Global Health Priorities

Scientific Publications

- an overview of scientific publications from the Global Health Priorities Research Group prior to 1 June 2019

Later publications are listed under BCEPS (Bergen Centre for Ethics and Priority Setting) and can be found in the publications section of the BCEPS website.


  • Miljeteig I, Berhane Defaye F, Wakim P, Neema Desalegn D, Berhane Y, Norheim OF, Danis M. (2019). Financial risk protection at the bedside: How Ethiopian physicians try to minimize out-of-pocket health expenditures. PLOS ONE 14(2).
  • Norheim OF. Priority Setting on the Path to UHC: Time for Stronger Institutions and Stronger Health Systems: Response to Recent Commentaries. Int J Health Policy Manag 2019; 8(8): 511-3.
  • Berhane Defaye F, Danis M, Wakim P, Berhane Y, Norheim OFMiljeteig I. Bedside Rationing Under Resource Constraints-A National Survey of Ethiopian Physicians' Use of Criteria for Priority Setting. AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019; 10(2): 125-35.
  • Memirie ST, Tolla MT, Desalegn D, et al. Norheim OF* A cost-effectiveness analysis of maternal and neonatal health interventions in Ethiopia. Health Policy Plan 2019; 34(4): 289-97.
  • Verguet S, Feldhaus I, Jiang Kwete X, et al. Norheim OF* Health system modelling research: towards a whole-health-system perspective for identifying good value for money investments in health system strengthening. BMJ Glob Health 2019; 4(2): e001311.


  • Kruk ME, Gage AD, Arsenault C, et al. Norheim OF* High-quality health systems in the Sustainable Development Goals era: time for a revolution. Lancet Glob Health 2018 Sep 5. pii: S2214-109X(18)30386-3. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30386-3.
  • GBD 2017 SDG Collaborators. Norheim OF* Measuring progress from 1990 to 2017 and projecting attainment to 2030 of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals for 195 countries and territories: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2018: 392, 2091-2138.
  • Norheim OF. Disease control priorities third edition is published: a theory of change is needed for translating evidence to health policy. International Journal of Health Policy and Management 2018; 7(9): 771-7.
  • Wester G, Bærøe KNorheim OF. Towards theoretically robust evidence on health equity: a systematic approach to contextualising equity-relevant randomised controlled trials. J Med Ethics 2018.
  • Jamison DT, Alwan A, Mock CN, et al. Norheim OF*Universal health coverage and intersectoral action for health: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition. Lancet 2018: Mar 17;391(10125):1108-1120. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32906-9
  • Welch VA, Norheim OF, Jull J, Cookson R, Sommerfelt H, Tugwell P; CONSORT-Equity and Boston Equity Symposium. CONSORT-Equity 2017 extension and elaboration for better reporting of health equity in randomised trials. BMJ. 2017 Nov 23;359:j5085. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j5085.



Andersson AK, Lindemark F, Johansson KA, (2016) ”Priority Rules as Solutions to Conflicting Health Care Rights”, Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, Published online 3 September 2016

Black RE, Levin C, Walker N, Chou D, Liu L, Temmerman M, DCP3 Essential Surgery Author Group (including Johansson KA). (2016) ”Reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health: key messages from Disease Control Priorities 3rd Edition”, Lancet, Published online 9 April 2016

Bringedal B, og Bærøe B. "Økt rettsliggjøring for likebehandling i helsetjenesten?" RETFÆRD NR. 153 – 2016/2

Bringedal B og Bærøe K: "Commentary to ‘Social Health Disparities in Clinical Care: A New Approach to Medical Fairness’ by Puschel, Furlan and Dekkers", Public Health Ethics, 2016, doi:10.1093/phe/phw04

Chisholm D, Johansson KA, Raykar N, Megiddo I, Nigam A, Strand KB, Colson A, Laxminarayan R, Verguet S. ” Moving towards universal health coverage for mental, neurological and substance use disorders: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.” in ”Mental, Neurological, and Substance Use Disorders” volume of Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 3rd edition. Editors: Vikram Patel, Dan Chisholm, Tarun Dua, Ramanan Laxminarayan and Maria Elena Medina-Mora. 2016

Deressa, Wakgari, et al. (Robberstad B co-author) "Combining long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying for malaria prevention in Ethiopia: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.Trials 17.1 (2016): 1.

Eide KT, Fadnes LT, Engebretsen IM, Onarheim KH, Wamani H, Tumwine JK, Norheim OFImpact of a peer-counseling intervention on breastfeeding practices in different socioeconomic strata: results from the equity analysis of the PROMISE-EBF trial in Uganda. Global Health Action. 2016 Jul 28;9.

Gangstoe, J. J., Heggestad T, Norheim OF. (2016). "Norwegian Priority Setting in Practice - an Analysis of Waiting Time Patterns Across Medical Disciplines." Int J Health Policy Manag 5(6): 373-378.

Gari, Taye, et al. (Robberstad B co-author) "Malaria incidence and entomological findings in an area targeted for a cluster-randomized controlled trial to prevent malaria in Ethiopia: results from a pilot study." Malaria journal 15.1 (2016): 1.

GBD 2015 (Norheim OF co-author) (2016). "Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015." Lancet 388(10053): 1775-1812.

GBD 2015 (Norheim OF co-author) (2016). "Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015." Lancet 388(10053): 1659-1724.

GBD 2015 (Norheim OF co-author) (2016). "Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015." Lancet 388(10053): 1603-1658.

GBD 2015 (Norheim OF co-author) (2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015." Lancet 388(10053): 1545-1602.

GBD 2015 (Norheim OF co-author) (2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015." Lancet 388(10053): 1459-1544.

GBD 2015 (Norheim OF co-author) (2016). "Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015." Lancet 388(10053): 1813-1850.

Hailu, A., Lindtjørn, B., Deressa, W., Gari, T., Loha, E., & Robberstad, B. (2016). Equity in long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying for malaria prevention in a rural South Central EthiopiaMalaria Journal15(1), 366.

Johansson KA, Strand KB, Fekadu A, Chisholm D, (2016) “Health Gains and Financial Protection Provided by the Ethiopian Mental Health Strategy: an Extended Cost-Effectiveness Analysis”, Health Policy and Planning (doi: 10.1093/heapol/czw134)

Memirie ST, Metaferia ZS, Norheim OF, Levin C, Verguet S, Johansson KA. Household expenditures on pneumonia and diarrhea treatment in Ethiopia: a facility-based study”, BMJ Global Health (in press)

Memirie ST, Verguet S, Levin C, Norheim OF, Johansson KA. (2016) ”Inequalities in utilization of maternal and child health services in Ethiopia: the role of primary health care”. BMC Health Serv Res.; 16: 51.

Mori, AT, Norheim OF, Robberstad B. (2016). "Budget Impact Analysis of Using Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine to Treat Uncomplicated Malaria in Children in Tanzania." Pharmacoeconomics 34(3): 303-314.

Ngalesoni FNRuhago GMMori ATRobberstad BNorheim OFCost-effectiveness of medical primary prevention strategies to reduce absolute risk of cardiovascular disease in Tanzania: a Markov modelling study. BMC health services research. 2016 May 17;16(1):1

Ngalesoni FNRuhago GMMori ATRobberstad BNorheim OFEquity impact analysis of medical approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention in TanzaniaSocial Science and Medicine 2016; 16(1): 1-29

Norheim, OF. (2016). "Ethical priority setting for universal health coverage: challenges in deciding upon fair distribution of health services." BMC Med 14: 75.

Onarheim KH, Iversen JH, Bloom DE. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women’s Health: A Systematic Review. PloS one. 2016 Mar 30;11(3):e0150120.

Ottersen T, Førde R, Kakad M, Kjellevold A, Melberg HO, Moen A, Ringard Å, Norheim OF. A new proposal for priority setting in Norway: Open and fair. Health Policy. Available online 18 January 2016, ISSN 0168-8510, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2016.01.012.

Solberg, Carl Tollef & Espen, Gamlund. “The Badness of Death and Priorities in Health” BMC Medical Ethics, 17:21 2016.  DOI: 10.1186/s12910-016-0104-6.

Strømme EM and Norheim OF (2016). "Global Health Inequality: Comparing Inequality-Adjusted Life Expectancy over Time." Public Health Ethics.

Tolla MT, Norheim OF, Memirie ST, Abdisa SG, Ababulgu A, Jerene D, Bertram M, Strand K, Verguet S, Johansson KAPrevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in Ethiopia: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation. 2016 Aug 12;14(1):1.

Verguet S, Memirie ST, Norheim OF. Assessing the burden of medical impoverishment by cause: a systematic breakdown by disease in EthiopiaBMC Medicine. 2016;14:164. doi:10.1186/s12916-016-0697-0.

Verguet S, Pecenka C, Johansson KA, Tessema Memirie S, Driessen JR, Olson ZD, et al. ”Health gains and financial risk protection afforded from treatment and prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia in Ethiopia.” in ” Reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health” volume of Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 3rd edition. Editors: Jamison DT, Gelband H, Jha P, Horton S, Lazminarayan R, R N. 2016

Voorhoeve A, et al. (Ottersen T and Norheim OF co-authors) "Three case studies in making fair choices on the path to universal health coverage." Health and Human Rights Journal, vol.18 issue 2, Dec 2016.

Voorhoeve A, Ottersen T and Norheim OF (2016). Making fair choices on the path to universal health coverage: a précis. Health Economics, Policy and Law, 11, pp 71-77. doi:10.1017/S1744133114000541.

Wang, H., et al. (Norheim OF co-author) (2016). "Estimates of global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980-2015: the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015." Lancet HIV 3(8): e361-387




Onarheim, K. H., Taddesse, M, Norheim OF, Abdullah M, Miljeteig I (2015). Towards universal health coverage for reproductive health services in Ethiopia: two policy recommendations. Int J Equity Health; 14:86.

Johansson KA, Memirie ST, Pecenka C, Jamison DT, Verguet S (2015) Health Gains and Financial Protection from Pneumococcal Vaccination and Pneumonia Treatment in Ethiopia: Results from an Extended Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. PLoS ONE 10(12): e0142691.

Ruhago, GM, FN Ngalesoni, B Robberstad and OF NorheimCost-effectiveness of live oral attenuated human rotavirus vaccine in Tanzania. BMC Cost-Effectiveness and Resource Allocation 2015, 13:7. DOI: 10.1186/s12962-015-0033-0.


Mazalale, J., C Kambala, S Brenner, J Chinkhumba, J Lohmann, D Mathanga, B Robberstad, AS Muula and M de Allegri (2015). Factors associated with delivery outside a health facility: cross-sectional study in rural Malawi. Trop Med Int Health 20(5): 617-626

Chola, L., LT Fadnes, IMS Engebretsen, L Nkonki, V Nankabirwa, H Sommerfelt, JK Tumwine, T Tylleskar and B Robberstad (2015). Cost-Effectiveness of Peer Counselling for the Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Uganda. PLoS One 10(11): e0142718.


Mori AT, Norheim OF, Robberstad BBudget Impact Analysis of Using Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine to Treat Uncomplicated Malaria in Children in Tanzania. Pharmacoeconomics 2015.


Wisloff, T. and B. Robberstad (2015). Re: Markov-modellering. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 135(16): 1432.


Robberstad.  Alder og alvor (Age and severity of disease). Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2015 Aug 11; 1376 – 1378.

Tranvåg EJ, Nygaard E, Norheim OFHvordan påvirker prioriteringsvilkårene rettighetstildelingen i Helsedirektoratets prioriteringsveiledere? Michael 2015; 12: 416–27.

Norheim OF. Ethical perspective: five unacceptable trade-offs on the path to universal health coverage. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2015;4(11):711–714. doi:10.15171/ijhpm.2015.184 


Bærøe K. "Institutional framework", chapter in "Etisk skjønn i forskning" Fossheim, H. and H. C. Ingierd (Red.). [Oslo, 2015], Universitetsforlaget: 126 s.


Strand, K. B., Chisholm, D., Fekadu, A., & Johansson, K. A. (2015). Scaling-up essential neuropsychiatric services in Ethiopia: a cost-effectiveness analysis.Health Policy and Planning. doi: 10.1093/heapol/czv093


Defaye, F., D. Desalegn, M. Danis, S. Hurst, Y. Berhane, O. Norheim and I. Miljeteig (2015). "A survey of Ethiopian physicians' experiences of bedside rationing: extensive resource scarcity, tough decisions and adverse consequence BMC Health Services Research 15(1): 467.


Bærøe K, Cappelen C. Phase-dependent justification: the role of personal responsibility in fair healthcare. J Med Ethics 2015;41:836-840, October 1, 2015 (10.1136/medethics-2014-102645).



Hoffman SJ, Ottersen T. Addressing Antibiotic Resistance Requires Robust International Accountability Mechanisms. J Law Med Ethics 2015; 43 Suppl 3: 53-64.



Wester G. Conscientious Objection by Health Care Professionals. Philosophy Compass 2015; 10: 427-37.


Voigt K, Wester G. RELATIONAL EQUALITY AND HEALTH. Social Philosophy and Policy 2015; 31: 204-29.


Lindemark F, Haaland ØA, Kvåle R, Flaatten H, Johansson KA (2015) Age, Risk, and Life Expectancy in Norwegian Intensive Care: A Registry-Based Population Modelling Study. PLoS ONE 10(5): e0125907. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125907


Pecenka CJ, Johansson KA, Memirie ST, et al. Health gains and financial risk protection: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment and prevention of diarrhoea in Ethiopia. BMJ Open 2015; 5: e006402.


Asada, Y., Hurley, J., Norheim, O. F., & Johri, M. (2015). Unexplained health inequality–is it unfair?. International journal for equity in health, 14(1), 11.


Stéphane Verguet et al. (Dawit Desalegn, Kjell Arne Johansson, Solomon Tessema Memmirie among several co authors) Health gains and financial risk protection afforded by public financing of selected interventions in Ethiopia: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis. The Lancet Global Health, Volume 3, Issue 5, e288 - e29.