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Eirik Holmøyvik

Malgorzata Agnieszka Cyndecka

Associate Professor
  • E-mailMalgorzata.Cyndecka@uib.no
  • Phone+47 55 58 97 41+47 911 01 024
  • Visitor Address
    The Faculty of Law
    Magnus Lagabøtes plass 1
    5010 Bergen
    Room 
    BECCLE
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7806
    5020 BERGEN

My research focuses on the EU/EEA law on State aid and data protection/General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

State aid law is part of EU/EEA competition law. It plays a crucial role in safeguarding the proper functioning of the Internal Market. Rules on State aid provide for a level playing field for all market operators (enterprises) in the Internal Market. Norway is well integrated in the EU's Internal Market owing to the EEA Agreement of 1992. Rules on granting aid are very relevant in Norway where the public sector is entrusted with many tasks and public undertakings often compete with private ones. At the same time, Norway is known for using State aid law to grant "good aid" such as aid to protect environment, support regional development or finance research and innovation. The COVID-19 outbreak made rules on granting aid particularly important again. A number of economic crisis measures amount to State aid under the EU/EEA law.

In 2016, my PhD thesis "The Applicability and Application of the Market Economy Investor Principle" won the European State Aid Law Quarterly PhD Award for the best PhD thesis in the field of EU/EEA State aid law written in the period 2012-2016. It was published by Kluwer Law International.

Currently, I am working on issues related on the application of State aid law to taxation. This is the topic of my current project "EU/EEA state aid law and Tax law” that is financed by UiB's SPIRE Programme. See the first international workshop that is part of my project.

In 2019, I was invited to take a position of Associate Editor of law journal European State Aid Law Quarterly (ESTAL), Lexxion, Berlin, the first pan-European publication for State aid law, recognized as the leading journal in its field today. I have special responsibility for reviewing and proposing scientific articles and case notes, contributing to the development of the Journal and its strategy, publishing scientific articles, editorials and case notes.

Data privacy and the General Data Protection Regulation is one of the fields of law that has massively gained in importance during the last years. The questions concerning the legality of processing of our personal data are being stated on a daily basis due to digitalisation of almost every single aspect of our life. Currently, I am working with issues related to COVID-19 contact tracing mobile applications, anonymisation of personal data and the second Payment Services Directive (PSD2).

Following the COVID-19 outbreak, I have been invited to join the University of Bergen’s Pandemic Centre as an expert in privacy/GDPR.

From January I am member of UiB's Working Group - digital competence for UiB's students. The Working group is led by prof. Barbara Wasson, Director for Centre for the Science of Learning & Technology (SLATE) at UiB. The Working group's task is to provide recommendations concerning both the form and contents of a course on Data literacy for all UiB's students. In this respect, I will contribute with the lemenst concerning data privacy/GDPR. The Working group is expected to deliver its report on 1 April. 

Since Autumn 2019 I have been member of Young Academy Norway (AYF), since Autumn 2020 deputy member of AYF's Board and Member of the Letten Prize Committee.

Selected contributions in newspapers and blog platforms:

Analysis: “Under Article 258 TFEU the burden of proof rests with the Commission, which may not rely on any presumption”, EULawLive, 15. January 2021

Analysis of processing of personal data by a number of mobile applications in light of the requirements set out in GDPR - "My phone spied on me" - NRK Beta, 3. December 2020

A comment on Bergen City Council's new rules on COVID-19 tracing: Reagerer på Bergens nye korona­forskrift: – Hundre prosent sikkert at persondata kommer på avveie. Eksperter på datasikkerhet og personvern kritiserer koronaregler, Bergens Tidende, 29. October 2020

Analysis: “Clarifications on the Member States’ freedom to determine public policy objectives under Article 107(3)(c) TFEU” at EULawLIVE, 23. September 2020

A dystopian story about COVID-19, Artificial Intelligence setting grades and the GDPR, EFTA-Studies.org, 5. September 2020

Debate: IB-saken viser hvorfor vi trenger personvern. Automatiserte avgjørelser kan gjøre livet enklere, men kan også lede til diskriminerende og urettferdige resultater. Bergens Tidende 17. July 2020 (A comment on the IBO case and automated decisions under GDPR)

Invited guest in a podcast "Misjon Vestlandet" by PwC Bergen in which I discussed the recent State aid developments in light of the COVID-19 outbreak

Analysis “The compatibility of turnover-based progressive taxes with EU law” EULawLive, 4. April 2020

Book review "Private Enforcement of European Competition and State Aid Law: Current Challenges and the Way Forward", F. WOLLENSCHLÄGER, W. WURMNEST, T. M.J. MÖLLERS (EDS.), EULawLive

In my capacity as member of The Young Academy of Norway (AYF) Researchers "Take the mental health of researchers seriously" - "Ta forskernes mentale helse på alvor", Forskerforum.no 24. April 2020

Interview concerning a controversial public-private project "Kommune skal lære opp privat selskap: Omstridt kommunalt-privat samarbeid kan være ulovlig statsstøtte", Fagbladet, 1. April 2020

Sugar tax in Norway and State aid rules, Dagens Næringsliv, 20. June 2018

Amazon og Apples skatteregning i EU, Dagens Næringsliv, 8. November 2017

Innovasjon Norge må forklare seg Bergens Tidende, 11. October 2017

Like vilkår - men likere for noen Dagens Næringsliv, 25. April 2017

Kan være både tillatt og fornuftig Dagens Næringsliv, 15. August 2016

Hvor mye «kultur» i kulturaktivitet? Dagens Næringsliv, 1. July 2016

Supervision of master students: EU/EEA State aid law, Data protection law, GDPR (in English and Norwegian)

General responsibility for EU/EEA law master students 

Teaching:

JUS294-2-A Privacy and Data protection GDPR - course supervisor

JUS291-2-A EU and EEA State Aid Law - course supervisor

JUS295-2-A Legal Technology: Artificial Intelligence and Law

JUS287-2-A EU/EEA Commercial Law

JUS121 NIRI Norwegian and international legal organisations (Norske og internasjonale rettslige institusjoner (obligatory course, in Norwegian)

JUS111 Administrative law I (Forvaltningsrett I – obligatory course, in Norwegian)

JUS123 Adminsitrative law II (Forvaltningsrett II - obligatory course, in Norwegian)

Academic article
  • Show author(s) 2020. Review of EU Case Law on State Aid – 2019. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 468-514.
  • Show author(s) 2020. EEA Law and the Climate Change. The Case of Norway. Polish Review of International and European Law. 107-126.
  • Show author(s) 2019. ‘Reversed’, ‘Excessive’ or Misconstrued? The Controversy About the Burden of Proof in MEOP Cases. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 157-168.
  • Show author(s) 2019. The MEOP in the Larko Case · Case T-423/14 Larko Geniki . European State Aid Law Quarterly. 180-185.
  • Show author(s) 2019. The 2019 ‘Fitness Check’ of State Aid Modernisation Reform of 2012—An Opportunity to Redefine and Reintroduce Sustainability into the EU/EEA State Aid Rules? The Example of the Transport Sector. Sustainability. 20 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2018. The MEOP in the FIH Case - Where Law and Economics Meet, but Law Prevails (C‑579/16 P Commission v FIH ∙ Annotation on the Judgment of the Court of Justice (Grand Chamber) of 6 March 2018, in Case C‑579/16 P European Commission v FIH Holding and FIH Erhvervsbank (FIH)). European State Aid Law Quarterly. 546-552.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Price Increasing Tax Reductions for Electronic Newspapers. Implications for State Aid Policy. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 375-386.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Once an Aid Recipient, Always an Aid Recipient? The Post-Crisis State Interventions in the Banking Sector and Beyond. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 192-203.
  • Show author(s) 2017. The Applicability and Application of the Market Economy Investor Principle: Lessons Learnt from the Financial Crisis. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 512-526.
  • Show author(s) 2017. FIH Holding and FIH Erhvervsbank v European Commission ∙ T‑386/14. Annotation on the Judgment of the General Court (Sixth Chamber) of 15 September 2016 in Case T‑386/14 FIH Holding and FIH Erhvervsbank v European Commission. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 86-92.
  • Show author(s) 2016. The Applicability and Application of the Market Economy Investor Principle Article that won European State Aid Quarterly PhD Award 2016. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 381-399.
  • Show author(s) 2015. The problem of objectives pursued by the state under the application of the Market Economy Investor Principle (MEIP). Tidsskrift for Rettsvitenskap. 263-294.
  • Show author(s) 2013. O zadawaniu właściwych pytań, czyli kilka refleksji na temat dopuszczalności zastosowania kryterium (testu) prywatnego inwestora. Glosa do wyroków Sądu z dnia 15 grudnia 2009 r. w sprawie T-156/04 Électricité de France v. Komisja i Trybunału z dnia 5 czerwca 2012 r. w sprawie C-124/10 P. Komisja v. Électricité de France – obu dotyczących umorzenia wierzytelności podatkowej przez władze francuskie wobec Électricité de France (EDF). Internetowy Kwartalnik Antymonopolowy i Regulacyjny. 190-214.
Lecture
  • Show author(s) 2020. Personvern og GDPR.
  • Show author(s) 2020. EØS-regler om statsstøtte, like konkurransevilkår og gode formål.
  • Show author(s) 2018. EEA law and the climate change. Some thoughts from Norway .
  • Show author(s) 2017. «EØS-avtalens vilkår om at støtten må påvirke samhandelen mellom avtalepartene (samhandelskriteriet)».
  • Show author(s) 2017. «Etterlevelse av markedsaktørprinsippet (MEOP)».
  • Show author(s) 2017. Sole responsibility for a half-day seminar on the Market Economy Investor Principle (lecture, assignments).
Popular scientific lecture
  • Show author(s) 2019. Brexit - possible consequences and impact on Scandinavia.
Academic lecture
  • Show author(s) 2019. The selectivity condition in tax cases - where do we stand?
  • Show author(s) 2019. The burden of proof and evidence required under the Market Economy Operator Principle - lessons learnt from recent case law.
  • Show author(s) 2019. The 2019 ‘Fitness check’ of State aid Modernisation reform of 2012 - an opportunity to redefine and reintroduce sustainability into EU/EEA State aid rules? .
  • Show author(s) 2019. State Aid at the Local Level - Norway.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Recovery of aid. Selected issues.
  • Show author(s) 2019. How to determine the creditworthiness of an SME?
  • Show author(s) 2019. EØS-regler om statsstøtte i universitets- og høyskolesektoren.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Could rules on State aid to promote risk finance investments also promote sustainable economic growth?
  • Show author(s) 2018. «Norske universiteter og høyskoler i lys av EU/EØS-regler om statsstøtte» - presentasjon i kjølvannet av Politisk plattform for en regjering utgått av Høyre, Fremskrittspartiet og Venstre, Jeløya, 14. januar 2018 og Rapport «Like konkurransevilkår for offentlige og private aktører» av 23. januar 2018 (Nærings- og fiskeridepartementet).
  • Show author(s) 2018. The Market Economy Operator Principle.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Personvern og menneskerettigheter.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Offentliga aktörers möjligheter och begränsningar att investera i egna bolag.
  • Show author(s) 2017. “EU/EEA state aid law and the energy sector”.
  • Show author(s) 2017. «Price increasing tax reductions for electronic newspapers: Implications for State aid policy” basert på en artikkel skrevet sammen med Tim Wyndham, NHH, som gjelder nullmoms på elektroniske aviser i Norge.
  • Show author(s) 2017. «Price increasing tax reductions for electronic newspapers: Implications for State aid policy”.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Startup seminar "Towards more stability, competitiveness and predictability in the financial sector" Presentation of the project financed by the Finansmarkedsfondet Presentation of the postdoctoral project: «Towards more stability, competitiveness and predictability in the financial sector: the correct use of the Market Economy Operator Principle as part of the solution» .
  • Show author(s) 2017. Presentasjon av postdok.-prosjektet på Stockholm School of Economics - Towards more stability, competitiveness and predictability in the financial sector: the correct use of the Market Economy Operator Principle as part of the solution.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Presentasjon av postdoc.-prosjektet og statsstøtteregelverket for miljø og energitiltak på et seminar med representanter fra Utenriksdepartementet (rettsavdeling).
  • Show author(s) 2017. Fremleggelse av en artikkel: Once an Aid Recipient, Always an Aid Recipient? The Post-Crisis State Interventions in the Banking Sector and Beyond .
  • Show author(s) 2016. The Applicability and Application of the Market Economy Investor Principle Lecture following receiving the price for the best PhD thesis in the period 2012-2016 - the European State Aid Law Quarterly PhD Award for the best PhD thesis in the field of EU/EEA State aid law .
  • Show author(s) 2016. Om anvendbarhet og anvendelse av markedaktørprinsippet.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Fremleggelse av en artikkel: «The Applicability and Application of the Market Economy Investor Principle: Lessons learnt from the Financial Crisis».
  • Show author(s) 2016. BECCLE-Seminar: Kryssubsidiering, effektiv ressursbruk og ESAs kontroll av det offentlige.
  • Show author(s) 2013. The Applicability and Application of MEIP Senior manager Steffen Sühnel, PwC, Berlin: Applying the Private Investor Test in practice.
  • Show author(s) 2013. Presentation of the PhD thesis : The Market Economyc Investor principle and Article 345 TFEU".
  • Show author(s) 2012. The applicability of State aid rules to financing Health Care in the EU/EEA.
  • Show author(s) 2011. The Market Economy Investor Principle as a legal tool aimed at safeguarding the principle of equality of private and public undertakings under State aid rules.
  • Show author(s) 2010. "State Aid, cross-subsidising and tender bids from suppliers controlled by the public – a problem in regulated procurement? (cfr Dir 2004/18 Article 55)”.
  • Show author(s) 2010. "Article 345 TFEU - an exemption from competition rules? Chosen state aid related aspects of competition between public and private undertakings in the Internal Market" .
Editorial
  • Show author(s) 2019. State Aid in the Form of Tax Exemptions – Some Thoughts from Norway. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 119-120.
Short communication
  • Show author(s) 2020. Analysis: “The compatibility of turnover-based progressive taxes with EU law” . EULawLive.
Book review
  • Show author(s) 2020. Private Enforcement of European Competition and State Aid Law: Current Challenges and the Way Forward F. WOLLENSCHLÄGER, W. WURMNEST, T. M.J. MÖLLERS (EDS.) REVIEW BY Małgorzata Cyndecka. EULawLive.
Academic monograph
  • Show author(s) 2016. "The Market Economy Investor Test in EU State Aid Law: Applicability and Application", International Competition Law Series.
Popular scientific article
  • Show author(s) 2021. Analysis: “Under Article 258 TFEU the burden of proof rests with the Commission, which may not rely on any presumption”. EULawLive.
  • Show author(s) 2020. Analysis: “Clarifications on the Member States’ freedom to determine public policy objectives under Article 107(3)(c) TFEU”. EULawLive.
  • Show author(s) 2020. A dystopian story about COVID-19, Artificial Intelligence setting grades and the GDPR. EFTA-Studies.org.
Feature article
  • Show author(s) 2020. Ta forskernes mentale helse på alvor. Forskerforum.no.
  • Show author(s) 2020. Kort sagt. statlig propaganda i Polen. Aftenposten.no.
  • Show author(s) 2020. Debatt: – IB-saken viser hvorfor vi trenger personvern Automatiserte avgjørelser kan gjøre livet enklere, men kan også lede til diskriminerende og urettferdige resultater. Bergens Tidende.
  • Show author(s) 2020. Betaler du nok skatt, Apple? EU skal avgjøre om Apple har fått ulovlig statsstøttehttps://blogg.forskning.no/akademiet-for-yngre-forskere/betaler-du-nok-skatt-apple/1630916. www.forskning.no.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Slumpavgift blir stasstøtteproblem. Dagens næringsliv. 26-26.
  • Show author(s) 2017. «Innovasjon Norge må forklare seg». Bergens Tidende.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Amazon og Apples skatteregning i EU. Dagens næringsliv. 38-38.
  • Show author(s) 2016. “A controversial expansion of the MEIP in a financial crisis case – the GC’s judgment in Case T‑386/14 FIH of 15 September 2016 (under appeal)”. Kluwer Competition Law Blog.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Like vilkår - men likere for noen. Dagens næringsliv.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Kan være både tillatt og fornuftig. Dagens næringsliv. 31-31.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Hvor mye «kultur» i kulturaktivitet? Dagens næringsliv. 31-31.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Concurrences blog – innlegg: “The EU General Court hands down a controversial judgment expanding market economy investor principle in a financial crisis case (FIH Holding)” http://www.concurrences.com/en/bulletin/news-issues/september-2016/the-french-supreme-court-holds-that-a-jurisdiction-or-arbitration-clause-cannot . e-Competitions Bulletin.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Gjestebloggpost: T-488/11 Sarc v. Kommisjonen - programvarelisensiering som statsstøtte. Immaterialrettstrollet.
Doctoral dissertation
  • Show author(s) 2015. The Applicability and Application of the Market Economy Investor Principle.
Interview
  • Show author(s) 2020. Vi drøfter koronakrisen - om statens tiltak slår til, eller slår feilhttps://soundcloud.com/user-889453098-695484926/vi-drofter-koronakrisen-om-statens-tiltak-slar-til-eller-slar-feil.
  • Show author(s) 2020. Telefonen spionerte på meg. Slik fant jeg overvåkerne.
  • Show author(s) 2020. Reagerer på Bergens nye korona­forskrift: – Hundre prosent sikkert at persondata kommer på avveie. Eksperter på datasikkerhet og personvern kritiserer koronaregler.
  • Show author(s) 2020. Kommune skal lære opp privat selskap: Omstridt kommunalt-privat samarbeid kan være ulovlig statsstøttehttps://fagbladet.no/nyheter/kommune-skal-lare-opp-privat-selskap-omstridt-kommunaltprivat-samarbeid-kan-vare-ulovlig-statsstotte-6.91.691903.6e243f1be6.
  • Show author(s) 2020. Dax18 Presidentvalg i Polen.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Bomprosjektene kunne spart flere hundre millioner i året.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Leterefusjonsordningen er trolig ulovlig Den norske leterefusjonsordningen utgjør en gyllen skattefordel, men kan bli gjenstand for gransking av Esa pga. mistanke om den i praksis er statsstøtte, som ikke er tillatt.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Har staten lov til å konkurrere på det private markedet?
  • Show author(s) 2017. Moods fekk fem millionar i risikolån – jussekspert er skeptisk til om det var lovleg https://www.nrk.no/sognogfjordane/ber-om-forklaring-pa-lan-til-moods-1.13728258.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Rydder opp i EUs regler for statsstøtte http://www.uib.no/aktuelt/100511/rydder-opp-i-eus-regler-statsst%C3%B8tte.
Programme participation
  • Show author(s) 2020. Polen - Når rettsstaten svikter https://www.bergenglobal.no/events/polen-naar-rettsstaten-svikter/.
Academic chapter/article/Conference paper
  • Show author(s) 2021. State aid and the financial sector: the crisis and beyond. 20 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Om anvendelsen av EØS-regler om offentlig støtte i den norske universitets- og høyskolesektoren. 18 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Klimarettslege utfordringar for rettsvitskapen. 20 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Norway - National Report - XXVIII FIDE Congress. 17 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Effectiveness and Application of EU and EEA Law in Polish Courts. 44 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2017. BP Chemicals: Lessons to Be Recalled in the Context of Applying the MEIP to Consecutive State Measures in the Financial Sector. 14 pages.
Academic literature review
  • Show author(s) 2019. Review of EU Case Law on State Aid – 2018. European State Aid Law Quarterly. 313-338.

More information in national current research information system (CRIStin)

I am currently working with a few projects that concern both data protection /GDPR and EU/EEA State aid law.

As regards data protection/GDPR, I have been invited to join a team of brilliant researchers that are applying for financing of Centre of Excellence -  Center for personalized systems medicine in endocrinology (ENDO4P) at the University of Bergen from the Norwegian Research Council. The aim of the project is to bring endocrinology from traditional disease-oriented diagnostics and treatment into the era of P4 Systems Medicine, focusing on Prediction and Prevention of disease, Personalized treatment and Participation of the patient. The project amounts to processing loads of personal data of patients which creates enormous possibilities and interesting data privacy issues.

As part of creating brand-new special courses JUS294-2-A Privacy and data Protection – GDPR and JUS295-2-A Legal Technology: Artificial Intelligence and Law, I am helping to coordinate cooperation with Media City Bergen, an international knowledge and innovation cluster based in Bergen. Law students will have a unique possibility to apply their knowledge of data protection/GDPR and Artificial Intelligence in real projects that are being developed in Media City Bergen.

As regards EU/EEA State aid law, I am working with one of the most debated and complex issues that is currently being discussed in the EU/EEA, namely the relation between the EU/EEA State aid law and Tax law of the Member States. The recent developments in the EU law have expanded the scope of State aid law, which considerably limits the Member States’ room for manoeuvre. Norway being a Contracting Party to the EEA Agreement is subject to the same rules as EU Member States, with some minor exceptions only.

The recent examples of the EU/EEA institutions applying State aid law to taxation have revived the debate on the EU/EEA law interfering in the sovereignty of the Member States. Given the fact that direct taxation to a large extent remains a sole competence of the Member States, it should not come as a surprise that this debate raises much controversy. In fact, its scope and importance is being compared to the discussion on the application of the free movement rules a few decades ago. In addition, the debate on fiscal aid also has an international and interdisciplinary dimension. The highly topical issue of tax treaties and tax rulings in favour of multinational companies such as Apple, Amazon or Starbucks concerns the problem of tax evasion and tax avoidance and must be seen in light of international tax avoidance structures adopted by the G20 and OECD. Fiscal aid for environment and energy-saving objectives in the form of “green taxation” is also a global issue. Obviously, the fight against the climate change is not limited to the EU/EEA states.

Given the complexity of applying State aid law to tax measures, a fruitful collaboration with internationally renowned experts in the relevant fields of law is indispensable. My project includes thus two gatherings of experts that will create a solid foundation for future collaboration going beyond the planned project. This is crucial to developing a much needed expertise in State aid law in the Norwegian academia and will strengthen the UiB’s position EU/EEA- and worldwide. The project is financed by the University of Bergen's SPIRE-fund (Strategisk program for internasjonalt forskningssamarbeid). In November 2019, I organised the first gathering in the Norwegian House of Research and Innovation in Brussels. The workshop gathered the following renowned experts: Georg Børresen, Assistand director general, Norwegian tax authorities: The "arm's length principle" from the perspective of Tax law, Dr. Liza Lovdahl Gormsen, Director of the Competition Law Forum & Senior Research Fellow in Competition Law, British Institute of International and Comparative law: The "arms's length principle" in State aid cases - The latest from the Court of Justice of the European Union, Joana Christina Pedroso, Doctoral student in Tax Law, University of Gothenburg: The "arm's length principle" from a pluralistic perspective of EU law, Dr. Malgorzata Cyndecka, Associate Professor at the University of Bergen: The selectivity condition in tax cases - where de we stand? Introductory remarks, The recent case law - (even) less clarity? Maarten Aalbers, PhD candidate, Leiden School of Law, Leiden University and Dr. Henrik Skar, Postdoctoral Research Fellow at University of Bergen, Christian Jordal, Deputy Director, State Aid Unit, EFTA Surceillance Authority: The Norwegian cash refund of the tax value of petrolium exploration costs - the question of selectivity in practice. New Recovery Notice - old problems (with national legislation)?, Dr. Malgorzata Cyndecka, Associate Professor at University of Bergen schemes implemented under GBER, time limitations, etc. The full programme may be accessed here

Postdoctoral project

In 2019, I have completed my postdoctoral project «Towards more stability, competitiveness and predictability in the financial sector», which was financed by the Norwegian Finansmarkedsfondet, (the Finance Market Fund). The Finance Market Fund is intended to contribute to increasing public understanding concerning financial markets, with particular emphasis on the functioning of financial markets, and also ethical issues.

The project resulted in a number of peer-reviewed scientific articles that were published in the European State Aid Law Quarterly, (Lexxion), the first pan-European publication for State aid law, recognized as the leading journal in its field today (see Cristin for the full list pf publications). I have also contributed to the second edition of the highly appraised "Research Handbook on European State Aid Law" edited by L Hancher & JJ Piernas López with a chapter “State aid and the financial sector: the crisis and beyond”, which will be published by Edward Elgar in 2020. My project also included workshops with international experts in the field of State aid law, both academics and practitioners, as well as a concluding conference "Offentlig oppgavetyveri?" during which the invited experts discussed competition between the private and public sectors. The conference was also linked to my contribution as a member of the Norwegian government’s external working group, "Competition on a level playing field", that analysed amongst others implicit guarantees and tax exemptions in favour of public entities and undertakings that compete with private market operators. In 2018, the Working Group submitted its report: Like konkurransevilkår for offentlige og private aktører.

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