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The solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere is attenuated before it reaches the earth's surface. The attenuation is due to extinction (scattering and absorption) by particles and molecules in the atmosphere. If the solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere is known, the radiation received at the earth's surface can be used to reveal the properties of the atmospheric aerosol.
According to the well-known equation E=mc2, mass and energy are equivalent. If a huge amount of energy is concentrated in a tiny space, particles with certain mass are produced. These particles are always created in pairs, that is, energy can transform into matter only when the latter is accompanied by its counterpart, antimatter. The opposite holds true as well: when a particle and its... Read more