognized as a powerful facilitator for active and safe learning in healthcare. Simulation training traditionally consists of acute clinical situations, and few studies report the use of sub-acute simulation scenarios from primary care.  

Aim: To explore sub-acute simulation scenarios from primary care as learning opportunities for healthcare students to develop IPC competence.  

Methods: We developed two simulation scenarios with an older patient staying at a nursing home following surgery for a hip fracture. The scenario starts with the patient developing subtle symptoms of either a urinary tract infection or pneumonia. We recruited 10 medical students, 8 master’s students in advanced geriatric nursing and 9 bachelor’s students in nursing to participate. The students were in their last or second-to-last year of education, and had completed most of their clinical practice rotation. We collected data as video recordings of the simulation sessions, audio recording of focus group interviews and self-reported data with The Interprofessional Collaborative Competency Attainment Survey (ICCAS). Data was collected in April 2019. 

Results: Interaction analysis of video recordings revealed that development of a shared treatment plan provided the students with a concrete task that had potential to activate their collaborative skills. In the focus group interviews, the students said that the scenarios were realistic and familiar. They explained that the patient’s vague symptoms provided opportunities to collaborate, listen to each other, and use each other’s competence to solve the clinical problem(s). The students emphasized that participating in these simulation activities increased their confidence in IPC. Furthermore, the results from ICCAS indicated that participating in the scenarios led to a positive change in self-assessed interprofessional competence. 

Conclusions: Simulation training with sub-acute simulation scenarios from primary care offers realistic learning opportunities for IPC competence development. Introducing these scenarios in healthcare education has the potential to expand healthcare students’ collaborative competence and prepare them for future IPC. 

4C: Are interprofessional capabilities transferable in early-to-late interprofessional education? Anders Bærheim (et al.)

Are interprofessional capabilities transferable in early-to-late interprofessional education? 

A Baerheim, IJ Ness, SJ Brenna, A Johannessen 

Several schools worldwide provide interprofessional (IP) courses spanning from early to late in their curriculums. Parsell and Bligh (1998) argue from general educational theories that repeated exposure early-to-late are necessary for developing IP capabilities. However, the listed references in this and similar articles are largely referring to each other and to general pedagogical theories. We have alas not found any empirical support for these plausible arguments.  

The aim of this study was to elucidate whether repeated exposure for IP courses is beneficial for development of IP capabilities.  

Material and methods 

Design A retrospect, natural two-group experiment. The included empirical data stem from four existing IP courses at two educational sites. Material At the University of Bergen (UiB) and the Western Norway University of Applied Sciences (HVL), Norway, final year health and social care students have a common workplace-based IP course (20h) where they care plans for patients or educational units for children (TVEPS). This is the first IP course for the students of UiB. Students from the HVL, however, started each of their three academic years with a campus-based IP course of 1-2 weeks duration. These three IP courses use theoretical cases as the task to be elaborated by the IP teams. Instrument The Interprofessional Collaborative Competency Attainment Survey (ICCAS), scored immediately after ended course. The ICCAS questionnaire has 20 items in five IP domains: communication, collaboration, roles /responsibilities, patient-centeredness, and team functioning. Students’ score on the ICCAS survey may be used to evaluate and compare IP course outcomes. ICCAS is validated in Norwegian, and the students score in a national online survey run by TVEPS. Ethics Students sign their informed consent before scoring in the survey. The survey is approved by The Norwegian Centre for Research Data (reference# number 587758).  


In the pre-pandemic year of 2019 in total 743 students attended the four courses. In total, 83 % of the students were females, and mean age was 24.5 years. They came from 19 different health and social care education programs.  

The learning effect of an IP course was assessed by Cohen’s d; medium effect by d > 0.5, and high effect by d > 0.8. The four courses scored d = 0.5-1.2, median 1.0, year 3 at HVL lowest and TVEPS highest.  

Most notable however was that the students’ pre-course scores did not vary substantially from course to course. Their self-perceived starting points was about the same level for each course, varying maximum 4% from course to course (ICCAS pre-course means = 3.9-4.1, 5-point scale). As for the learning effect of the TVEPS course, HVL students scored the same learning effect as the UiB students (1.2, 1.2).   


We cannot from our analysis demonstrate any transfer of IP capabilities scored as attained at one course over to the next course. Consequences are substantial, and possible remedies will be discussed. 

Session #5 Facilitating teamwork (parallel)

13:30-14:30 Terminus Forum // Chair: Sissel Johansen Brenna

5A: Supervisors’ Perspectives on Online Interprofessional Supervision: Results from a Mixed-Methods Longitudinal Cross-Sectional Study. Kari Almendingen1* (et al.)

Supervisors’ Perspectives on Online Interprofessional Supervision: Results from a Mixed-Methods Longitudinal Cross-Sectional Study

Kari Almendingen1*,Torhild Skotheim2 and Ellen Merethe Magnus3 

1Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo Metropolitan University, 0130 Oslo, Norway 
2Department of Primary and Secondary Teacher Education, Faculty of Education and International Studies, Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway 
3Department of Academic Affairs, Division for Education and Library, Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway 

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed 


Collaboration in interprofessional collaboration (IPC) teams is a part of working in welfare services. Unlike uniprofessional supervision, interprofessional supervision involves supervisors and students with different educational backgrounds. This study explores 105 supervisors’ responses after synchronous supervision of 15,700 students from teaching, health, and social work education programs who participated in an annual preservice interprofessional learning (IPL) course from 2018 to 2022. The purpose was to explore supervisors’ experience of the online IPL supervisor role and of the student’s learning outcomes through a longitudinal mixed-methods repeated design. Response rates: 61%, 45%, 82% and 40%, respectively. The students worked in IPL groups with limited interaction with supervisors, using a case-based learning approach. The supervisors were supportive of IPL but suggested changes to increase relevance. The imbalance in the knowledge base on child-related topics and IPL preparedness among the student groups was challenging. Some questioned the need for supervision, whereas others were concerned about the limited time allocated for supervision. We conclude that online supervision is forward-looking because candidates must prepare for helping users, such as children and their next-of-kin, online. We deduce that online supervision is relevant for the future and less complicated than IPL supervision. 

The abstract is based is based on the following published paper:  

Almendingen, K.; Skotheim, T.; Magnus, E.M. Supervisors’ Perspectives on Online Interprofessional Supervision: Results from a Mixed-Methods Longitudinal Cross-Sectional Study. Educ. Sci. 2023, 13, 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13010034 

5B: Coping with uncertainty and ambiguity in real-life practice and student team-centred learning courses: supporting pedagogies, the role of mentoring. Inger Beate Pettersen (et al.)

Inger Beate Pettersen, Western Norway University of Applied Science (corresponding author), Elin Kubberød, Handelshøyskolen, NMBU, Matthew Patrick James Lynch, Handelshøyskolen, NMBU, Nora Geirsdotter Bækkelund, Western Norway University of Applied Science, Jan Ove Rogde Mjånes, Western Norway University of Applied Science, Øystein Stavø Høvig, Western Norway University of Applied Science, Kari Håvåg Voldsund, Western Norway University of Applied Science 


Universities growingly emphasize real-life practice and student-centred learning to better equip students with relevant competencies and skills for working life. Confronted with social grand challenges, universities need to nurture a different set of skills to enable young professionals to cope with future problems. Educators therefore deliberately design courses that involve real-life issues and wicked problems, often in combination with student-centred approaches. Open-ended problems are incorporated in educational designs, creating uncertainty and ambiguity in the learning and problem-solving process, pushing students outside their comfort zone, stimulating to experimental behaviors.  

Some courses emphasize interdisciplinary teamwork to solve complex problems and use innovation methods such as lean start-up and design thinking, to develop creative and analytic skills. The underlying idea is to create learning arenas that ‘simulate’ real work life challenges, to better prepare students for working life. Yet, individual students and teams may cope differently with this type of learning, and there is a need for supportive pedagogies to assist the student-centred learning, implying that students become actively engaged in their learning and for teachers to facilitate the learning process.  

In the planned presentation, we present different educational designs (three courses in innovation and entrepreneurship, and STEM) which incorporate in different ways, open-ended problems with no clear answers. All courses emphasize practice-based learning, student-centred activities, and teamwork. One common learning outcome across the courses is enhanced coping with uncertainty and ambiguity, and opportunity recognition and exploitation.  

All courses have developed supportive pedagogies, namely mentoring, adapted to the special needs in the courses, and include a variety of mentors, including students, faculty, and industry experts. Mentoring can be seen as an effective approach to teaching and learning in student-centred and practice-based learning. Mentoring relationships have been implemented in higher education, in STEM, arts and entrepreneurship education, and have proved to enhance students’ learning, academic achievement, self-confidence, cognitive and socio-emotional growth, and stimulated to deep and strategic learning approaches.   

In the presentation, we aim to present different educational designs, all incorporating mentoring of student teams as a core pedagogy. For each course, we argue for why we use mentoring as a supporting pedagogy and how it may support students learning, how mentoring is used (different categories and type of mentors), and challenges of harmonizing mentoring pedagogy across educators/mentors.  

When mentoring represents the essential pedagogy and teaching in a course, it is critical to ensure that student teams are provided the same quality. It is well known that mentors can have different behavioral styles, and may emphasize different functions, such as advising, correcting, challenging, emotional support, engagement and encouragement, and reflection, questioning, open discussions and feedback. Inspired from prior mentoring literature, we ask:   

  • What types of mentoring behavior or styles are appropriate across the different learning situations (curriculum and student population) and mentoring relationships? 

  • How may educators together develop appropriate mentoring behaviors and styles to provide high quality mentoring to student teams?  

The authors collaborate in a common HK-dir project: Engineers in interdisciplinary teams solve the challenges of the future. The authors plan to write a research paper on mentoring of student teams in practice-based courses.  


Dolenc, N. R., Mitchell, C. E., & Tai, R. H. (2016). Hands off: Mentoring a student-led robotics team. International Journal of Science Education, Part B, 6(2), 188-212. 

Gimmon, E. (2014). Mentoring as a practical training in higher education of entrepreneurship. Education+ Training, 56(8/9), 814-825. 

Hanson, J. (2021). Best practices for mentoring in arts entrepreneurship education: Findings from a delphi study. Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy, 4(2), 119-142. 

Kubberød, E., Fosstenløkken, S. M., & Erstad, P. O. (2018). Peer mentoring in entrepreneurship education: towards a role typology. Education+ Training. 

Lunsford, L. G., Crisp, G., Dolan, E. L., & Wuetherick, B. (2017). Mentoring in higher education. The SAGE handbook of mentoring, 20, 316-334. 

McCabe, A., & O'Connor, U. (2014). Student-centred learning: the role and responsibility of the lecturer. Teaching in Higher Education, 19(4), 350-359. 

Olewnik, A., Yerrick, R., Simmons, A., Lee, Y., & Stuhlmiller, B. (2020). Defining open-ended problem solving through problem typology framework. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy (iJEP), 10(1). 

Pleschová, G., & McAlpine, L. (2015). Enhancing university teaching and learning through mentoring: A systematic review of the literature. International journal of mentoring and coaching in education. 

Termeer, C. J., Dewulf, A., & Biesbroek, R. (2019). A critical assessment of the wicked problem concept: relevance and usefulness for policy science and practice. Policy and Society, 38(2), 167-179. 

Trinidad, J. E. (2020). Understanding student-centred learning in higher education: students’ and teachers’ perceptions, challenges, and cognitive gaps. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 44(8), 1013-1023. 

5C: The relevance of a cooperation agreement at the start of active student groups. Are Holen (et al.)

The relevance of a cooperation agreement at the start of active student groups

Are Holen1 and Bjørn Sortland2

1Experts in Teamwork, Department of Mental Health, NTNU
2Bjørn Sortland, Experts in Teamwork academic Section, Department of Industrial Economics and Technology Management, NTNU

Background: The introduction of active learning in higher education has scaled up the relevance of student satisfaction. Toward “Experts in Team” (EIT) at NTNU some concerns were initially voiced by faculty members and students for introducing experience-based group-oriented learning in which students were more responsible for their learning.  Generally, such educational programs were new to academia; their format were not fully developed from the start. The ways of organizing EiT underwent continuous improvements over the years, which also was reflected in the students' assessments. An additional factor for success was the introduction of faculty development with training and exchange of experiences for those involved.   

Research context: The EiT-subject is available in two formats: a distributed and an intensive variant, both involves 15 full days of team collaboration. The teams commonly consist of 5-6 students from diverse study programs. During the first two days of EiT, the students are given the obligatory task to discuss and develop conjointly a written agreement about how to collaborate toward improved teamwork and delivery by regularly using self-assessments and feedback.  

Aim of study: The aim was twofold. The first was to look at the correlation of the quality of the teams’ obligatory undertaking in relation to the final student satisfaction.  The second aim was to explore the relative strength of the various variable blocks.   

Methods: A survey was made in 2016. Close to 2000 students were invited and N=1933 enrolled.  A statistical linear regression design was used. Student satisfaction gauged toward the end was made the dependent variable. The independent variables were entered in four blocks: 1) student demographic variables; 2) personality traits from the five-factor inventory; 3) group dynamics variables covering interaction, facilitation and process orientation, feedback, and reflection. In the final block, was 4) the quality measure of the team’s early work on the written collaboration agreement.  

Results: All variable blocks added significant explanations of the total variance of student satisfaction. However, the highest explanatory strength was found in the block related to facilitation, interactive group reflection and feedback orientation. The quality variable reflecting the sincerity of the work done on the written collaboration agreement also came out significantly after the three prior blocks had been corrected for. 

Discussion: The findings underscore the importance of the initial work on the cooperation agreement; it seems to instigate the subsequent reflecting and feedback-oriented interaction within the teams toward in the direction of better functioning student teams. The students’ verbal reports indicated that they found the internal assessments as taxing, challenging, but also useful. 

Take home message: The findings go against the former concerns about using active student group learning. Moreover, devoting some time to team reflection and feedback seem to enhance experiential learning of collaborate skills that fosters better teamwork. 

Session #6 Developing 21st Century Skills for a Sustainable future through Interdisciplinary Education (plenary)

14:45-16:15 Terminus Hall // Chair: Lovisa Håkansson // Interactive panel debate

Developing 21st Century Skills for a Sustainable future through Interdisciplinary Education. Inger Beate Pettersen (et al.)

Developing 21st Century Skills for a Sustainable future through Interdisciplinary Education 

Inger Beate Pettersen, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences (Norway)

Ane Johannessen, Centre for Interprofessional Workplace Learning (TVEPS), Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen (Norway)

Bjørn Sortland, Experts in Teamwork Academic Section, Department of Industrial Economics and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

Hanne Løje, IOK Research Group (Engineering Didactics and Pedagogy), DTU Engineering Technology, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark)

Lovisa Håkansson, Division for Quality Enhancement / Academic Teaching and Learning, Uppsala University (Sweden)

Malin Östman, TUR - the Council for Educational Development at the Faculty of Science and Technology/CEMUS- The Centre for Environment and Development Studies, Uppsala University (Sweden)

Sissel Johansson Brenna, Centre for Interprofessional Workplace Learning (TVEPS)/ Department of health and social sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences. (Norway)

Steffen Kjær Johansen, SDU Global Sustainable Production, Department of Technology and Innovation, University of Southern Denmark (Denmark)

Ulla Haahr, Department of Research and Innovation, Business Academy Aarhus – School of Applied Sciences (Denmark)

Ulrike Schnaas, Division for Quality Enhancement / Academic Teaching and Learning, Uppsala University (Sweden)

Villads Keiding, IPE Research Group (Innovation Processes and Entrepreneurship), DTU Engineering Technology, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark)

One key mission of universities is to equip young professionals with the attitudes, skills, and competencies needed to solve globally intertwined sustainability challenges affecting our time. Universities increasingly engage with the grand challenges of today, and one type of engagement is through experience-based courses providing students with the relevant competencies and skills to cope with complex and wicked problems. Yet, the educational design of such courses is not straightforward, and educators continuously question: How can we best help and prepare our students to cope and innovate in a rapidly shifting, complex and interconnected world?

When using wicked problems as a learning arena, educators will need new pedagogy to support students. Moreover, students will need both factual knowledge related to their discipline and certain key competencies and skills, often named 21st-century skills. These skills are normally acquired outside the traditional classroom, involving interdisciplinary interactions, real-life problems, and action-based teaching. Scholars emphasize competencies and skills, such as teamwork and collaboration, creativity and entrepreneurship, networking and learning with stakeholders, flexible mindsets, forward-looking, critical thinking, resilience, and problem-solving.

In Scandinavia, several higher education institutions and universities working with experienced-based and interdisciplinary learning have established The Nordic Experts in Teams Network funded by The Nordic Council of Ministers (Nordplus). Experts in Teams is a ‘method, practice or approach’ for developing interdisciplinary teamwork skills and other 21st century skills. The method strengthens the students’ transferable skills in interdisciplinary teamwork, innovation, and group dynamics. In the Experts in Teams courses, the students work in interdisciplinary teams. The frame is a real-life case from the public or private sector or a trade organization. The students develop interdisciplinary teamwork skills by reflecting on and learning from specific teamwork situations. Furthermore, they develop an understanding of how those skills scaffold the solution of complex and wicked problems.

At NTNU, the work methods in the Experts in Teamwork course have been developed over two decades and have for the last decade influenced the development of similar courses at other universities and higher education institutions, through a sharing network culture. The Experts in Teams (EiT) method has spread to other universities through creative local adaptation (‘no copy-paste’) and represents a fertile ground for innovative pedagogy and rich course formats.

In a joint 1,5 hour presentation and panel conversation, we aim to present and discuss aspects of implementing EiT in courses. We draw on the network partners' combined experience and exemplify with our courses. The workshop will evolve around, e.g., the following aspects of EiT: 1) challenges to implementing the ‘EiT’ course, 2) arguments for the course variant of EiT chosen, curriculum and pedagogies, 3) competence challenges for faculty, 4) Involvement with real-life, and 5) learning challenges and outcomes for students.

Suggested readings:

Grint, K. (2010). Wicked problems and clumsy solutions: the role of leadership. In S. Brookes & K. Grint (Eds.), The New Public Leadership Challenge (pp. 169-186). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Interprofessional Education Collaborative Expert Panel. (2011). Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practive: Report of an Expert Panel. Retrieved from https://ipec.memberclicks.net/assets/2011-Original.pdf

Kocak, O., Coban, M., Aydin, A., & Cakmak, N. (2021). The mediating role of critical thinking and cooperativity in the 21st century skills of higher education students. Thinking skills and creativity, 42, 100967. doi:10.1016/j.tsc.2021.100967

Kunnskapsdepartementet. (2020-2021). Melding til Stortinget, Utdanning for omstilling, Økt arbeidslivsrelevans i høyere utdanning. Retrieved from https://www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/meld.-st.-16-20202021/id2838171/

Moirano, R., Sánchez, M. A., & Štěpánek, L. (2020). Creative interdisciplinary collaboration: A systematic literature review. Thinking skills and creativity, 35, 100626. doi:10.1016/j.tsc.2019.100626

Rittel, H. W., & Webber, M. M. (1974). Wicked problems. Man-made Futures, 26(1), 272-280.

Rogers, G. D., Thistlethwaite, J. E., Anderson, E. S., Abrandt Dahlgren, M., Grymonpre, R. E., Moran, M., & Samarasekera, D. D. (2017). International consensus statement on the assessment of interprofessional learning outcomes. Medical teacher, 39(4), 347-359. doi:10.1080/0142159X.2017.1270441

Sortland, B. (2022). Experts in Teamwork 2023. Handbook for village supervisors and learning assistants (14 ed.). Trondheim: NTNU, Experts in Teamwork Academic Section.

Sortland, B., & Løje, H. (2019). Implementing twenty-first century skills in education at NTNU and DTU. Paper presented at the SEFI, European Society of Engineering Education, Annual conference.

Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times: John Wiley & Sons.

Veine, S., Anderson, M. K., Andersen, N. H., Espenes, T. C., Søyland, T. B., Wallin, P., & Reams, J. (2020). Reflection as a core student learning activity in higher education - Insights from nearly two decades of academic development. The international journal for academic development, 25(2), 147-161. doi:10.1080/1360144X.2019.1659797

Wallin, P., Lyng, R., Sortland, B., & Veine, S. (2017). Experts in teamwork -A large scale course for interdisciplinary learning and collaboration. Paper presented at the 13th International CDIO Conference, Calgary.

Wiek, A., Withycombe, L., & Redman, C. L. (2011). Key competencies in sustainability: a reference framework for academic program development. Sustainability science, 6(2), 203-218. doi:10.1007/s11625-011-0132-6

Working group Bergen. (2020). SDG - Quality in higher education: Developing a platform for sharing of ideas and practices within the universities. Retrieved from https://www.uib.no/sites/w3.uib.no/files/attachments/sdg_-_quality_in_higher_education_-_report_feb_2020.pdf


16:15 End and social program

16:30: City walk, approx 1,5 h

19:00: Conference dinner at the venue

View Abstracts Friday