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PhD education

Printing and public availability

The thesis is to be made available to the public prior to the defence through the distribution of hard copies at the library and in the auditorium.

UiB has a framework agreement with the printing company Skipnes to facilitate the printing of the final version of the doctoral thesis - copies for the public defence and libraries. The aim is to ensure an easy, reasonably priced and professional management of the process from manuscript to finished thesis.

If you are ready to have your thesis printed, you can go directly to Skipnes' webpage. Here you can place an online order, upload your thesis and find detailed advice regarding the printing process.

If your thesis is not ready for printing yet, we still encourage you to look into the advice below. It can be well worth making decisions on format early in the writing process.

Template for thesis

UiB and Skipnes has made a template to assist in the writing of the thesis and ensure that appropriate content items are included. The template can be found on Skipnes' webpages. The template has few rules and no macros or other automated functions. It is not a prerequisite that the candidate has access to or skills in advanced word processing or special software.

Most theses are printed in book format 17 x 24 cm, but written in page size A4. To compensate for this the font size of body text is set to 13pt and line spacing is set at 1.5 in the template. This is to ensure that the text is legible when the document later is shrunk from A4 to book format.

Cover and title page is automatically generated from the information you enter when placing the order on the webpage of Skipnes. An example of cover and title page will be announced.

Picture quality

Pictures in the thesis must meet certain quality criteria when put on print. When you place your order for printing, an automatic check is done on the quality of your pictures. Pictures of low quality will be refused. Either way, it is important to have a conscious approach to quality before printing. Below are some general advice on picture quality.

Technical quality in pictures is often measured in ppi (pixels per inch). If you use a picture editing programme you will be able to see ppi for the pictures you want to use. A picture should have at least 200 ppi if you write and edit in A4-format. 
Here are some examples of different picture sizes and the adequate amount of pixels in A4-format:
If you want to fill the whole page (the text area), the picture will measure 16 x 24 cm (w x h). It must then have 1260 x 1890 pixels (w x h).
If you want to use a smaller picture, for example 5 x 4 cm (w x h), 315 x 395 (w x h) pixels will be sufficient.
The thesis is scaled down from A4 to book format (17 x 24) when printed. A picture that is 200 ppi in A4 will become approximately 250 ppi in book format. 250 ppi is considered as sufficient quality when printed, but pictures of lower technical quality may also look fine when printed. The low limits for the number of pixels are somewhat flexible.

Some tips on pictures: Try to avoid enlarging small pictures as this reduces the picture quality. If jpg-pictures are used, one must avoid compressing the file. The size of the file does not in itself tell everything about the picture quality as different file formats may have different degrees of compression. A picture with a sufficient amount of pixels may not look optimal. This may occur if the file is too compressed, or if a small picture has been scaled up and added pixels to it.  

Reference handling

Reference handling tools like EndNote, EndNote online and Reference Manager are available for PhD candidates at UiB. Please see the webpage of the UiB Library on this theme

Copyrights and publishing

It is necessary to inform the publisher if you are planning to print articles that have been published previously in journals. However, no restrictions may be imposed on the public availability of a PhD thesis.

For more information on copyrights and publishing we recommend this webpage from the University Library.

Public availability in BORA

UiB recommends that PhD candidates make their thesis available in BORA (Bergen Open Research Archive) unless this is in conflict with other publisher's copyrights. The University Library will contact all candidates with an offer of making the thesis available in BORA. If you want to make the thesis available before the public defence, you are welcome to contact BORA regarding this.