- Phone+47 55 58 97 41+47 911 01 024
- Visitor AddressThe Faculty of LawMagnus Lagabøtes plass 15010 BergenRoom452
- Postal AddressPostboks 78065020 BERGEN
Chronicles in newspapers:
Sugar tax in Norway and State aid rules, Dagens Næringsliv, 2018-06-20
Amazon og Apples skatteregning i EU, Dagens Næringsliv, 2017-11-08
Innovasjon Norge må forklare seg Bergens Tidende, 2017-10-11
Like vilkår - men likere for noen Dagens Næringsliv, 2017-04-25
Kan være både tillatt og fornuftig Dagens Næringsliv, 2016-08-15
Hvor mye «kultur» i kulturaktivitet? Dagens Næringsliv, 2016-07-1
Co-supervison of a PhD candidate:
Øyvind Røed "Incompatible state guarantees" (in Norwegian)
Supervision of master students: EU/EEA State aid law, Data protection law, GDPR (in English and Norwegian)
JUS291-2-A EU and EEA State Aid Law - course leader
JUS287-2-A EU/EEA Commercial Law
NIRI Norwegian and international legal institutions
- 2016. "The Market Economy Investor Test in EU State Aid Law: Applicability and Application", International Competition Law Series. Kluwer Law International. 384 pages. ISBN: 9789041161024.
- 2019. The 2019 ‘Fitness Check’ of State Aid Modernisation Reform of 2012—An Opportunity to Redefine and Reintroduce Sustainability into the EU/EEA State Aid Rules? The Example of the Transport Sector. Sustainability. 11. 20 pages. Published 2019-11-11. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226328
- 2019. The MEOP in the Larko Case · Case T-423/14 Larko Geniki. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 18: 180-185. Published 2019-06-28. doi: https://doi.org/10.21552/estal/2
- 2019. ‘Reversed’, ‘Excessive’ or Misconstrued? The Controversy About the Burden of Proof in MEOP Cases. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 18: 157-168. Published 2019-06-28. doi: https://doi.org/10.21552/estal/2019/2/5
- 2019. State Aid in the Form of Tax Exemptions – Some Thoughts from Norway. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 18: 119-120. Published 2019-06-28. doi: https://doi.org/10.21552/estal/2019/2/2
- 2019. Review of EU Case Law on State Aid – 2018. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 18: 313-338.
- 2018. The MEOP in the FIH Case - Where Law and Economics Meet, but Law Prevails (C‑579/16 P Commission v FIH ∙ Annotation on the Judgment of the Court of Justice (Grand Chamber) of 6 March 2018, in Case C‑579/16 P European Commission v FIH Holding and FIH Erhvervsbank (FIH)). European State Aid Law Quarterly. 17: 546-552. doi: 10.21552/estal/2018/4/10
- 2018. Once an Aid Recipient, Always an Aid Recipient? The Post-Crisis State Interventions in the Banking Sector and Beyond. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 17: 192-203. doi: 10.21552/estal/2018/2/4
- 2018. Slumpavgift blir stasstøtteproblem. Dagens næringsliv. 26-26. Published 2018-06-21.
- 2018. Price Increasing Tax Reductions for Electronic Newspapers. Implications for State Aid Policy. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 17: 375-386. doi: 10.21552/estal/2018/3/7
- 2017. FIH Holding and FIH Erhvervsbank v European Commission ∙ T‑386/14. Annotation on the Judgment of the General Court (Sixth Chamber) of 15 September 2016 in Case T‑386/14 FIH Holding and FIH Erhvervsbank v European Commission. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 16: 86-92. doi: https://doi.org/10.21552/estal/2017/1/13
- 2017. «Innovasjon Norge må forklare seg». Bergens Tidende. Published 2017-10-11.
- 2017. Like vilkår - men likere for noen. Dagens næringsliv. Published 2017-04-25.
- 2017. Amazon og Apples skatteregning i EU. Dagens næringsliv. 38-38. Published 2017-11-09.
- 2017. The Applicability and Application of the Market Economy Investor Principle: Lessons Learnt from the Financial Crisis. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 16: 512-526. doi: 10.21552/estal/2017/4/3
- 2016. “A controversial expansion of the MEIP in a financial crisis case – the GC’s judgment in Case T‑386/14 FIH of 15 September 2016 (under appeal)”. Kluwer Competition Law Blog. Published 2016-11-25. doi: http://competitionlawblog.kluwercompetitionlaw.com/2016/11/25/a-controversial-expansion-of-the-meip-in-a-financial-crisis-case-the-gcs-judgment-in-case-t%e2%80%9138614-fih-of-15-september-2016-under-appeal/
- 2016. Concurrences blog – innlegg: “The EU General Court hands down a controversial judgment expanding market economy investor principle in a financial crisis case (FIH Holding)” http://www.concurrences.com/en/bulletin/news-issues/september-2016/the-french-supreme-court-holds-that-a-jurisdiction-or-arbitration-clause-cannot. e-Competitions Bulletin. Published 2016-09-15. doi: http://www.concurrences.com/en/bulletin/news-issues/september-2016/the-french-supreme-court-holds-that-a-jurisdiction-or-arbitration-clause-cannot
- 2016. The Applicability and Application of the Market Economy Investor Principle Article that won European State Aid Quarterly PhD Award 2016. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 16: 381-399. doi: /10.21552/estal/2016/3/7
- 2016. Kan være både tillatt og fornuftig. Dagens næringsliv. 31-31. Published 2016-08-16.
- 2016. Hvor mye «kultur» i kulturaktivitet? Dagens næringsliv. 31-31. Published 2016-07-20.
- 2015. The problem of objectives pursued by the state under the application of the Market Economy Investor Principle (MEIP). Tidsskrift for Rettsvitenskap. 03/04. 263-294.
- 2014. Gjestebloggpost: T-488/11 Sarc v. Kommisjonen - programvarelisensiering som statsstøtte. Immaterialrettstrollet. Published 2014-06-18. doi: http://www.iptrollet.no/2014/06/gjestebloggpost-t-48811-sarc-v.html
- 2013. O zadawaniu właściwych pytań, czyli kilka refleksji na temat dopuszczalności zastosowania kryterium (testu) prywatnego inwestora. Glosa do wyroków Sądu z dnia 15 grudnia 2009 r. w sprawie T-156/04 Électricité de France v. Komisja i Trybunału z dnia 5 czerwca 2012 r. w sprawie C-124/10 P. Komisja v. Électricité de France – obu dotyczących umorzenia wierzytelności podatkowej przez władze francuskie wobec Électricité de France (EDF). Internetowy Kwartalnik Antymonopolowy i Regulacyjny. 6: 190-214.
- 2015. The Applicability and Application of the Market Economy Investor Principle. University of Bergen.
- 2019. Klimarettslege utfordringar for rettsvitskapen. Kapittel 12, pages 177-196. In:
- 2019. Rett i Vest. Festskrift til 50-årsjubileet for jurist-utdanningen ved Universitetet i Bergen. Fagbokforlaget. 556 pages. ISBN: 9788245027945.
- 2019. Om anvendelsen av EØS-regler om offentlig støtte i den norske universitets- og høyskolesektoren. Kapittel 17, pages 275-292. In:
- 2018. Effectiveness and Application of EU and EEA Law in Polish Courts. Kapittel:Poland, pages 451-494. In:
- 2018. The Effectiveness and Application of EU and EEA Law in National Courts - Principles of Consistent Interpretation. Intersentia. 531 pages. ISBN: 978-1-78068-655-4.
- 2018. Norway - National Report - XXVIII FIDE Congress. Norway, pages 412-428. In:
- 2018. Tax, State Aid and distortions of competition. Congress Proceedings Vol. 2. Livraria Almedina. 569 pages. ISBN: 978-972-40-7479-5.
- 2017. BP Chemicals: Lessons to Be Recalled in the Context of Applying the MEIP to Consecutive State Measures in the Financial Sector. 1, pages 2-15. In:
- 2017. Milestones in State Aid Case Law - EStAL's First Fifteen Years in Perspective. ISBN: 978-3-86965-312-9.
In October 2015, the Norwegian Finansmarkedsfondet, (the Finance Market Fund), granted a scholarship to finance a Post.doc.-project: «Towards more stability, competitiveness and predictability in the financial sector». The Finance Market Fund is intended to contribute to increasing public understanding concerning financial markets, with particular emphasis on the functioning of financial markets, and also ethical issues.
The leader of the project is Associate Professor Ronny Gjendemsjø. The Post.doc.-project will be carried out by Malgorzata Agnieszka Cyndecka, PhD. Cyndecka defended her PhD-thesis: «The Market Economy Investor Principle» at the Faculty of Law at UiB in January 2015. The PhD-thesis will be published by Wolters Kluwer in 2016.
While the Post.doc.-project is financed by Finansmarkedsfondet, the Faculty of Law will finance a PhD-project that will also deal with State aid law, and that will focus on state guaranties.
Both individual projects will contribute to developing the EU/EEA State aid law at the Faculty of Law and BECCLE, Bergen Centre For Competition Law and Economics.
A short description of the projects:
In Autumn 2008, the financial crisis hit Europe. In order to prevent the systemic crisis, the EU/EEA Member States granted huge amounts of state aid to banks that were "too big to fail". This was approved by the European Commission and the EFTA Surveillance Authority that are responsible for State aid control in EU/EEA. While these institutions are still dealing with financial crisis aid cases on a daily basis, it is now time to ask more general questions. How can State aid rules contribute to rebuilding the financial sector for the future? How can they make it more robust? The goal of this project is to provide some answers in this regard, and thus contribute to an on-going discussion on the financial sector. The project will analyse how State aid rules should be applied in the financial sector to safeguard its efficiency, competitiveness and equal terms and conditions for all market operators. This analysis entails two individual research projects: a Post.doc.-project and a PhD project (financed by the Faculty). The Post.doc.-project will investigate the applicability and application of the Market Economy Investor Principle (MEIP) to state measures granted in the financial sector. Under the MEIP, the state intervenes in the market in the same way as a rational, profit-oriented market operator would in similar circumstances under normal market conditions. The financial crisis raised new questions concerning the MEIP and its role in the rebuilding of the financial sector. The PhD project seeks to clarify the legal implications of repayment of aid that was granted in the form of a state guarantee. Such measures create a special triangular relation between the state, the aid recipient and the financial institution. This poses certain civil law challenges. As the procedure of aid recovery is governed by national rules, one must examine and clarify the implications of enforcing the EU/EEA State aid law to the Norwegian legal system.
In August 2016, Małgorzata joined the Norwegian government’s external working group, ‘Competition on a level playing field’, that shall analyse inter alia implicit guarantees and tax exemptions in favour of public entities and undertakings that compete with private market operators.