Malgorzata Agnieszka Cyndecka's picture

Malgorzata Agnieszka Cyndecka

Associate Professor, Postdoctoral researcher
  • E-mailMalgorzata.Cyndecka@uib.no
  • Phone+47 55 58 97 41+47 911 01 024
  • Visitor Address
    The Faculty of Law
    Magnus Lagabøtes plass 1
    5010 Bergen
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7806
    5020 BERGEN

Chronicles in newspapers:

Sugar tax in Norway and State aid rules, Dagens Næringsliv, 2018-06-20

Amazon og Apples skatteregning i EU, Dagens Næringsliv, 2017-11-08

Innovasjon Norge må forklare seg Bergens Tidende, 2017-10-11

Like vilkår - men likere for noen Dagens Næringsliv, 2017-04-25

Kan være både tillatt og fornuftig Dagens Næringsliv, 2016-08-15

Hvor mye «kultur» i kulturaktivitet? Dagens Næringsliv, 2016-07-1

Co-supervison of a PhD candidate:

Øyvind Røed "Incompatible state guarantees" (in Norwegian)

Supervision of master students: EU/EEA State aid law, Data protection law, GDPR (in English and Norwegian)


JUS291-2-A EU and EEA State Aid Law - course leader


JUS287-2-A EU/EEA Commercial Law


NIRI Norwegian and international legal institutions

  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka. 2016. "The Market Economy Investor Test in EU State Aid Law: Applicability and Application", International Competition Law Series. Kluwer Law International. 384 pages. ISBN: 9789041161024.
Journal articles
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka. 2019. The MEOP in the Larko Case · Case T-423/14 Larko Geniki. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 18: 180-185. Published 2019-06-28. doi: https://doi.org/10.21552/estal/2
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka. 2019. ‘Reversed’, ‘Excessive’ or Misconstrued? The Controversy About the Burden of Proof in MEOP Cases. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 18: 157-168. Published 2019-06-28. doi: https://doi.org/10.21552/estal/2019/2/5
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka. 2019. State Aid in the Form of Tax Exemptions – Some Thoughts from Norway. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 18: 119-120. Published 2019-06-28. doi: https://doi.org/10.21552/estal/2019/2/2
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka. 2018. The MEOP in the FIH Case - Where Law and Economics Meet, but Law Prevails (C‑579/16 P Commission v FIH ∙ Annotation on the Judgment of the Court of Justice (Grand Chamber) of 6 March 2018, in Case C‑579/16 P European Commission v FIH Holding and FIH Erhvervsbank (FIH)). European State Aid Law Quarterly. 17: 546-552. doi: 10.21552/estal/2018/4/10
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka. 2018. Once an Aid Recipient, Always an Aid Recipient? The Post-Crisis State Interventions in the Banking Sector and Beyond. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 17: 192-203. doi: 10.21552/estal/2018/2/4
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka. 2018. Slumpavgift blir stasstøtteproblem. Dagens næringsliv. 26-26. Published 2018-06-21.
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka; Wyndham, Timothy G.A. 2018. Price Increasing Tax Reductions for Electronic Newspapers. Implications for State Aid Policy. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 17: 375-386. doi: 10.21552/estal/2018/3/7
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka. 2017. FIH Holding and FIH Erhvervsbank v European Commission ∙ T‑386/14. Annotation on the Judgment of the General Court (Sixth Chamber) of 15 September 2016 in Case T‑386/14 FIH Holding and FIH Erhvervsbank v European Commission. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 16: 86-92. doi: https://doi.org/10.21552/estal/2017/1/13
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka. 2017. Like vilkår - men likere for noen. Dagens næringsliv. Published 2017-04-25.
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka. 2017. «Innovasjon Norge må forklare seg». Bergens Tidende. Published 2017-10-11.
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka. 2017. Amazon og Apples skatteregning i EU. Dagens næringsliv. 38-38. Published 2017-11-09.
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka. 2017. The Applicability and Application of the Market Economy Investor Principle: Lessons Learnt from the Financial Crisis. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 16: 512-526. doi: 10.21552/estal/2017/4/3
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka. 2015. The problem of objectives pursued by the state under the application of the Market Economy Investor Principle (MEIP). Tidsskrift for rettsvitenskap. 03/04. 263-294.
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka. 2013. O zadawaniu właściwych pytań, czyli kilka refleksji na temat dopuszczalności zastosowania kryterium (testu) prywatnego inwestora. Glosa do wyroków Sądu z dnia 15 grudnia 2009 r. w sprawie T-156/04 Électricité de France v. Komisja i Trybunału z dnia 5 czerwca 2012 r. w sprawie C-124/10 P. Komisja v. Électricité de France – obu dotyczących umorzenia wierzytelności podatkowej przez władze francuskie wobec Électricité de France (EDF). Internetowy Kwartalnik Antymonopolowy i Regulacyjny. 6: 190-214.
Reports and theses
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka. 2015. The Applicability and Application of the Market Economy Investor Principle. University of Bergen.
Book sections
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka. 2018. Effectiveness and Application of EU and EEA Law in Polish Courts. Kapittel:Poland, pages 451-494. In:
    • Franklin, Christian. 2018. The Effectiveness and Application of EU and EEA Law in National Courts - Principles of Consistent Interpretation. Intersentia. 531 pages. ISBN: 978-1-78068-655-4.
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka; Røed, Øyvind. 2018. Norway - National Report - XXVIII FIDE Congress. Norway, pages 412-428. In:
    • da Cruz Vilaça, José Luís; Moniz, Carlos Botelho; Vasconcelos, Rita Leandro; Saavedra, Alberto. 2018. Tax, State Aid and distortions of competition. Congress Proceedings Vol. 2. Livraria Almedina. 569 pages. ISBN: 978-972-40-7479-5.
  • Cyndecka, Malgorzata Agnieszka. 2017. BP Chemicals: Lessons to Be Recalled in the Context of Applying the MEIP to Consecutive State Measures in the Financial Sector. 1, pages 2-15. In:
    • Buts, Caroline; Jose Luis, Buendia. 2017. Milestones in State Aid Case Law - EStAL's First Fifteen Years in Perspective. ISBN: 978-3-86965-312-9.

More information in national current research information system (CRIStin)

In October 2015, the Norwegian Finansmarkedsfondet, (the Finance Market Fund), granted a scholarship to finance a Post.doc.-project: «Towards more stability, competitiveness and predictability in the financial sector». The Finance Market Fund is intended to contribute to increasing public understanding concerning financial markets, with particular emphasis on the functioning of financial markets, and also ethical issues.

The leader of the project is Associate Professor Ronny Gjendemsjø. The Post.doc.-project will be carried out by Malgorzata Agnieszka Cyndecka, PhD. Cyndecka defended her PhD-thesis: «The Market Economy Investor Principle» at the Faculty of Law at UiB in January 2015. The PhD-thesis will be published by Wolters Kluwer in 2016.

While the Post.doc.-project is financed by Finansmarkedsfondet, the Faculty of Law will finance a PhD-project that will also deal with State aid law, and that will focus on state guaranties.

Both individual projects will contribute to developing the EU/EEA State aid law at the Faculty of Law and BECCLE, Bergen Centre For Competition Law and Economics.

A short description of the projects:

In Autumn 2008, the financial crisis hit Europe. In order to prevent the systemic crisis, the EU/EEA Member States granted huge amounts of state aid to banks that were "too big to fail". This was approved by the European Commission and the EFTA Surveillance Authority that are responsible for State aid control in EU/EEA. While these institutions are still dealing with financial crisis aid cases on a daily basis, it is now time to ask more general questions. How can State aid rules contribute to rebuilding the financial sector for the future? How can they make it more robust? The goal of this project is to provide some answers in this regard, and thus contribute to an on-going discussion on the financial sector. The project will analyse how State aid rules should be applied in the financial sector to safeguard its efficiency, competitiveness and equal terms and conditions for all market operators. This analysis entails two individual research projects: a Post.doc.-project and a PhD project (financed by the Faculty). The Post.doc.-project will investigate the applicability and application of the Market Economy Investor Principle (MEIP) to state measures granted in the financial sector. Under the MEIP, the state intervenes in the market in the same way as a rational, profit-oriented market operator would in similar circumstances under normal market conditions. The financial crisis raised new questions concerning the MEIP and its role in the rebuilding of the financial sector. The PhD project seeks to clarify the legal implications of repayment of aid that was granted in the form of a state guarantee. Such measures create a special triangular relation between the state, the aid recipient and the financial institution. This poses certain civil law challenges. As the procedure of aid recovery is governed by national rules, one must examine and clarify the implications of enforcing the EU/EEA State aid law to the Norwegian legal system.

In August 2016, Małgorzata joined the Norwegian government’s external working group, ‘Competition on a level playing field’, that shall analyse inter alia implicit guarantees and tax exemptions in favour of public entities and undertakings that compete with private market operators.