To study and characterize proteins it is important to follow it all the way from DNA until modified protein as it exists in the cell. To do so, there is a jungle of methods to use. Here we list some of the methods that we use:

Main content

Protein production

On DNA level:

  • ”Seam-less” cloning methods
  • Gateway cloning methods
  • Site directed mutagenesis (PCR-based)
  • In vitro transcription
  • SNP genotyping and sequencing (collaboration with Center of Medical genetics and Molecular biology)


On Protein level:

  • Expression and purification of recombinant proteins using E. coli, Pichia pastoris, mammalian cells, and Spodoptera frugiperda
  • In vitro translation
  • Denaturing and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS- and native-PAGE)
  • In vitro RNA-protein interactions
  • In vitro protein-protein interactions
  • Various pull-down interaction assays
  • Phosphorylation studies (including MS, carried out by PROBE)
  • Immunostaining
  • Functional assays (activity, stability, interactions etc)

Cell culture

  • Expression of recombinant proteins in different cell lines such as HEK293, HELA, SH-SY5Y
  • Stimulation, inhibition and stability assays
  • Confocal and fluorescence microscopy
  • Functional assays (activity and interactions etc)

Biophysical Methods

  • Circular dichroism spectropolarimetry (CD)
  • Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD)
  • Oriented circular dichroism (OCD)
  • Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)
  • Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC)
  • Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)
  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
  • Fluorimetric assays, like intrinsic Trp fluorescence
  • Turbidimetric assays
  • UV-VIS absorption assays
  • Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS, collaboration in Oulu)
  • Dynamic light scattering (DLS)
  • Thermal shift assays/Differential scanning fluorimetry (aka Thermofluor or DSF)
  • Various neutron methods (diffraction, reflectometry, small-angle scattering, EINS, QENS, etc.)
  • Transmission electron microscopy (negative stained samples, immunostained samples)
  • Static light scattering (SLS/SEC-MALS)

Structural Biology

  • Macromolecular X-ray crystallography
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR, collaboration)    
  • Electron cryomicroscopy (Collaboration)
  • Solution small-angle X-ray scattering and diffraction (SAXS/SAXD)
  • Molecular modelling and simulation