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Eirik Holmøyvik

Malgorzata Agnieszka Cyndecka

Associate Professor, Affiliated at SLATE (Centre for the Science of Learning and Technology, UiB), Associated professor II at UiO
  • E-mailmalgorzata.cyndecka@uib.no
  • Phone+47 55 58 97 4191101024
  • Visitor Address
    The Faculty of Law
    Magnus Lagabøtes plass 1
    5010 Bergen
    Room 
    BECCLE
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7806
    5020 Bergen

My research focuses on the EU/EEA law on State aid and data protection/General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

State aid law is part of EU/EEA competition law. It plays a crucial role in safeguarding the proper functioning of the internal market. Rules on State aid provide for a level playing field for all market operators (enterprises) in the Internal Market. Norway is well integrated in the EU's Internal Market owing to the EEA Agreement of 1992. Rules on granting aid are very relevant in Norway where the public sector is entrusted with many tasks and public undertakings often compete with private ones. At the same time, Norway is known for using State aid law to grant "good aid" such as aid to protect environment, support regional development or finance research and innovation.

In 2016, my PhD thesis "The Applicability and Application of the Market Economy Investor Principle" won the European State Aid Law Quarterly PhD Award for the best PhD thesis in the field of EU/EEA State aid law written in the period 2012-2016. It was published by Kluwer Law International.

In 2019, I arranged a workshop where a group of distinguished experts discussed different issues related on the application of State aid law to taxation. The workshop was financed by UiB's SPIRE Programme. More on the workshop.

In 2019, I was invited to take a position of Associate Editor of law journal European State Aid Law Quarterly (ESTAL), Lexxion, Berlin, the first pan-European publication for State aid law, recognized as the leading journal in its field today. I have special responsibility for reviewing and proposing scientific articles and case notes, contributing to the development of the Journal and its strategy, publishing scientific articles, editorials and case notes.

Data privacy and the General Data Protection Regulation is one of the fields of law that has massively gained in importance during the last years. The questions concerning the legality of processing of our personal data are being stated on a daily basis due to digitalisation of almost every single aspect of our life. Currently, I am working with amongst others data protection issues raised by using Artificial Intelligence to processing of personal data.

Following the COVID-19 outbreak, I have been invited to join the University of Bergen’s Pandemic Centre as an expert in privacy/GDPR.

In 2021, I was a member of UiB's Working Group - digital competence for UiB's students. The Working group is led by prof. Barbara Wasson, Director for Centre for the Science of Learning & Technology (SLATE) at UiB. The Working group's task was to provide recommendations concerning both the form and contents of a course on Data literacy for all UiB's students. The Working Group's report led to creating six DIGI courses that are offered to all UiB students. In this respect, I have developned and I am co-supervising DIGI 113 Data protection and GDPR.

I participated and contributed with my knowledge on data protection and GDPR in one of the four pioneer projects that were admitted to the Norwegian Data Protection Authority's (Datatilsynet) "Sandbox for responsible AI". As Datatilsynet explained: "The Data Protection Authority has established a project environment for artificial intelligence that makes use of personal data — a sandbox. This regulatory sandbox provides free guidance to a handful of carefully selected companies, of varying types and sizes, across different sectors. The goal is to promote the development of innovative artificial intelligence solutions that, from a data protection perspective, are both ethical and responsible. The sandbox helps individual organizations ensure compliance with relevant regulations and the development of solutions that take privacy into account. We use examples and insights arising from sandbox projects to develop guidelines relevant for organizations implementing artificial intelligence and to further develop our own competence in this area". For more information, see here.  In the AVT the project designed by KS and SLATE, I analysed data protection challenges raised by processing personal data of pupils in Norwegian schools for the purpose of providing individualised teaching, which is pupils' right under the Educational Act.

My work with learning analytics in the Sandbox was the reason why I was appointed a member of the Council Europe's expert group "Artificial Intelligence and Eucation" in October 2022. The group is currently working on a resolution that is to be adopted by the CoE members in 2023. The resolution will be a basis for binding legal guidelines concerning using Artificial Intelligence in education. 

As regards other projects involving AI, I participate in ENDO4P, a project led by the the Faculty of medicine at UiB. We are applying for funding from Horizon Europe to establish Centre for personalised systems medicine in edocrinology. Read more about the ENDO4P her.

From September 2022, I have been Associate professor II at the Facultty of Law at the University of Oslo where I contribute to The Clean Up Project, which is financed by the Norwegian Research Council. The Clean Up projecst stands for "Machine Learning for the Anonymisation of Unstructured Personal Data".

Since Autumn 2019 I have been member of Young Academy Norway (AYF), since Autumn 2020 deputy member of AYF's Board and Member of the Letten Prize Committee.

Since Summer 2021 I have been leading an expert group for EU/EEA legal questions in the Norwegian section of the ICJ (International Commission of Jurists).

Selected contributions in newspapers and blog platforms:

Analysis: “Not sure if it is aid, so better declare it compatible aid? Not so fast (Netherlands v Commission, T-469/20)”, EULawLIVE, 24. November 2022

Interview: "Korona-listen: Slik samlet Bergen kommune informasjon om 120.000 bergensere uten å fortelle om det", ("Corona-list:How bergen municiplaity collected personal data of 120,000 citizens without telling abouit it"), Bergensavisen, 9. November 2022

Analysis: “General Court on when Commission must rectify decisions initiating formal State aid investigation procedures: Helsingin Bussiliikenne v Commission (T-603/19) and Helsingin kaupunki v Commission (T-597/19)”, EULawLive, 20. September 2022.

Analysis “The devil is in the detail: Ryanair’s challenge to the recapitalisation of Finnair – Finnair II (T-657/20)”, 27. June 2022, EULawLIVE

Lecture "GDPR and Artificial Intelligence", webinar "Kunstig intelligens og læringsanalyse i utdanning" (Artificial Intelligence and learning analysis in education), SLATE, UiB, 16. February 2022

TV programme (debate) NRK Dagsnytt 18: "Rask tilgang til dine personopplysninger", ("Fast access to your personal data"), 5. January 2022

Dagens Næringsliv: "Ny teknologi kan gi politiet og Nav innsyn i «alt» bankene vet om deg med noen tastetrykk: – Dette er problematisk", ("New technology can give teh policee and NAV access to "everything" the banks know about you with a few keystrokes"), 3. January 2022

Analysis: “Discharging the Burden of Proof in State Aid Cases: The Problem of Consecutive Measures by the State Acting as Public Creditor”, EULawLive, 21. Deceember 2021

Interview: "Kan personvernet overleve koronakrisen?" (Can data protection survive the corona crisis?), Juridika Innsikt, 21. June 2021.

Analysis: "When does ‘existing aid’ become ‘new aid’ and does it always have to be notified? Some clarifications in the preliminary ruling: Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale di Catania", EULawLIVE, 24. May 2021.

Analysis: “Under Article 258 TFEU the burden of proof rests with the Commission, which may not rely on any presumption”, EULawLive, 15. January 2021

Analysis of processing of personal data by a number of mobile applications in light of the requirements set out in GDPR - "My phone spied on me" - NRK Beta, 3. December 2020

A comment on Bergen City Council's new rules on COVID-19 tracing: Reagerer på Bergens nye korona­forskrift: – Hundre prosent sikkert at persondata kommer på avveie. Eksperter på datasikkerhet og personvern kritiserer koronaregler, Bergens Tidende, 29. October 2020

Analysis: “Clarifications on the Member States’ freedom to determine public policy objectives under Article 107(3)(c) TFEU” at EULawLIVE, 23. September 2020

A dystopian story about COVID-19, Artificial Intelligence setting grades and the GDPR, EFTA-Studies.org, 5. September 2020

Debate: IB-saken viser hvorfor vi trenger personvern. Automatiserte avgjørelser kan gjøre livet enklere, men kan også lede til diskriminerende og urettferdige resultater. Bergens Tidende 17. July 2020 (A comment on the IBO case and automated decisions under GDPR)

Invited guest in a podcast "Misjon Vestlandet" by PwC Bergen in which I discussed the recent State aid developments in light of the COVID-19 outbreak

Analysis “The compatibility of turnover-based progressive taxes with EU law” EULawLive, 4. April 2020

Book review "Private Enforcement of European Competition and State Aid Law: Current Challenges and the Way Forward", F. WOLLENSCHLÄGER, W. WURMNEST, T. M.J. MÖLLERS (EDS.), EULawLive

In my capacity as member of The Young Academy of Norway (AYF) Researchers "Take the mental health of researchers seriously" - "Ta forskernes mentale helse på alvor", Forskerforum.no 24. April 2020

Interview concerning a controversial public-private project "Kommune skal lære opp privat selskap: Omstridt kommunalt-privat samarbeid kan være ulovlig statsstøtte", Fagbladet, 1. April 2020

Sugar tax in Norway and State aid rules, Dagens Næringsliv, 20. June 2018

Amazon og Apples skatteregning i EU, Dagens Næringsliv, 8. November 2017

Innovasjon Norge må forklare seg Bergens Tidende, 11. October 2017

Like vilkår - men likere for noen Dagens Næringsliv, 25. April 2017

Kan være både tillatt og fornuftig Dagens Næringsliv, 15. August 2016

Hvor mye «kultur» i kulturaktivitet? Dagens Næringsliv, 1. July 2016

Supervision of master students: EU/EEA State aid law, Data protection law, GDPR (in English and Norwegian)

General responsibility for EU/EEA law master students (afetr maternity leave from 2023)

Teaching:

JUS294-2-A Privacy and Data protection GDPR - course supervisor (read more here and here)

JUS291-2-A EU and EEA State Aid Law - course supervisor

JUS295-2-A Legal Technology: Artificial Intelligence and Law

JUS287-2-A EU/EEA Commercial Law

JUS221 Rettsstaten

DIGI113 GDPR og personvern co-course supervisor

JUS222 Forvaltningsrett

Academic article
  • Show author(s) (2022). Understanding pain and agitation through system analysis algorithms in people with dementia. A novel explorative approach by the DIGI.PAIN study. Frontiers in Pain Research.
  • Show author(s) (2022). The GDPR and Unstructured Data: Is Anonymisation Possible? . International Data Privacy Law (IDPL).
  • Show author(s) (2021). Review of EU Case Law on State Aid – 2020. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 397-426.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Review of EU Case Law on State Aid – 2019. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 468-514.
  • Show author(s) (2020). EEA Law and the Climate Change. The Case of Norway. Polish Review of International and European Law. 107-126.
  • Show author(s) (2019). ‘Reversed’, ‘Excessive’ or Misconstrued? The Controversy About the Burden of Proof in MEOP Cases. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 157-168.
  • Show author(s) (2019). The MEOP in the Larko Case · Case T-423/14 Larko Geniki . European State Aid Law Quarterly. 180-185.
  • Show author(s) (2019). The 2019 ‘Fitness Check’ of State Aid Modernisation Reform of 2012—An Opportunity to Redefine and Reintroduce Sustainability into the EU/EEA State Aid Rules? The Example of the Transport Sector. Sustainability. 20 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2018). The MEOP in the FIH Case - Where Law and Economics Meet, but Law Prevails (C‑579/16 P Commission v FIH ∙ Annotation on the Judgment of the Court of Justice (Grand Chamber) of 6 March 2018, in Case C‑579/16 P European Commission v FIH Holding and FIH Erhvervsbank (FIH)). European State Aid Law Quarterly. 546-552.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Price Increasing Tax Reductions for Electronic Newspapers. Implications for State Aid Policy. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 375-386.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Once an Aid Recipient, Always an Aid Recipient? The Post-Crisis State Interventions in the Banking Sector and Beyond. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 192-203.
  • Show author(s) (2017). The Applicability and Application of the Market Economy Investor Principle: Lessons Learnt from the Financial Crisis. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 512-526.
  • Show author(s) (2017). FIH Holding and FIH Erhvervsbank v European Commission ∙ T‑386/14. Annotation on the Judgment of the General Court (Sixth Chamber) of 15 September 2016 in Case T‑386/14 FIH Holding and FIH Erhvervsbank v European Commission. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 86-92.
  • Show author(s) (2016). The Applicability and Application of the Market Economy Investor Principle Article that won European State Aid Quarterly PhD Award 2016. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 381-399.
  • Show author(s) (2015). The problem of objectives pursued by the state under the application of the Market Economy Investor Principle (MEIP). Tidsskrift for Rettsvitenskap. 263-294.
  • Show author(s) (2013). O zadawaniu właściwych pytań, czyli kilka refleksji na temat dopuszczalności zastosowania kryterium (testu) prywatnego inwestora. Glosa do wyroków Sądu z dnia 15 grudnia 2009 r. w sprawie T-156/04 Électricité de France v. Komisja i Trybunału z dnia 5 czerwca 2012 r. w sprawie C-124/10 P. Komisja v. Électricité de France – obu dotyczących umorzenia wierzytelności podatkowej przez władze francuskie wobec Électricité de France (EDF). Internetowy Kwartalnik Antymonopolowy i Regulacyjny. 190-214.
Lecture
  • Show author(s) (2022). Rettslig grunnlag i AVT-prosjektet.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Regulating SOEs in the EU and EEA State aid law: The application of the Market Economy Operator Principle (MEOP).
  • Show author(s) (2022). Markedsinvestorprinsippet.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Behandlingsgrunnlag.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Å finne rettslig grunnlag til å bruke KI på elevdata.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Bruk av elevenes aktivitetsdata i læringsanalyse. Utvalgte personvernrettslige utfordringer i AVT-prosjektet. .
  • Show author(s) (2020). Personvern og GDPR.
  • Show author(s) (2020). EØS-regler om statsstøtte, like konkurransevilkår og gode formål.
  • Show author(s) (2018). EEA law and the climate change. Some thoughts from Norway .
  • Show author(s) (2017). «EØS-avtalens vilkår om at støtten må påvirke samhandelen mellom avtalepartene (samhandelskriteriet)».
  • Show author(s) (2017). «Etterlevelse av markedsaktørprinsippet (MEOP)».
  • Show author(s) (2017). Sole responsibility for a half-day seminar on the Market Economy Investor Principle (lecture, assignments).
Popular scientific lecture
  • Show author(s) (2022). Bruk av SoMe på sykehus.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Brexit - possible consequences and impact on Scandinavia.
Academic lecture
  • Show author(s) (2022). The Climate, Environmental Protection and Energy Guidelines in a broad State aid context.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Smittestopp-appen i lys av personvern: finner vi en god løsning?
  • Show author(s) (2022). GDPR og KI.
  • Show author(s) (2021). GDPR and where to limit A.I.? How to avoid efficiency at the expense of humanityhttps://mediacitybergen.no/events/future-week-21/uib-juss/.
  • Show author(s) (2019). The selectivity condition in tax cases - where do we stand?
  • Show author(s) (2019). The burden of proof and evidence required under the Market Economy Operator Principle - lessons learnt from recent case law.
  • Show author(s) (2019). The 2019 ‘Fitness check’ of State aid Modernisation reform of 2012 - an opportunity to redefine and reintroduce sustainability into EU/EEA State aid rules? .
  • Show author(s) (2019). State Aid at the Local Level - Norway.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Recovery of aid. Selected issues.
  • Show author(s) (2019). How to determine the creditworthiness of an SME?
  • Show author(s) (2019). EØS-regler om statsstøtte i universitets- og høyskolesektoren.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Could rules on State aid to promote risk finance investments also promote sustainable economic growth?
  • Show author(s) (2018). «Norske universiteter og høyskoler i lys av EU/EØS-regler om statsstøtte» - presentasjon i kjølvannet av Politisk plattform for en regjering utgått av Høyre, Fremskrittspartiet og Venstre, Jeløya, 14. januar 2018 og Rapport «Like konkurransevilkår for offentlige og private aktører» av 23. januar 2018 (Nærings- og fiskeridepartementet).
  • Show author(s) (2018). The Market Economy Operator Principle.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Personvern og menneskerettigheter.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Offentliga aktörers möjligheter och begränsningar att investera i egna bolag.
  • Show author(s) (2017). “EU/EEA state aid law and the energy sector”.
  • Show author(s) (2017). «Price increasing tax reductions for electronic newspapers: Implications for State aid policy” basert på en artikkel skrevet sammen med Tim Wyndham, NHH, som gjelder nullmoms på elektroniske aviser i Norge.
  • Show author(s) (2017). «Price increasing tax reductions for electronic newspapers: Implications for State aid policy”.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Startup seminar "Towards more stability, competitiveness and predictability in the financial sector" Presentation of the project financed by the Finansmarkedsfondet Presentation of the postdoctoral project: «Towards more stability, competitiveness and predictability in the financial sector: the correct use of the Market Economy Operator Principle as part of the solution» .
  • Show author(s) (2017). Presentasjon av postdok.-prosjektet på Stockholm School of Economics - Towards more stability, competitiveness and predictability in the financial sector: the correct use of the Market Economy Operator Principle as part of the solution.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Presentasjon av postdoc.-prosjektet og statsstøtteregelverket for miljø og energitiltak på et seminar med representanter fra Utenriksdepartementet (rettsavdeling).
  • Show author(s) (2017). Fremleggelse av en artikkel: Once an Aid Recipient, Always an Aid Recipient? The Post-Crisis State Interventions in the Banking Sector and Beyond .
  • Show author(s) (2016). The Applicability and Application of the Market Economy Investor Principle Lecture following receiving the price for the best PhD thesis in the period 2012-2016 - the European State Aid Law Quarterly PhD Award for the best PhD thesis in the field of EU/EEA State aid law .
  • Show author(s) (2016). Om anvendbarhet og anvendelse av markedaktørprinsippet.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Fremleggelse av en artikkel: «The Applicability and Application of the Market Economy Investor Principle: Lessons learnt from the Financial Crisis».
  • Show author(s) (2016). BECCLE-Seminar: Kryssubsidiering, effektiv ressursbruk og ESAs kontroll av det offentlige.
  • Show author(s) (2013). The Applicability and Application of MEIP Senior manager Steffen Sühnel, PwC, Berlin: Applying the Private Investor Test in practice.
  • Show author(s) (2013). Presentation of the PhD thesis : The Market Economyc Investor principle and Article 345 TFEU".
  • Show author(s) (2012). The applicability of State aid rules to financing Health Care in the EU/EEA.
  • Show author(s) (2011). The Market Economy Investor Principle as a legal tool aimed at safeguarding the principle of equality of private and public undertakings under State aid rules.
  • Show author(s) (2010). "State Aid, cross-subsidising and tender bids from suppliers controlled by the public – a problem in regulated procurement? (cfr Dir 2004/18 Article 55)”.
  • Show author(s) (2010). "Article 345 TFEU - an exemption from competition rules? Chosen state aid related aspects of competition between public and private undertakings in the Internal Market" .
Editorial
  • Show author(s) (2022). Den polske rettsstatskrisen og EØS-midlene. Lov og Rett. 67-68.
  • Show author(s) (2019). State Aid in the Form of Tax Exemptions – Some Thoughts from Norway. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 119-120.
Reader opinion piece
  • Show author(s) (2021). Europeisk rett og polsk urett. Klassekampen.
Short communication
  • Show author(s) (2020). Analysis: “The compatibility of turnover-based progressive taxes with EU law” . EULawLive.
Book review
  • Show author(s) (2020). Private Enforcement of European Competition and State Aid Law: Current Challenges and the Way Forward F. WOLLENSCHLÄGER, W. WURMNEST, T. M.J. MÖLLERS (EDS.) REVIEW BY Małgorzata Cyndecka. EULawLive.
Academic monograph
  • Show author(s) (2016). "The Market Economy Investor Test in EU State Aid Law: Applicability and Application", International Competition Law Series.
Popular scientific article
  • Show author(s) (2022). “The devil is in the detail: Ryanair’s challenge to the recapitalisation of Finnair – Finnair II (T-657/20)”, . EULawLive.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Analysis: “General Court on when Commission must rectify decisions initiating formal State aid investigation procedures: Helsingin Bussiliikenne v Commission (T-603/19) and Helsingin kaupunki v Commission (T-597/19)”. EULawLive.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Analysis: Not sure if it is aid, so better declare it compatible aid? Not so fast (Netherlands v Commission, T-469/20). EULawLive.
  • Show author(s) (2021). When does ‘existing aid’ become ‘new aid’ and does it always have to be notified? Some clarifications in the preliminary ruling: Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale di Catania. EULawLive.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Analysis: “Under Article 258 TFEU the burden of proof rests with the Commission, which may not rely on any presumption”. EULawLive.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Analysis: “Discharging the Burden of Proof in State Aid Cases: The Problem of Consecutive Measures by the State Acting as Public Creditor”. EULawLive.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Analysis: “Clarifications on the Member States’ freedom to determine public policy objectives under Article 107(3)(c) TFEU”. EULawLive.
  • Show author(s) (2020). A dystopian story about COVID-19, Artificial Intelligence setting grades and the GDPR. EFTA-Studies.org.
Feature article
  • Show author(s) (2021). Verdien av et kvinneliv. Klassekampen. 22-23.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Streecks EU-konspirasjon. Klassekampen.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Rettslige og etiske spørsmål ved forskningssamarbeid med Polen. Khrono.no.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Internasjonalisering og tverrfaglighet i finansiering: One size does not fit all . Khrono.no.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Feil og misforståelser om Polen – og en mulig milliardbesparelse i statsbudsjettet? Dagens næringsliv.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Ta forskernes mentale helse på alvor. Forskerforum.no.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Kort sagt. statlig propaganda i Polen. Aftenposten (morgenutg. : trykt utg.).
  • Show author(s) (2020). Debatt: – IB-saken viser hvorfor vi trenger personvern Automatiserte avgjørelser kan gjøre livet enklere, men kan også lede til diskriminerende og urettferdige resultater. Bergens Tidende.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Betaler du nok skatt, Apple? EU skal avgjøre om Apple har fått ulovlig statsstøttehttps://blogg.forskning.no/akademiet-for-yngre-forskere/betaler-du-nok-skatt-apple/1630916. www.forskning.no.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Slumpavgift blir stasstøtteproblem. Dagens næringsliv. 26-26.
  • Show author(s) (2017). «Innovasjon Norge må forklare seg». Bergens Tidende.
  • Show author(s) (2017). Amazon og Apples skatteregning i EU. Dagens næringsliv. 38-38.
  • Show author(s) (2016). “A controversial expansion of the MEIP in a financial crisis case – the GC’s judgment in Case T‑386/14 FIH of 15 September 2016 (under appeal)”. Kluwer Competition Law Blog.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Like vilkår - men likere for noen. Dagens næringsliv.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Kan være både tillatt og fornuftig. Dagens næringsliv. 31-31.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Hvor mye «kultur» i kulturaktivitet? Dagens næringsliv. 31-31.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Concurrences blog – innlegg: “The EU General Court hands down a controversial judgment expanding market economy investor principle in a financial crisis case (FIH Holding)” http://www.concurrences.com/en/bulletin/news-issues/september-2016/the-french-supreme-court-holds-that-a-jurisdiction-or-arbitration-clause-cannot . e-Competitions Bulletin.
  • Show author(s) (2014). Gjestebloggpost: T-488/11 Sarc v. Kommisjonen - programvarelisensiering som statsstøtte. Immaterialrettstrollet.
Doctoral dissertation
  • Show author(s) (2015). The Applicability and Application of the Market Economy Investor Principle.
Interview
  • Show author(s) (2022). Rask tilgang til dine personopplysninger.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Ny teknologi kan gi politiet og NAV innsyn i "alt" bankene vet om deg med noen tastetrykk: - Dette er problematisk.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Korona-listen: Slik samlet Bergen kommune informasjon om 120.000 bergensere uten å fortelle om det.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Hva forskar du på?
  • Show author(s) (2022). Grindr risikerer tidenes GDPR-gebyr. #4 Kan personvernet overleve koronakrisen? av David Ferger.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Polen utfordrer nok en gang EU. Nå hviskes det om et «polexit». https://www.aftenposten.no/verden/i/66XxM3/polen-utfordrer-nok-en-gang-eu-naa-hviskes-det-om-et-polexit.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Offentlige organer forlater Facebook: – De mister viktig publikum.
  • Show author(s) (2021). Kritiserer forskningsarbeid med Polen https://www.morgenbladet.no/aktuelt/demokrati/2021/05/07/kritiserer-forskningssamarbeid-med-polen/ .
  • Show author(s) (2021). Kan personvernet overleve koronakrisen? https://juridika.no/innsikt/kan-personvernet-overleve-koronakrisen.
  • Show author(s) (2021). EU-domstolens og EMDs fellelser gjør lite inntrykk på Polenhttps://rett24.no/articles/eu-domstolens-og-emds-fellelser-gjor-ikke-inntrykk-pa-polen.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Vi drøfter koronakrisen - om statens tiltak slår til, eller slår feilhttps://soundcloud.com/user-889453098-695484926/vi-drofter-koronakrisen-om-statens-tiltak-slar-til-eller-slar-feil.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Telefonen spionerte på meg. Slik fant jeg overvåkerne.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Reagerer på Bergens nye korona­forskrift: – Hundre prosent sikkert at persondata kommer på avveie. Eksperter på datasikkerhet og personvern kritiserer koronaregler.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Kommune skal lære opp privat selskap: Omstridt kommunalt-privat samarbeid kan være ulovlig statsstøttehttps://fagbladet.no/nyheter/kommune-skal-lare-opp-privat-selskap-omstridt-kommunaltprivat-samarbeid-kan-vare-ulovlig-statsstotte-6.91.691903.6e243f1be6.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Dax18 Presidentvalg i Polen.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Bomprosjektene kunne spart flere hundre millioner i året.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Leterefusjonsordningen er trolig ulovlig Den norske leterefusjonsordningen utgjør en gyllen skattefordel, men kan bli gjenstand for gransking av Esa pga. mistanke om den i praksis er statsstøtte, som ikke er tillatt.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Har staten lov til å konkurrere på det private markedet?
  • Show author(s) (2017). Moods fekk fem millionar i risikolån – jussekspert er skeptisk til om det var lovleg https://www.nrk.no/sognogfjordane/ber-om-forklaring-pa-lan-til-moods-1.13728258.
  • Show author(s) (2016). Rydder opp i EUs regler for statsstøtte http://www.uib.no/aktuelt/100511/rydder-opp-i-eus-regler-statsst%C3%B8tte.
Programme management
  • Show author(s) (2022). Rett og Slett: #13: Polen og europeiske rettsstater under press - del II.
  • Show author(s) (2022). Rett og Slett: #12: Polen og europeiske rettsstater under press - del I.
Programme participation
  • Show author(s) (2021). #4 SandKasten: Skreddersøm på samlebånd Podcast om AVT-prosjektet - datalæringsanalyse.
  • Show author(s) (2020). Polen - Når rettsstaten svikter https://www.bergenglobal.no/events/polen-naar-rettsstaten-svikter/.
Academic chapter/article/Conference paper
  • Show author(s) (2022). The interplay between the framework for payment services and data protection: a piece of European community identity. 20 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2022). FIH Holding : The Market Economy Operator Principle as a Concept Based on Law and Economics, but Where the Law Prevails. 492 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2022). BP Chemicals: An Important Clarification on the Applicability of the MEOP That Still Waits for Its Full Recognition. 22 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2021). State aid and the financial sector: the crisis and beyond. 20 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Om anvendelsen av EØS-regler om offentlig støtte i den norske universitets- og høyskolesektoren. 18 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2019). Klimarettslege utfordringar for rettsvitskapen. 20 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Norway - National Report - XXVIII FIDE Congress. 17 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2018). Effectiveness and Application of EU and EEA Law in Polish Courts. 44 pages.
  • Show author(s) (2017). BP Chemicals: Lessons to Be Recalled in the Context of Applying the MEIP to Consecutive State Measures in the Financial Sector. 14 pages.
Academic literature review
  • Show author(s) (2019). Review of EU Case Law on State Aid – 2018. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 313-338.

More information in national current research information system (CRIStin)

I am currently working with projects that concern both data protection/GDPR and EU/EEA State aid law.

In 2021/2022, I participated in the AVT project that is one of the first four projects that participated in the Norwegian Data Protection Authority's Sandbox for responsible Artificial Intelligence. The project concerned digital analysis of personal data of pupils in thee Norwegian schools. I contributed with my expertise on the GDPR and was given main responsibility for amongst others clarifying the legal basis for processing of pupils' personal data.

From October 2022, I have been a member of the Council of Europe's expert group "Artificial Intelligence and Education". The group works towards a resolution on using Ai in education taht is to be adopted by the member states in 2023. The resolution will be a basis for binding legal guidelines that will be adopted in 2025.

I have also been invited to join a team that applies for financing of a project concerning personalized systems medicine in endocrinology (ENDO4P) at the University of Bergen. The aim of the project is to bring endocrinology from traditional disease-oriented diagnostics and treatment into the era of P4 Systems Medicine, focusing on Prediction and Prevention of disease, Personalized treatment and Participation of the patient. The project amounts to processing loads of personal data of patients which creates enormous possibilities and interesting data privacy issues.

As part of creating brand-new special courses JUS294-2-A Privacy and data Protection – GDPR and JUS295-2-A Legal Technology: Artificial Intelligence and Law, I coordinate cooperation with Media City Bergen, an international knowledge and innovation cluster based in Bergen. Law students will have a unique possibility to apply their knowledge of data protection/GDPR and Artificial Intelligence in real projects that are being developed in Media City Bergen.

As regards EU/EEA State aid law, in 2019 I organised a workshop concerning the relation between the EU/EEA State aid law and Tax law of the Member States. The project was financed by the University of Bergen's SPIRE-fund (Strategisk program for internasjonalt forskningssamarbeid). The workshop gathered the following renowned experts: Georg Børresen, Assistand director general, Norwegian tax authorities: The "arm's length principle" from the perspective of Tax law, Dr. Liza Lovdahl Gormsen, Director of the Competition Law Forum & Senior Research Fellow in Competition Law, British Institute of International and Comparative law: The "arms's length principle" in State aid cases - The latest from the Court of Justice of the European Union, Joana Christina Pedroso, Doctoral student in Tax Law, University of Gothenburg: The "arm's length principle" from a pluralistic perspective of EU law, Dr. Malgorzata Cyndecka, Associate Professor at the University of Bergen: The selectivity condition in tax cases - where de we stand? Introductory remarks, The recent case law - (even) less clarity? Maarten Aalbers, PhD candidate, Leiden School of Law, Leiden University and Dr. Henrik Skar, Postdoctoral Research Fellow at University of Bergen, Christian Jordal, Deputy Director, State Aid Unit, EFTA Surceillance Authority: The Norwegian cash refund of the tax value of petrolium exploration costs - the question of selectivity in practice. New Recovery Notice - old problems (with national legislation)?, Dr. Malgorzata Cyndecka, Associate Professor at University of Bergen schemes implemented under GBER, time limitations, etc. The full programme may be accessed here

Postdoctoral project

In 2019, I completed my postdoctoral project «Towards more stability, competitiveness and predictability in the financial sector», which was financed by the Norwegian Finansmarkedsfondet, (the Finance Market Fund). The Finance Market Fund is intended to contribute to increasing public understanding concerning financial markets, with particular emphasis on the functioning of financial markets, and also ethical issues.

The project resulted in a number of peer-reviewed scientific articles that were published in the European State Aid Law Quarterly, (Lexxion), the first pan-European publication for State aid law, recognized as the leading journal in its field today (see Cristin for the full list pf publications). I have also contributed to the second edition of the highly appraised "Research Handbook on European State Aid Law" edited by L Hancher & JJ Piernas López with a chapter “State aid and the financial sector: the crisis and beyond”, which will be published by Edward Elgar in 2020. My project also included workshops with international experts in the field of State aid law, both academics and practitioners, as well as a concluding conference "Offentlig oppgavetyveri?" during which the invited experts discussed competition between the private and public sectors. The conference was also linked to my contribution as a member of the Norwegian government’s external working group, "Competition on a level playing field", that analysed amongst others implicit guarantees and tax exemptions in favour of public entities and undertakings that compete with private market operators. In 2018, the Working Group submitted its report: Like konkurransevilkår for offentlige og private aktører.

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