CABUTE - Capacity Building for Research-Based Teacher Education
Welcome to the 1st East African Teacher Education Symposium 2021


We are welcoming you to EATES 2021. Here you find the abstracts for the paper presentations that will be given these two days.

Main content

KEYNOTE SPEAKER DR. CIRIAKA GITONGA: Reflections on the Digitalized 21st Century Classroom: Implications for the Teacher Education Programs in East Africa


Globally, teacher educators in the mid-1900s could not probably have predicted that the world would encounter the myriad of challenges being witnessed across the social, economic and political divides, ranging from wars, political upheavals, terrorism and radicalization, marketization of education, poverty, feminism, rise in activism movements, digitalization of world economies, emergence of social media, pandemics and digitalization of learning among others. Responses to these challenges have implications on how the teacher education curriculum is designed and implemented. Since teaching is the profession from which all the other professions are created, it is critical that teacher education is reimagined to be able to answer the question “What skills do the teacher trainees need to be able to equip their learners with the 21st century skills?”. This paper argues that the 21th century teacher educator needs to reflect on the elements of the teacher education that need adjustments in order to respond to the challenges the 21st century teacher is facing and will face as they recreate learning environment.



It is common knowledge to every 21st century teacher that digital technology is an important part of teaching and learning. But the training of teachers on how to use it in actual classroom teaching is not yet completely clear, and most teacher are at some stage worrying about how to use technology meaningfully for teaching. These concerns are right because depending on how and when it is used, technology can either enhance or hinder the educational process. This is the reason for continued training and professional development about using technology. However, the paradox is to be the most successful at using technology in their classrooms, teachers do not need to learn to use it themselves (although they can if they want to). This presentation is about why teachers need to focus on how technology can and should be used by students to enhance their own learning. In a partnering pedagogy, using technology is the students’ job. The teachers’ job is to coach and guide the use of technology for effective learning. To do this, teachers need to focus on, and become even more expert at, things that are already part of their job, including asking good questions, providing context, ensuring rigor, and evaluating the quality of students’ work.

KEYWORDS: digital technology, partnering pedagogy, professional development, expert

BIO: Michael Walimbwa, Lecturer at Makerere University School of Education, Department of Educational Foundations and Curriculum Studies.  He holds a Ph.D. in Education and a Master of Education from the University of Cape Town in South Africa. A Master of Education from Makerere University in Uganda, and a Bachelor of Education (Arts) from Kyambogo University.  He is widely published in refereed journals and presented many papers in conferences.  He is an accomplished trainer, mentor, researcher, and teacher educator with research interest in Educational ICTs, Teacher Education, and Teacher Continuous Professional Development.


Arkorful, V., Barfi, K. A., & Aboagye, I. K. (2021). Integration of information and communication technology in teaching: Initial perspectives of senior high school teachers in Ghana. Education and Information Technologies, 1-17.

Luckin, R. (2018). Enhancing Learning and Teaching with Technology: What the Research Says. UCL IOE Press. UCL Institute of Education, University of London, 20 Bedford Way, London WC1H 0AL.

Muhidova, O. N. (2020). Methods and tools used in the teaching of technology to children. Theoretical & Applied Science, (4), 957-960.

Prensky, M. R. (2010). Teaching digital natives: Partnering for real learning. Corwin press.



This paper will explore the challenges of implementing educational policies in Uganda. We focus on the implementation of the Language Across the Curriculum which is currently being executed by the ministry of education We undertook an inquiry that involved discovering and explaining teacher efficacy in the use of Language Competences (LC) in teaching music among teachers of Lira and Dokolo districts’ primary schools, to establish teacher efficacy in using LC in preparation to teach music, and their efficacy in using LC in actual music classroom instruction in upper primary classes. Teacher efficacy in this study, was grounded in teacher self-efficacy theory by Bandura (1997), where four key concepts namely mastery experience, vicarious experiences, motivational arousal, and verbal persuasion were applied. According to Bandura (1997), mastery experience portrays teacher competence in demonstrating knowledge of both the music aspects and the language skills. Vicarious experience (Bandura, 1997), acknowledges the use of modelling of the task and observation. Motivational arousal presents the ideology that, teachers with low levels of self-efficacy put less efforts into planning and teaching, and give up more easily on students (Bandura, 1997). Verbal persuasion (Bandura, 1997), is associated feedback from undertaking a teaching task.  We employed a mixed study, triangulating methods to understand teacher efficacy in using LC to prepare and teach music. Looking at the findings, majority of teachers had low efficacy in using LC in both preparations to teach music and in actual music classroom instruction in upper primary classes.

KEYWORDS: Language, competences, teacher efficacy, preparation

BIO: Kenneth Bamuturaki achieved his PhD in Drama from the University of Exeter in the United Kingdom. His research focused Theatre for Development (TfD). He has presented his research on theatre and development at various universities in Uganda and abroad including Makerere University, University of Exeter, University of Reading, Goldsmith University of London, Royal Holloway University of London, University of Lincoln, Cumberland lodge London, Agostinho Neto University, Luanda, Angola, Scientific Research Centre of the Catholic University of Angola Luanda, Angola, and Humboldt University of Berlin. He is currently the Head of Department of Performing Arts, Kyambogo University, Uganda."              



COVI19 outbreak around the world has changed various aspects of life, the education system not being spared.  The learning process has changed from face to face class attendance to synchronous and asynchronous online pedagogical practices. Consequently, key actors in the provision of education have greatly changed from professionally trained teachers to parents that are either fully or partially locked at home with their children. In this study, researchers explore the role parents have played in facilitating children’s online learning during COVID19 lockdown in order to continue their education and see them complete one stage and move to the other. In this study, researchers have utilized a systematic literature review of existing articles published at Google scholar between 2020 and 2021 to analyze the problem under study.   In total, 35 out of 10400 articles were systematically selected and analyzed. Among these, 63% articles were investigated using qualitative research approaches and 37% were quantitatively studied.  Key findings reveal that parents have played a vital role in sustaining and supporting online learning through acting as educators, guides, facilitators, communicators, supervisors and motivators. Further, findings reveal that the level of support to online learning offered by parents has been greatly affected by their levels of education, technology savvy, social class and family setup. That is to say, the educated, rich, nuclear family and urban based parents have played a greater role in online learning than their counterparts. Hence, successful adoption of both online and home based learning requires a concerted effort to improve parents’ technology skills and attitude on lifelong learning.  Further, they need the assistance of teachers in order to implement their role.  Therefore, it is critical to develop both andragogic and pedagogical competencies among teachers in order to realistically support parents as the latter facilitates both online and home based learning. Equally, teachers who cannot effectively use technology, the future has foretold that they might be replaced by those who can and thus totally end up kicked out of the education field.

KEYWORDS: Parents, home based learning, online learning


  1. Mary Najjengo is a Programs officer in charge of education at Delight Education Advocacy. In her position, she works closely with schools in capacity development programs of their staff members. She is also a former head teacher of Sejjinja Primary School, Mukono district.
  2. Alfred Buluma is an assistant lecturer with the Department of Foundations and Curriculum Studies, Makerere University. He has research interest in online pedagogies and community based education.



From the early 1900s’, music teacher education did not prepare music teacher for an inclusive classroom setting with learners with special needs. In the 1950s, the first school of the blind was instituted in Mbale with no focus music. The collages at the time did not seize the opportunity to train music teachers to educate learners with special needs however, in the 21st century, UNESCO advocates for inclusive education implying that Special needs learners attend the same music lessons with the ordinary learners. Currently, Music teachers are equipped with music knowledge and education pedagogy but with no specialty in special needs education.  On the other hand, most learners with special needs have the capacity to make and appreciate music for life-long learning. However, if that capacity is not enhanced by the teachers, possibly the life purpose of the learners might be compromised.

This background has influenced research on how teacher educators can bridge the gap between the music teacher and the learner with special needs. Therefore, this paper will address the opportunities that music teacher education can avail, challenges that have been and may be faced  and the outcome of the process to both teacher educators, special needs learners and teachers.

KEYWORDS: Music teacher education, Special needs learners, Participation and school-based music activities

BIO: Rockline Ntambirwa grew up in Mbarara town in Western Uganda. After having her primary and secondary in Western Uganda, she acquired a Bachelors' of Arts in Music degree from Makerere University, Post graduate diploma in Education from Kyambogo University where she is doing a masters degree in Music. Currently she is a teaching assistant at Kyambogo University and a Music coordinator at Uganda Christian University. She presented a paper on accommodative learning environments and music education for special needs in a Music Education conference in Kyambogo University in 2018.



Indigenous knowledge refers to the understandings, skills and philosophies developed by societies with long histories of interaction with their natural surroundings. Indigenous knowledge informs decision-making about fundamental aspects of day-to-day life. (Mawere, 2015) The knowledge is sometimes referred to as traditional knowledge and it is acquired or learnt through interaction with the natural surroundings. Teacher education refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community (Puffer). This paper discusses the role of indigenous knowledge and learning in teacher education. With the use of the quantitative research method that involved four teachers from Mengo senior School, A questionnaire with the research question “what is the role of indigenous knowledge and learning in teacher education?” was used. The findings of the study state that the local knowledge can help find the best solution to a development solution. Secondly, it is the basis for local level decision-making in food security, human and animal health and other vital economic and social activities and lastly it represents the successful ways in which people have dealt with their environments. It is concluded that the indigenous knowledge is very important in teacher education and has a very positive impact not only to teachers but also to the world at large.

KEYWORDS: Local knowledge, economic and social activities, interaction, environment, natural surroundings

BIO: Am a student at Makerere university under the college of education and external studies, school of education pursuing a post graduate diploma in education currently in the class of 2020/2021, my two teaching subjects are Information and computer technology and physical education. I did my bachelor’s degree (Bachelor of science in computer engineering) at Makerere university and I graduated in January of 2020.



Teacher education in Uganda is rooted in a school system that was inherited from the West, and it grounds teachers in the colonial epistemes. This education has challenges and educators are increasingly advocating for incorporation of indigenous epistemes in the school system.  

This paper is based on an ethnographic study of entongooli relearning project. The entongooli music, like many other indigenous cultures, was under threat of extinction. By 2019, only one musician with knowledge and skills of this heritage could be found in Busoga. Therefore, a project to revitalize the entongooli was initiated.  Entongooli is an eight-string bowl lyre that is played as a solo or in an ensemble. The player plucks the strings with both hands, while singing. Song parts sounds like the asansaga (starter) and atabula (mixers) of the embaire (xylophone).

The current entongooli culture bearer, Silivano Mukwaya (61) learnt by participating as a child in entongooli practice. His father Mukabire Kalende from Lwanika village, Nabukalu sub-county, Bukhooli county, Bugiri district played entongooli in the community, and Mukwaya learnt by participating in those contexts. Although he stopped to play in 2005 when his father died, Mukwaya remembers the entire entongooli culture. He teaches through indigenous ways—the ways he learnt—12 youths to make entongooli, tune it, play and sing.  In this paper I discuss some challenges of school music education in Uganda briefly, and how indigenous epistemes could inform teacher education using insights from Mukwaya’s pedagogy.

KEYWORDS: Transformative music education, Indigenous education epistemes, Cultural identity

BIO: James Isabirye is an educator, musician, cultural revivalist and researcher, who teaches Music Education and Music in the Department of Performing Arts, Kyambogo University, Uganda. James earned a PhD in Music Education from Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, USA. His researches: indigenous education epistemes, decolonizing education, and the research practice. James has presented research papers at conferences at universities and culture development institutions in East Africa, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, United Kingdom, China, Hungary, France, and USA.


Dewey, J. (1938/1998). Experience and education. Kappa Delta Pi.

Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Continuum.

Isabirye, J. (2021a). Indigenous music learning in contemporary contexts: Nurturing learner identity, agency, and passion. Research Studies in Music Education, 43(2), 239–258. https://doi.org/10.1177/1321103X20954548

Isabirye, J. (2021b). Can Indigenous music learning processes inform contemporary schooling? International Journal of Music Education, 39(2), 151–166. https://doi.org/10.1177/0255761421996373

Kenyatta, J. (1965). Facing Mount Kenya: The tribal life of the Gikuyu. Random House.

Nketia, J.H.K. (1974). The music of Africa. W. W. Norton.

Ssekamwa, J. C. (1997). History and development of education in Uganda. Fountain Publishers.

Wiggins, J. (2015). Teaching for musical understanding (3rd ed.). Oxford University.



What role does indigenous knowledge play in the lives of contemporary Africans? How can we learn from indigenous modes of teaching and learning to improve modern schooling? We investigate these questions by visiting three communities in Ghana – rural, peri-urban, and urban. We interviewed community members involved in communal education, such as traditional leaders, elders, teachers, church leaders, parents, students, and out-of-school youth, and participated in two traditional festivals. Contrary to the literature on the decline of indigenous knowledge, we find that indigenous knowledge, practices, and institutions are resilient across all contexts. At times, one form of knowledge is more dominant than the other, but multiple knowledge systems coexist in all communities. Traditional leaders continue to play a significant role as stewards of indigenous knowledge despite societal changes due to colonization, rural-urban migration, and globalization. However, indigenous knowledge does not exist in a vacuum. It coexists and competes with many knowledge systems, imbibing in Africans multiple identities and consciousness. We discuss the implication of our findings and explore the role of education in helping Africans to integrate their multiple consciousness and different lived realities. We also discuss how current education systems can better serve our students through the inclusion of indigenous pedagogy and knowledge.

KEYWORDS: indigenous knowledge, Ghana, humanism, traditional education

BIO: Takako Mino is an adjunct lecturer in the humanities and social sciences at Ashesi University in Ghana. She holds a B.A. in International Relations from Claremont McKenna College and an M.A. and a Ph.D. in Education from Claremont Graduate University. Prior to Ashesi, Takako taught high school English for six years in the U.S. and served as the adviser for an award-winning student-led publication. Previously, she also launched the Public Debate Program in Africa as Director of Operations in collaboration with local non-governmental organizations, which reached over 50,000 students in East Africa.


Abidogun, J., & Falola, T. (Eds.). (2020). The palgrave handbook of African education and indigenous knowledge. Palgrave Macmillan.

Achebe, C. (1958). Things fall apart. Heinemann.

Achebe, C. (2009). The education of a British-protected child: Essays. A. Knopf Books.

Akena, F. A. (2012). Critical analysis of the production of Western knowledge and its implications for Indigenous knowledge and decolonization. Journal of Black Studies, 43(6), 599-619.

Asante, M. K. (2019). The History of Africa: The Quest for Eternal Harmony. Routledge.

BBC News. (2012, April 3). Mali: Timbuktu heritage may be threatened, Unesco says. BBC.

Blimpo, M. P., & Cosgrove-Davies, M. (2019). Electricity access in Sub-Saharan Africa: Uptake, reliability, and complementary factors for economic impact. The World Bank.

Boahen, A. A. (1980). Topics in West African history. Longman.

Bob-Milliar, G. M. (2009). Chieftaincy, diaspora, and development: The institution of Nksuohene in Ghana. African Affairs, 108(433), 541-558. https://doi.org/10.1093/afraf/adp045

Chinsinga, B. (2006). The interface between tradition and modernity: The struggle for political space at the local level in Malawi. Civilisations(54), 255-274.

Coe, C. (2020). African indigenous knowledge, African state formation, and education. In J. Abidogun & T. Falola (Eds.), The palgrave handbook of African education and indigenous knowledge. Palgrave Macmillan.

Diop, S. (2012). African elites and their Post-Colonial legacy: Cultural, political and economic discontent–by way of literature. Africa Development, 37(4), 221–235-221–235.

Du Bois, W. E. B. (2007). The souls of Black folk: Essays and sketches. Oxford University Press.

Emeagwali, G., & Shizha, E. (Eds.). (2016). African indigenous knowledge and the sciences. Sense Publishers.

Ezeanya-Esiobu, C. (2019). Indigenous knowledge and education in Africa. Springer.

Fanon, F. (1967). Black skin, white masks. Grove Press, Inc.

Farouk-Alli, A. (2009). Timbuktu’s Scientific Manuscript Heritage: The Reopening of an Ancient Vista? Journal for the Study of Religion, 22(1), 43-61.

GSMA. (2020). The mobile economy sub-Saharan Africa 2020.

Igoe, J. (2006). Becoming indigenous peoples: Difference, inequality, and the globalization of East African identity politics. African Affairs, 105(420), 399-420. https://doi.org/10.1093/afraf/adi127

Kaya, H. O., & Seleti, Y. N. (2014). African indigenous knowledge systems and relevance of higher education in South Africa. International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives, 12(1).

Kenyatta, J. (1965). Facing Mount Kenya: The tribal life of the Gikuyu. Vintage Books.

Kotowicz, A. M. (2013). Maasai identity in the 21st century [The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee]. UWM Digital Commons.

Lewin, K. M. (2009). Access to education in sub‐Saharan Africa: Patterns, problems and possibilities. Comparative Education, 45(2), 151-174.

Mamdani, M. (1996). Citizen and subject: Contemporary Africa and the legacy of late colonialism. Princeton University Press.

Mandela, N. (1995). Long walk to freedom: The autobiography of Nelson Mandela. Little, Brown and Company.

Maunganidze, L. (2016). A moral compass that slipped: Indigenous knowledge systems and rural development in Zimbabwe. Cogent Social Sciences, 2(1), 1266749.

Ngugi wa, T. o. (2011). Decolonising the mind: The politics of language in African literature. East African Education Publisher.

Nkrumah, K. (1965). Neo-colonialism: The last stage of imperialism. International Publishers.

Nyerere, J. K. (1968). Education for self-reliance. CrossCurrents, 18(4), 415-434.

Olufemi, T. (1993). Colonialism and its aftermath: The crisis of knowledge production. Callaloo, 16(4), 891-908.

Omolewa, M. (2007). Traditional African modes of education: Their relevance in the modern world. International review of education, 53(5-6), 593-612.

Rickford, R. (2016). We are an African people: Independent education, Black power, and the radical imagination. Oxford University Press.

The Ichikowitz Family Foundation. (2020). African youth survey 2020: The rise of Afro-optimism.

Understanding Slavery Initiative. (n.d.). Lost libraries of Timbuktu. Retrieved January 20 from

Williams, J. (1980). The educated and professional elite in the Gold Coast and Sierra Leone, 1885-1914 [University of California, Los Angeles].

Yale, R., & Gestrin, P. (1998). Into Africa: Intercultural insights. Intercultural Press.



Globally, teaching and learning of music has been universally approached from a western perspective. From the onset, the development of music transcription systems was largely based on western music traditions, knowledge, and approaches. This created a kind of homogenized approach to understanding music characterized by given universals in Music. Consequently, the western based stance turned out as the most recognized approach to music scholarship.  

As such, little was done to think of other systems particularly in Africa and Asia. Less scholarly attention was paid to these music traditions until the second half of the 19th century, following Guido Adler’s comparative musicology.  

Lately, the field of Ethnomusicology has created global awareness of the uniqueness, ubiquity and social space occupied by other musics that not characterized as western musics. This research therefore draws from the that background to interrogate what indigeneity has to offer in this globalized space of music teaching and learning. From a Ugandan perspective, I aim to question the place of approaching music teaching and instructing using traditionally considered approaches that reflect indigeneity. The case studies are mainly selected from two top institutions in Uganda, that is, Makerere and Kyambogo universities, which are currently the two institutions with music on their teaching curriculum, in Uganda. 

KEYWORDS: Music, indigenous, music education, globalization.

BIO: Nicholas Ssempijja lectures at the Department of Performing Arts and Film, School of Liberal and Performing Arts, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Makerere University. He specializes in Ethnomusicology, particularly in the areas of music, religion, culture, and globalization.




This research is to illuminate how indigenous education can be used to enhance the teaching and learning of Mbaga dance.Mbaga as a genre is one of the traditional dances of Buganda specifically designed to educate the bride, girl/s or couples  about marital obligations. Indigenous education is focused on basic education in responsive to the context of a people, respects their identities, promotes their values and skills, indigenous knowledge and cultural heritage. This study was to examine how the different indigenous musical mediums are used as pedagogic tools of Mbaga dance. Empirical research was carried out on traditional music and dance practitioners, music and dance scholars and cultural troupe performers to ensure verifiable research is realized. Purposive sampling was used to select the respondents and snowball sampling was applied to enhance data from their contemporaries. Data was collected using One on One interview, Online zoom Meetings, Focus group discussions, workshops as well as Observations. Interview guides and discussion guides, archival and library works were reviewed to verify data. It was realized that it is imperative to promote and enhance indigenous education to articulately teach the different aspects that make up Mbaga dance and tradition. The Ministry of Education and Sorts should encourage and empower skilled but informal educators to incorporate their art into the formal sector. This would bridge the gap of expertise in that particular genre which is not practiced at the level of the other genres of dance.

KEYWORDS: Mbaga dance, indigenous education, musical aspects, music aspects, music and dance practitioners

BIO: Julie is an accomplished vocalist and songwriter. She is a voice trainer, African instrument and dance instructor who plays the bow lyre, and also takes a hand at acting on stage and film. Julie won awards of Best Soloist (African Instrumentalist, Best Conductor and Best Elocution. Julie was awarded the Best Vocalist by The Uganda National Cultural Centre and the Recognition merit by The Queen of Buganda for her contribution to Art and Culture. Julie has travelled extensively and has performed with international acts.  Julie is a board director of Uganda Performing Right Society representing performers.



This paper is an exploratory survey study that aimed at investigating the extent of technological integration in teaching and learning of traditional music in schools in Uganda. It intended to identify the availability of appropriate technological devices that impacted the teaching of traditional music among young learners in primary schools.

The study utilized a descriptive survey design in which qualitative techniques dominated in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. The study targeted music teachers, School administrators and primary school learners. The survey revealed interesting discrepancies in perception of music technology and its application in music lessons among teachers and learners. In this paper, I will discuss the technological devices at the disposal of teachers and the challenges they find in using them to enhance the teaching and learning of traditional music in schools. The study recommended a thorough understanding of technology and its interpretation in music teaching among teachers. It emphasized continuous professional development sessions as an appropriate avenue to update teachers on music and technology. In this paper, my goal is to share and inspire music teachers into the world of untapped benefits of music technologies that impact quality of teaching and learning in schools.

KEYWORDS: Music technology, Technological devices, Traditional music

BIO: Nambirige Catherine Bwanika is a lecturer at the department of Performing Arts of Kyambogo University. She holds a Master of Arts degree in Music of Kyambogo University, Bachelor of Education degree (music) of Makerere University and a Diploma in Teacher Education of the Institute of   Teacher Education Kyambogo (ITEK). She is an author of Music Work Books (P.3 and P.4) (2015). She wrote and produced theatre plays namely, “The Pied Piper of Namuwongo” (2011), “Patra’s Glass Slippers” (2013) etc.



Over one billion children are enrolled in schools worldwide. It is the desire of each of these children to study in a safe and stimulating environment. Unfortunately, this is a dream yet to be achieved as many children are exposed to physical, sexual and emotional violence while at school, home and communities. Hence, the researchers went out to investigate the arrangements that can be put in place to create safe learning schools. To achieve this, three study objectives guided this study: establish the forms of violence experienced by teacher trainees while studying primary and secondary school education, analyze the perpetrators of violence against children in schools and design a safe learning environment framework to minimize violence against children in schools. A concurrent mixed research design was adopted to conduct this study. Online self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data for the first two objectives while online focus group discussion was based on to collect qualitative data for the third objective. Key findings indicate that children as young as four years have been sexually harassed and over 98% of the perpetrators of sexual violence have been successfully reprimanded for their actions. In addition, 74% participants had been spoken too in sexual way while 42% and 35% had been exposed to sexual scenes and abusive touching by the time they completed their senior six respectively. Sexual violence was reported to be common in empty classroom, dormitories, soccer fields and staffrooms. On the other hand, most of the participants had experienced beating from teachers (51.6%), school administrators (18.3%) and fellow students (17.7) is the leading form of physical violence.  Lastly, survey revealed that most of the emotional violence was done by peers e.g., threats by peers (28.8%), and being gossiped against by peers (25.9%). Hence, it is hereby concluded that all key stakeholders in a school set up are perpetrators of violence against children. Therefore, there is need to overhaul the entire school set up into one that respects the rights of children. In the long run, teacher education has to sensitize pre – service against this evil so as they can be agents of a violent free school environment as they start working.

KEYWORDS: Violence Against children (VAC), Safe learning Schools, perpetrators, emotional abuse, sexual abuse


1. Micheal Mwebaza is an Assistant lecturer at Department of Foundations and Curriculum Studies, School of Education, Makerere University. He holds a Bachelors of Education and a Masters Degree in Curriculum, Instruction and Media studies of Makerere University. His research interest include; curriculum development, Education Assessment , children and Youth work.

2. Alfred Buluma: is an assistant lecturer with department of Foundations and Curriculum Studies, School of Education, Makerere University. He holds a PhD in Education. He is a research fellow at Afri child a Center for the Study of the African Child."


Budirahayu, T. & Susan, N. (2018). Violence at School and Its Root Cause. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), volume 138. Atlantis Press. International Conference on Contemporary Social and Political Affairs (IcoCSPA 2017)

ECLAC/ UNICEF. (2020). COVID19 Report: Violence against children and adolescents in the time of COVID-19. Retrieved 29/06/2021 from                                                                                 https://www.cepal.org/sites/default/files/publication/files/46486/S20006...

Mwanje, H. (2021). Preventing violence against children should be a priority for all schools. The Daily Monitor Publications Ltd. Retrieved 30/06/2021 from     https://www.monitor.co.ug/uganda/oped/commentary/preventing-violence-aga....

Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) & World Health Organization. (2020). Preventing and responding to violence against children in the Americas Regional Status Report 2020.  Retrived 23rd June, 2021 from https://iris.paho.org/bitstream/handle/10665.2/53038/9789275122945_eng.p....

Relief Web.  (2021). Violence against children in Tanzania – Does it affect child education? Retrieved 30/06/2021 from https://reliefweb.int/report/united-republic-tanzania/violence-against-c...

Sserwanja, D. (2021). Increased child abuse in Uganda amidst COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health Volume 57, Issue 2 p. 188-191. Retrieved 30/06/2021 from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jpc.15289.

UNICEF (2020), Safe to Learn, Safe to Learn Diagnostic Exercises in Nepal, Pakistan, South Sudan and Uganda. Synthesis Report, Safe to Learn: New York, 2020. Retrieved 29/06/2021 from                 https://www.endviolence.org/sites/default/files/paragraphs/download/STL%...

United Nations. (2016). Tackling violence in schools:  a global perspective. Bridging the gap between standards and practice.  RSG on Violence against Children in 2012. Retrieved   30/06/2021 from                 https://violenceagainstchildren.un.org/sites/violenceagainstchildren.un.....

Walakira E.J, and Ddumba I. N(2012).Violence against Children in Uganda: A Decade of ResearchandPractice, 2002—2012.Kampala: Ministry of Gender Labour and Social Development and UNICEF



Music is a tool for instruction and a component of every human. It was used in traditional setting to instruct society about culture, morals and life skills. Formal music education started on recommendation by the Castle Commission in 1963. Music syllabi were developed and music education started at different levels. At Primary Teacher Education (PTE), music is one of the thirteen subjects offered. It is practical, compulsory in year one and an elective in year two. This has left less than 30% of the students doing it at year two. Despite the presence of music in the PTE curriculum for long, music implementation in primary schools is still hampered. A qualitative study was conducted to delve into the anomaly. Data were collected from purposively selected teachers and head teachers of randomly selected schools in Mbale district by interview, document review and observation. Findings revealed that teachers and head teachers exhibited low attitude towards the subject as it was regarded expensive and not examined at PLE. Teachers exhibited low competency in various aspects of music as a result of the training they underwent at PTE. Also, resources for teaching the subject were revealed to be inadequate and/or inappropriate. The study recommended that MoES should overhaul the PTE curriculum; retool all teachers and teacher trainers of music; make assessment of PTE music 25% theoretical and 75% practical; and head teachers should provide the minimum resources for teaching music.

KEYWORDS: Formal music education, Primary Teacher Education, curriculum, assessment

BIO: Erisa Walubo is currently a Graduate Tutor, PTC (Music), teaching Music and English Language at St. John Bosco Primary Teachers’ College, Nyondo. His teaching career progressed from a Grade III teachers’ course, Diploma in Education Primary and then a Bachelor of Teacher Education, all attained at Kyambogo University. He is pursuing a Master of Arts in Music Education at Kyambogo University.


Derg, M. (2008). Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory and Dynamic Assessment in Language Learning. Journal of Social Sciences, 8(1), 301–308.

Elks, P. (2016). The impact of assessment results on education policy and practice in East Africa. DFID Think Piece, (January), 1–37.

Justice, L. M., & Ezell, H. K. (1999). Vygotskian Theory and Its Application to Assessment: An Over-view for Speech-Language Pathologists. Contemporary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders, 26, 111–118.

Kagoda, A. M., & Ezati, B. A. (2013). Contribution of Primary Teacher Education Curriculum to Quality Primary Education in Uganda. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 52, 35–47.

Khadidja, D. (2014). Western Education in Uganda (1878-1939). University of Oran.

Kigozi, B. (2008). An evaluation of Music Education in Elementary Schools in Buganda : (University of Pretoria). Retrieved from https://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/27984

Kyambogo University. (2012). Primary Teacher Education Curriculum Part C: Performing Arts (Music, Dance and Drama) syllabus. Kampala: Ministry of Education and Sports.

Ministry of Education and Sports. (2010). Primary six curriculum Set Two. Kampala: National Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education and Sports.

Odongo, D. N. (2020). Statement of Release of The 2019 Primary Leaving Examination Results. Kampala.

Teacher Initative in Sub-Saharan Africa (TISSA). (2013). Teacher Issues in Uganda: A Shared Vision for an Effective Teachers Policy. (September).

Tettey, T. R. (2018). Music Education in Uganda : Empirical Study on Current Practices and a Way Forward. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.13875.12324