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Faculty of Law

Supplementary Regulations for Studies at the Faculty of Law at the University of Bergen

Adopted by the Faculty Board on 16 June 2011.

Chapter 1. Scope and relationship to other regulations

Section 1-1 Legal basis and scope. Relationship to other regulations 

These regulations have been adopted pursuant to the "Regulations concerning Admissions, Academic Studies, and Examinations at the University of Bergen", which apply to all programmes and examinations at the Bachelor's and Master's levels at the Faculty of Law at the University of Bergen. The Regulations and the rules given in these Supplementary Regulations apply parallel to the "Programme description for the Master's Programme in Law at the University of Bergen" and the course descriptions for the individual courses taught at the Faculty. Separate rules may apply for courses offered as continuing education and further education through the Centre for Continuing Education (SEVU).

Section 1-2 Amendments 

  1. Any major amendments to these regulations or the programme description shall be adopted by the Faculty Board. Changes must be adopted and published a reasonable length of time before they come into effect. Where necessary, the Faculty Board shall establish transitional rules.
     
  2. Any amendments to the grading system or to guidelines for grading made by the Faculty, shall be adopted by the Faculty board.
     
  3. Minor changes to these regulations or the programme description shall be adopted by the Education Committee.
     
  4. Changes to the course descriptions shall be adopted by the Education Committee; however, decisions regarding the establishment or discontinuation of courses must be approved by the Faculty Board.
     
  5. Changes to the programme description and course descriptions must be adopted and published no later than four weeks before the course starts. Exceptions to this deadline is granted only where the amendment is necessary for the course to be completed in an academically justifiable manner.

Section 1-3 Terminology 

  1. In these Supplementary Regulations, the abbreviated term "Study Regulations" means the "Regulations concerning Admissions, Academic Studies and Examinations at the University of Bergen".
     
  2. In these Supplementary Regulations, "programme description" means the "programme description for the Master's Programme in Law at the University of Bergen". "Course" (i.e. “kurs” as opposed to “emne”) means "a teaching unit of a subjectspecific course as taught in a specific year".
     
  3. In these Supplementary Regulations, "the Faculty" means the Faculty of Law at the University of Bergen.
     
  4. In these Supplementary Regulations, "year" or "year of study" means those groups of courses listed in the programme description under the headings "First year" to "Fifth year".
     
  5. Unless otherwise specifically provided, the rules relating to recognition of prior studies in Chapter 5 apply correspondingly for specific recognition.
     
  6. All other words, terms and concepts used in these Supplementary Regulations shall otherwise be understood in the same way as they are defined in the Study Regulations.

Chapter 2. Degrees, admission to a course or spesific programme of study, individual education plan, teaching and compulsory teaching activities. Spesial admission to elective courses

Section 2-1 Master's Degree in Law

The Faculty awards the Master's degree in Law, which confers the title Master in Law, as laid down in pursuance of Section 3-2 of Act no. 15 of 1 April 2005 relating to universities and university colleges. Normal length of study including the Examen Philosophicum and Examen Facultatum is five years. Each year of study comprises 60 credits and the degree comprises a total of 300 ECTS credits.

The Master's degree programme comprises the preparatory courses Examen Philosophicum and Examen Facultatum, courses in public law, private law and international law, methodology and perspective courses, and an original piece of written work (the master's thesis). The Faculty of Law determines the subjects and courses included in the degree programme and the order in whichthe courses must be taken.

During the fourth and fifth academic year, students take a course in ethics.

The following addition to § 2-1, apply from the academic year 2016/2017:

For students who do not choose study abroad during the fourth or fifth year of study, should one of the elective courses in the degree have English as the language of instruction.

The requirement for English language course does not apply to students who choose to study abroad and take courses where the language of instruction is non-Scandinavian. The requirement for English-language elective course does not apply to students who choose to write a thesis of 60 credits, or for students who choose one of the following combinations of elective courses totaling 30 credits:

I) JUS254-2-A Police Law and JUS255-2-A Prosecution Law,

II) JUS256-2-A Tax Law I, JUS256-2-B Tax Law II and JUS257-2-A Fundamental company law

III) JUS260-2-A Design and patent law, JUS260-2-B Copyright, JUS260-2-C Know Paint Straight and JUS260-2-D marketing Straight (three of four)

IV) JUS325 Legal Aid

When JUS330 Moot Court Competition (participation pre-approved) is accomplished in English and is implemented into the masters degree in law, it will also meet the requirement for an English course in the degree.

Two-year master's program: Nominal length of study for the whole program is 2 years. Each academic year is 60 credits and the degree holds a total of 120 credits (ECTS).
Master program coincides with the fourth and fifth year of the five-year program.

Section 2-2 time limits for admission and the individual education plan. Adapted individual education plan

Admission to the Master's programme (the right to study) lasts respectively two or five years from the year in which admission is granted.

The Faculty may, pursuant to an application to such effect, create an individual education plan that deviates from the general education plan, for example where the student concerned is a part-time student or is exempt from certain courses as they have had one or more subjects on the Master's programme recognised and approved (cf. chapter 5), or where he or she due to illness or other compelling reasons has not or will not be able to attend the ordinary teaching schedule in the set order. In this respect, exemption from the rule defined in subsection 1 above may be granted.

It is not possible to draw up an individual education plan that entails that admission to the Master's programme (the right to study) lasts longer than ten years, unless there are special circumstances.

Section 2-3 Time limits for admission and the individual education plan for students who have previously passed courses on the master's programme or cand. jur. degree programme

Students who have previously been admitted to and/or been registered on the Master's Programme in Law or the Cand. jur. programme at the Faculty can apply for readmission and continue their studies, provided the combined length of study does not exceed ten years. The Faculty can make exceptions to this rule in the event of special circumstances.

Length of study is calculated as all the semesters the individual is registered on the law programme and/or has been admitted to teaching in courses on the law programme and/or is registered to take examinations in courses on the law programme.

Any courses that the student has previously passed will be integrated pursuant to the provisions in Section 5-2.

In connection with repetition of courses, including voluntary re-take, all examinations and examination attempts at the Faculty of Law in Bergen in courses that can be included in the Master of Law degree will count.

Section 2-4 General rules concerning teaching and compulsory teaching activities

  1. The programme description indicates which forms of teaching are used in the Master's programme. The course descriptions indicate which forms of teaching are used in the individual courses as well as the compulsory teaching activities. Unless otherwise provided in the course description, the rules in (2) to (5) below apply.
     
  2. The course can only be approved and the examination result can only be set if the student has completed all the compulsory teaching activities that have been set for the course. This applies even if a student's failure to participate is due to circumstances for which the student cannot be blamed. Compulsory teaching activities are listed in the course description.

    Valid attendance is only recorded in the group that the student is allocated to by the Faculty. A group leader may at any time conduct a roll call and may turn away students who do not belong to the group.

    A condition for approval of a course is valid registration for examination in the course at the examination date in the relevant semester.
     
  3. Unless otherwise provided in the course description, it is a minimum condition for approval of a course that the student has participated in the compulsory teaching activities and fulfilled the requirements set out in the course description. Up to 25 per cent deviation from full participation is accepted. Participation is calculated as defined in the "Guidelines on Calculation of Compulsory Participation".

    Approval of compulsory teaching activities can be reversed retroactively, cf. Section 35 of the Public Administration Act.

    If the course includes a compulsory course assignment, this must have been submitted and approved before the examination. Any exceptions will be stated in the course description.

    All the compulsory teaching activities must have been completed by the times and within the time limits defined in the course description.
     
  4. Any student whose participation is not sufficient for the course to be approved will be notified no later than the day before the final examination, see however Section 3, second paragraph.
     
  5. On application, the Faculty may set individually adapted compulsory teaching activities, if a student can document that he or she is not able, without unreasonable strain, to fulfil the participation requirements because of their own or a closely related person's illness, refresher exercises in the Armed Forces, caring for their own children in connection with birth or adoption, or for some other weighty medical, social or welfare reasons. Applications for individual adaptations of this kind must be submitted to the Faculty no later than three weeks before the examination and such that the adaptations can actually be implemented before the examination. Individually adapted teaching activity requirements must ensure that the learning objectives, learning outcomes and the overall workload are maintained. There is no exemption from compulsory teaching activities.
     
  6. If a student provides documentation of illness during the writing period for the compulsory course assignment, an extension of up to three days will be granted. The student must apply to the Faculty for an extension of the writing period no later than the ordinary assignment submission deadline. Documentation must explicitly specify that the candidate was unable to complete the paper within the ordinary deadline due to illness, as well as the period for the illness. The documentation must be received by the faculty no later than one week after the ordinary deadline for the paper.

Section 2-5 Revision of the individual education plan. Loss of place on the programme

  1. If a student has failed to obtain approval of a course, the Faculty shall revise the individual education plan for the student. A student who is behind by more than 20 credits can be moved down a year, cf. the rules in the programme description concerning order and progression. EXPHIL and EXFAC Juridisk forprøve must be passed before the second year can be commenced.
  2. Changes to the individual education plan do not entail a corresponding change in respect of which year of study the individual courses belong to pursuant to the programme description, cf. Section 1-3(4).
     
  3. Students who fall behind more than 60 credits will lose their place on the programme. In the event of special circumstances, the Faculty may, on application, grant exemption from this rule.
     
  4. Individual education plans are followed up in the autumn semester, following the end of the academic year.

Section 2-6 Leave of absence

  1. Students on the Master's Programme in Law may, after the have passed at least 40 ECTS credits of the programme (recognition of prior studies is not included), be granted a leave of absence for up to one full academic year, without giving a reason. Applications for a leave of absence must be submitted by 1 September for leave in the autumn semester or for the whole academic year and by 1 February for leave in the spring semester.
     
  2. Leave pursuant to this provision may be granted only once during the Master's programme, cf. the Study Regulations, Section 4-7 (7).
     
  3. Leave of absence pursuant to (1) above cannot be granted if this would result in the student taking more than ten years to complete their degree.

Section 2-7 Special admission to elective courses

  1. The Faculty admits students to elective courses twice a year, through a local admissions process. The deadline for such application is published on the website for admission. However, the Faculty does not guarantee that there will be teaching and examinations in all elective courses every year.
  2. Applicants who have completed the Cand. jur. and Master's in Law degree programmes and law students from other faculties or institutions who have completed at least three years of law studies will be admitted.
     
  3. Other applicants will be admitted after an individual academic assessment of their previous knowledge and education.

Section 2-8 Recording tuition

  1. Audio and/or visual recordings of lectures are not permitted without the explicit prior consent of the lecturer. If such permission is granted, it applies to all the students in the room, and for the entire series of lectures, unless it is explicitly retracted.
     
  2. Students are not permitted to make audio and/or visual recordings of large group sessions, study group sessions or seminars. Students who act in violation of this prohibition will not have the attendance of the relevant group meeting recorded, and can also be expelled from the group meeting by the group leader.
  3. Where there is doubt as to whether the form of teaching is a lecture or some other form, it is considered to be a lecture in this context.

Chapter 3. Examinations and students' rights and obligations

Section 3-1 Definitions

  1. In these Regulations, the term "examination" means examinations such as final written examinations sat at the University, home examinations, etc., as specified in the Study Regulations. Compulsory teaching activities and other elements that are not included in the grading basis do not count as "examinations".
     
  2. The term "ordinary examination" means the examination held at the end of the course in the ordinary semester, as indicated in the course description.
     
  3. "Re-sit examination" means the examinations held each year in August for students who have not completed or passed the ordinary examination, cf. the previous section. All students who had a valid right to sit examinations in the immediately preceding year and who are covered by the provisions of sections 3-4, 1.b)ii below are entitled to take a re-sit examination. More detailed rules about re-sit examinations are laid out in Section 3-4 below.
     
  4. The term "voluntary re-take" means a new attempt at sitting an examination that the student has already passed.

Section 3-2 General rules for admission to examinations 

In order to be entitled to take ordinary examinations, it is required that students:

  1. Have satisfied the general rules concerning admission to a course or specific programme of study, semester registration, etc., as defined in Chapter 4 of the Study Regulations, cf. in particular Sections 4-2 to 4-4.
     
  2. Have a valid registration for examination at the time of the ordinary examination for the course.
     
  3. Have had approved all the compulsory teaching activities in accordance with the programme description, course description and rules laid down here.

Section 3-3 Voluntary withdrawal from examinations 

Students who are registered to sit the ordinary examination for a course may choose to cancel their examination registration (i.e. withdraw from the examination) up to 14 calendar days prior to the scheduled examination day. For home examinations lasting several days, the deadline for withdrawing is calculated from the date the examination assignment is handed out. Withdrawal from an examination entails cancellation of the registration for examination, course registration and any group allocations for the course, rendering them invalid. The student loses his/her right to participate in closed classes and to have compulsory teaching activities for the course approved and any previously approved, compulsory teaching activities are discounted.

Section 3-4 Re-sit examinations and voluntary re-take 

  1. For courses in the first to fourth years, the following rules apply:

    a) Students who have not obtained approval of the compulsory teaching activities or who have withdrawn from the course in accordance with Section 3-3 above may not take the examination and must repeat the entire course. All compulsory written work in the course must be re-written. Previously submitted work may be used as the basis for a new submission, but the text must be reworked.  In cases where the work submitted is a rewritten version of previously submitted work, the requirement for rewriting will only be fulfilled if the student explains in a final note the improvements that have been made and, if relevant, why certain parts of the text are unchanged. If the requirement for rewriting is not met, the work may not be approved. 

    b) Students who have had the compulsory teaching activities approved:

    i.    Examinations must be taken at the end of the course.

    ii.    Students who do not pass the examination are automatically registered for the re-sit examination when the result is due to

    - failure to attend the examination
    - failure to complete the examination
    - legitimate reason for non-attendance, see paragraph 3 b ii below
    - failed result.

    Students who do not wish to take the re-sit examination must themselves withdraw from the re-sit examination within the deadline for withdrawal.

    Rescinded exam does not provide access to exam re-sit.

    Students who do not pass the re-sit examination must themselves register for the next ordinary examination.

    iii. On application, a student may complete the compulsory teaching activities again. Once the application has been granted, previous approval will be cancelled and the student will take the course on the same terms as students who have not previously passed.  All compulsory written work in the course must be re-written. Previously submitted work may be used as the basis for a new submission, but the text must be reworked.  In cases where the work submitted is a rewritten version of previously submitted work, the requirement for rewriting will only be fulfilled if the student explains in a final note the improvements that have been made and, if relevant, why certain parts of the text are unchanged. If the requirement for rewriting is not met, the work may not be approved.  

    c) Students who have passed the course, including the examination(s), but who nevertheless want to take the examination again (voluntary re-take):

    i. The student may not attend classes again other than lectures.

    ii. The examination is taken at the ordinary examination.

    iii. Students may re-sit the examination for a single course up to two times (see 3.b) below for more details about examination attempts), within the limitations set forth in subsections iv to vii below. Students who have already passed the master thesis may not hand in a new thesis for assessment.

    iv. Students on the Master’s programme in law may voluntarily retake up to four previously passed examinations belonging to years 1–4 of the programme. Students at two-year master's program may voluntarily re-sit an exam in their first year. For counting voluntary re-sit, see § 3-1. 4.  Preliminary examinations (ex.phil. and ex.fac.) and elective courses are not included in the re-take quota. The re-take quota is reduced by one examination attempt for each year of study that the student has had recognised and approved, cf. Chapter 5. These rules enter into force on 1 January 2013. The re-take system will be evaluated in the spring semester 2015.

    v. Examinations for first-year courses may not be re-sat once the student has embarked upon the third year.
    “Embarked upon” meaning:
    a. has got third year couses in the plan for the current academic year of
    b. at semester start is eligible to commence the third academic year, jf. § 2-5 (1)

    vi. Examinations for second-year courses may not be re-sat once the student has embarked upon the fourth or fifth year of study.
    “Embarked upon” meaning:
    a. has got fourth year couses in the plan for the current academic year of
    b. at semester start is eligible to commence the fourth academic year, jf. § 2-5 (1)

    vii. Examinations for third-year courses may not be re-sat once the student has passed all the fourth-year examinations (JUS241, JUS242 and JUS243, plus JUS123 for transitional students).

    viii. Students who are unable to attend the ordinary examinations due to studies abroad will, on application to the Faculty, be allowed to take the examinations at the first re-sit examinations after they return from their studies overseas. This applies if the semester ends less than two weeks before the examinations in Bergen.
    Students setting off to study abroad who have been admitted to an LLM programme or who are participating in another exchange programme in which the University of Bergen participates may, on application, retake examinations (voluntary re-take) at the re-sit examinations before they leave. This applies if the date of the semester start or end at the host institution will prevent the student from being able to participate at the next ordinary examination and the next subsequent re-sit examination.

    ix. Students who, pursuant to an employment contract as a group leader, cannot retake an examination, can apply to retake an examination at the re-sit examinations the summer before employment commences.

    x.  Students whose supervised professional training with Jussformidlingen is recognised as a special course and who are therefore to only take fourth year courses and the thesis after their training period, can retake passed fourth-year examinations at the first re-sit examination.

    xi. In applying the rules on voluntary re-take, all previously passed examinations will count, regardless of whether the student has in the meantime been without and later been granted readmission to a course or specific programme of study, cf. however Section 5-2.
  2. For students on elective courses, the following rules apply:

    a) Each individual course description states whether the course has compulsory teaching activities. The provisions in subsections (1)a), (1)b)i, (1)c) apply to courses with compulsory teaching activities. Incoming exchange students can be granted the opportunity to repeat compulsory teaching activities in the same semester that they were rejected, provided the requirements concerning academic quality are fulfilled.

    b) Examinations are held in the semester during which there has been teaching and the following semester. Exceptions are made for courses where the examination is integrated into the teaching. Exceptions of this nature are defined in the course description.

    c) Re-sit examinations are not generally held for elective courses. Any exceptions will be stated in the course description.
     
  3. The following rules apply to all students:

    a) Students may take the same examination up to three times, see subsection b) below for details on what constitutes a valid attempt at sitting an examination. Students who have already passed the master thesis may not hand in a new thesis for assessment.

    b) An attempt at sitting an examination counts as a valid attempt if the student has not withdrawn their examination registration at the latest two weeks before the examination date or at the latest two weeks before the home examination assignment is handed out. This applies to ordinary examinations and re-sit examinations alike.

    i. An attempt at sitting an examination does not count as valid if the student is prevented from taking the examination because they have failed to obtain approval of the compulsory teaching activities.

    ii. Neither does it count as an exam attempt if the student provides documentation of authorized absence from written school examination, or for more than three days of the period for a home examination. A legitimate reason for absence from a written school exam or home examination is illness as documented by a medical certificate. The documentation must be issued no later than the day of the examination, or during the period for the home examination, it must explicitly specify that the candidate was unable to complete the examination that day or period due to illness, and it must be submitted to the Faculty no later than one week after the examination day or after the deadline for the home examination.

    iii. A legitimate reason for failing to attend an examination does not allow the student to re-sit the examination beyond the limitations defined in (1), c) above.

    c) Documentation of illness for three or less days of the home examination period is not a valid basis for cancellation of an examination attempt. Instead, students are granted an extension of the writing period of up to three days. The student must apply to the Faculty for an extension of the writing period no later than the ordinary deadline for submission of the home examination.

    d) In connection with voluntary re-take of examinations, the best grade that the student achieves counts as the final grade.

Section 3-5 Examination support materials 

Permitted support materials

1. Unless otherwise provided in the course description, the following support materials may be used in written examinations sat at the University:

  a) Up to two editions or copies of the collection of Norwegian laws "Norges lover" (issued by the Faculty of Law at the University of Oslo). Students are responsible for ensuring that they

    i) bring a copy of the collection of laws with them to the examination, and

    ii) have the latest edition

  b) One dictionary.  The dictionary may only include brief definitions of the words and their usage. Dictionaries that provide extensive legal definitions of the words and their usage are not permitted.

2. The course description for each individual course may specify additional use of support materials.

3. During the first two years of study, with the exception of the EXFAC Introductory Examination in Law, students who have been in Norway for less than four years can apply for permission to bring more dictionaries to examinations.

4. Printouts from websites or databases are not permitted as examination support materials.

Section 3-6 Submission and inspection of examination support materials 

  1. Unless some other time limit is specified, support materials that students wish to use during an examination must be placed on the examination table, at the latest 30 minutes before the start of the examination. Students who do not comply with this deadline cannot expect to start the examination at the appointed time. No books or notes can be brought into the premises once the book inspection has started, without being inspected. Books, notes, etc. that may not be used during the examination cannot be brought into the premises once the book inspection has started.
     
  2. Apart from the permitted examination support materials, only necessary writing materials and food and drink may be on or near the examination table. Mobile telephones, music players, smart watches and other electronic devices with or without transmitters, and which are not approved aids, may not be taken to the examination table.
     
  3. Students are responsible for ensuring that the support materials they have brought with them are in accordance with Sections 3-5 and 3-7 and with the provisions on examination support materials in the individual course description.
     
  4. Support materials that are found to be in breach of the examination regulations will be confiscated. Bringing non-permitted support materials to an examination may also qualify as "cheating", cf. Chapter 4 below. It is not possible to remedy a breach or otherwise make changes to the support materials once the book inspection has started.
     
  5. A decision concerning confiscation of examination support materials can be appealed within three weeks.
     
  6. Students who have had support materials confiscated before or during an examination will receive a written explanation of the decision from the Faculty. This explanation will also contain information about the further process.
     
  7. Students who have had the Norges lover collection of laws confiscated will be allowed to borrow an unannotated version during the examination.

Section 3-7 References, notes, etc. in examination support materials 

  1. In all support materials that students bring with them to examinations, whole words and sentences may be underlined, and horizontal and vertical lines of any colour are permitted in the margins.
     
  2. All support materials that students bring with them to examinations may also contain references to other pages in the same reference work and references to other permitted examination support materials. However, this does not apply in and to lists, registers, dictionaries, etc. The references may only start with words such as see, cf, ref, contra, compare, repealed, amended and abbreviations thereof. References to Acts of law, royal decrees, regulations and other rules shall only include the title and/or date (or number), section and/or paragraph, subsection, point or litra. Common abbreviations for legislation (e.g. grl., str., etc.) are also permitted.
    For example: Compare .FAL § 18-1; repealed by Act of 13 Feb. 1976; cf. Act no. 261969 § 2-1.
     
  3. Indexing marks (flags, etc.) whose purpose is to facilitate use of the support materials are permitted. In the collection of laws and in official printed versions of Norwegian laws, these may only indicate the name or abbreviated name of an Act of law, the year and number and/or chapter headings, etc. reproduced exactly as they appear on the page that has been indexed. Under no circumstances may they contain text that is in violation of the rules provided here.
     
  4. No other type of incorporation is permitted, for example, that amended wording of a piece of legislation is written into the reference work.

Section 3-8 Laptop for written exams

For all written exams students must provide their own laptop, with installed and functioning software according to the university's policy.

Section 3-9 General rules on grading 

  1. The grading deadline is regulated by the Regulation on Time Limits for Grading at the Faculty of Law and the Regulation on Time Limits for Grading of Master's theses.
     
  2. Assessment of work that counts towards the final grade shall be performed by a single examiner; however, papers that are assessed as F or Fail shall be assessed by two examiners. Grading shall be conducted in accordance with the Grading Guidelines for the Master's Programme.
     
  3. As far as is possible, written examinations shall be anonymous.
     
  4. The date on which examination results are announced will be stated in connection with the examination.
     
  5. If results are not available until later than was originally announced, the new results date will be published on Mitt UiB.
     
  6. If examination results are available earlier than was originally announced, the deadline for an explanation of the examination result and appeals is calculated from the date that was given in the examination.
     
  7. Requests for an explanation of the grade awarded shall generally be addressed to the examiner at the time and in the way determined by the Faculty for the individual examination (student consultation time). However, students are entitled to request an explanation of the grade awarded up to one week after the announcement of results, cf. the Universities and University Colleges Act, Section 5-3 (1), third sentence.
     
  8. In cases where the student has approached the examiner during their student consultation time (cf. subsection 7, first sentence above), the explanation of the examination result shall be given no later than the day after the request was made. If the examiner does not comply with this time limit, the student shall notify the person responsible for the relevant year of study in the administration on the same day or at latest the following morning. If a student has submitted a request for an explanation after the student consultation time, but within the final time limit defined by the Act, an explanation shall be provided no later than two weeks after the request was made.
     
  9. If the appeal about a grade for JUS399 Master's thesis 30 credits, JUS397 Master's thesis (60 credits) or JUS396 Master's thesis (60 credits) causes the original grade to be changed by more than two grade levels and concludes with the grade F, the thesis will be sent for a new assessment with two new examiners.
     
  10. In cases where the reassessment of an examination grade has resulted in a new grade that is two or more levels lower than the original, the student administration will inform the reassessment examiners about this fact and ask them to prepare a written explanation of the grade awarded. It should however be made clear to the examiners that the choice of written or oral explanation is still theirs to make.
     
  11. No overall grade is awarded for the Master's degree in Law.

Chapter 4. Requirements regarding independence and source citation – violations

Section 4-1 Requirements regarding independence and source citation 

  1. All work submitted for approval or assessment shall be the student's own work. This also applies to work that will not count towards grades. Sources used shall be acknowledged in accordance with the University's Guidelines on Source Citation. Any violation of these guidelines will be considered as cheating, see Section 4-2.
     
  2. Assignments with a word limit must include the word count on the completed paper. If the listed word count is incorrect, this may be considered an attempt to cheat.

    a) For a Master's degree thesis, exceeding the word limit will lead to the thesis being rejected. It must then be revised and submitted in a later semester.

    b) For compulsory course assignments, exceeding the word limit will lead to the paper being rejected. The paper cannot be resubmitted, and the student will be ineligible to pass the course. The course must be retaken in a later semester.

    c) For workgroup assignments with an absolute word limit, exceeding the word limit will lead to the paper being rejected. The impact of this on whether the course is passed/not passed is dependent on whether the requirement for 75 % is nonetheless, or will nonetheless be, fulfilled.

Section 4-2 Violation of the regulations 

  1. Violation of the rules in Section 4-1 or the rules in Section 4-7 of the Universities and University Colleges Act concerning Master's theses, examinations or submitted assignments and/or other compulsory elements related to the teaching may be considered as cheating.
     
  2. Wilful or grossly negligent violation may lead to annulment of the relevant examination or assignment, cf. the Universities and University Colleges Act, Section 4-7, subsection 1, and possibly also exclusion from the University for up to two semesters, cf. the Universities and University Colleges Act, Section 4-8, subsection 3.
     
  3. Attempted violations will be treated in the same manner as actual violations, if intent can be shown.
     
  4. An annulled examination or assignment counts as an attempt to sit the examination as regards the number of times the examination can be taken.
     
  5. Providing false information about attendance at study group sessions or large group sessions or any other classes where attendance is required may be considered as cheating or an attempt at cheating.
     
  6. Cases of annulment or exclusion will be decided upon by the University's Appeals Committee. The appeal body is the national appeals board "Felles klagenemnd", cf. the Universities and University Colleges Act, Section 5-1 subsection 7, cf. Regulation FOR 2005-10-10 no. 1192: Regulations on the central appeal board for the consideration of complaints and appeals pursuant to the Universities and University Colleges Act, Sections 4-7 to 4-10.

Chapter 5. Rights and duties concerning recognition and specific recognition

Section 5-1 General information on recognition of prior studies and specific recognition 

  1. Courses, subjects, examinations or tests that a student has previously passed from studies that are accredited pursuant to the Universities and University Colleges Act will be recognised in degrees, cf. Section 1-3, fifth paragraph, where it can be demonstrated that the examination, etc. in question is equivalent to the examination for which exemption is being applied for in terms of content, scope and depth, cf the Universities and University Colleges Act, Section 3-5, point 1. For other courses, subjects, examinations or tests, specific recognition may be granted pursuant to the same guidelines, on application, cf. the Universities and University Colleges Act, Section 3-5 subsection 2. When assessing the requirement "equivalent depth", variations in the educational structure and the legal systems must be taken into account.
     
  2. Judging of "similar scope" is based upon the ECTS provided the ECTS system is in use. 1 ECTS credit = 1 “studiepoeng”. Upon recognition of qualifications awarded by institutions that do not use the ECTS system, scope is calculated based on what constitutes full-time study for the legal degree at the institution in question. Thesis are considered according to specific criteria, see § 5-7.
     
  3. The assessment of "equivalent" for the recognition of external courses is based on the following principles; cf. the first paragraph of this provision:

    i. Courses that are part of accredited Master's programmes or Bachelor programmes in law, are recognised in the law programme in Bergen if they fulfil academic requirements in the sense that it is prudent for us to certify candidates with the academic background in question.

    ii. Courses that are not part of accredited master's programmes or bachelor's programmes in law, are generally not recognised for compulsory courses in the law programme in Bergen. Specific exceptions may be made where the course in a strict sense corresponds to the course in question here with regard to content, scope and depth.
     
  4. For courses taken during exchange at foreign institutions also apply:
    a) As a general rule, only courses at the master level at the host institution will be approved in advance and credited to the Master's program in Law.
    b) Where only courses at bachelor level are available, more advanced courses at this level can be approved and credited.
    c) Courses and subjects related to legal systems that are markedly different from the Norwegian system, such as common law (trust, equity, contract, tort, etc.) may be recognised specifically as equivalent to fourth or fifth year level courses at the Faculty, even if the subject is not at Master's level in the country in question.
    d) Courses on first-year level in a basic program (program without any requirement of prior higher education) may not be approved or credited.
    e) Courses on first-year level in a basic program may still be approved and credited if the course is mandatory for incoming exchange students at the host institution.

  5. It is generally not permitted for a student on the Master's programme to attend classes and sit examinations in courses on the first to fourth years of study that he/she can receive recognition or specific recognition for on the basis of previous education. On application, however, the student may nevertheless be granted such permission. In such cases, the student is not entitled to have their previous examination, etc. included in the basis for the diploma from the Faculty. The deadline for application for this is 1 February of the academic year in which the student embarks on or resumes their Master's degree studies.
     
  6. A student who has already successfully completed and passed a course on the Master's programme and who subsequently completes and passes an equivalent course at another institution, is not eligible for recognition or specific recognition of this course.
     
  7. Anyone can take the EXFAC preparatory examination in law, even if they are entitled to recognition, if they have already passed a different ex.fac. course, i.e. not for law.

Section 5-2 Time limit for recognition 

A Master's thesis and examinations from Norwegian faculties of law that have been passed within the last ten years can be included in the Master of Law degree at the University of Bergen. On application, the Faculty may also approve inclusion in the degree of examinations taken longer than ten years ago.

Section 5-3 Recognition of examinations etc. from Oslo and Tromsø 

  1. Completion of levels 1 and 2 in the Master of Law at the University of Oslo (2004 system) or the University of Tromsø is recognised as equivalent to the first and second year of the Master's Programme in Law in Bergen. The same applies to the first and second years of study under the 2011 system (Oslo). 
  2. First level only from Master of Law in Tromsø is credited as JUS112 Arve- og familierett, JUS113 Kontraktsrett I og JUS121 Norske og internasjonale rettslige institusjoner i the master program i Bergen.

  3. Completion of levels 3 and 4 in the Master of Law at the University of Oslo (2004 system) or the University of Tromsø is recognised as equivalent to the third and fourth year of the Master's Programme in Law in Bergen. The same applies to the third and fourth years of study under the 2011 system (Oslo). Level 3 or 4 alone does not qualify students for exemption.
     
  4. Special Courses at Master level at the Faculty of Law in Oslo which can be included in the master's degree there, and special courses at Master's level at the Faculty in Tromsø that can be included in the master's degree there, are credited as special courses in the master's degree at the Faculty of Law in Bergen.
     
  5. Courses from the Master of Law at the University of Oslo (less than completion of levels 1+2 or 2+4) are credited like this in the master's degree at the Faculty of Law in Bergen:
     
    Master of Law at the University of Oslo (2011 system)Master's Programme in Law in Bergen
    JUS2211 ForvaltningsrettJUS111 / Administrative Law I
    JUS1211 Privatrett IIJUS112 / Law of Succession, Family Law
    JUS1111 Privatrett IJUS113 / Contract Law I
    JUS1111 Privatrett IJUS114 / Legal Methodology
    JUS2111 Statsforfatningsrett og internasjonal rettJUS121 / Norwegian and International Legal Institutions
    Not creditedJUS122 / Tort Law
    JUS2211 ForvaltningsrettJUS123 / Administrative Law II
    Not credited  JUS124 / Property Law
    JUS3111 Formuerett IJUS131 / Contract Law II
    JUS3211 Formuerett II JUS132 / Law on Money Claims
    JUS4111 Metode og etikk  JUS133 / Legal Method and Sources of Law
    JUS3211 Formuerett IIJUS134 / Legal History and Comparative Law
    Not creditedJUS135 / The Rule of Law and Human Rights
    Not credited  JUS241 / Criminal Law
    JUS4211Prosess og strafferettJUS242 / Law of Procedure (Civil and Criminal)
    JUS3111Formuerett I + JUS3211Formuerett II are credited, but not separatelyJUS243 / General Law of Property Rights and Obligations

     
  6. Examinations from the Cand. jur. law programme in Tromsø are recognised in the Master's Programme in Law pursuant to the same rules as for students from the Cand. jur. programme in Bergen, cf. Section 5-5.
     
  7. Students from the Cand. jur. programme in Oslo:

    a) Completion of the foundation level course ("grunnfag") in private law qualifies students for exemption from the first year apart from the course JUS111 Administrative Law I, and JUS122 Tort Law in the second year.

    b) Completion of the foundation level courses ("grunnfag") in private law and public law qualifies students for exemption from the first and second year of the Master's Programme in Law.
     
  8. Recognition of the first year only includes the compulsory preparatory examinations Examen Philosophicum and Examen Facultatum if the student has passed an equivalent examination.
     
  9. Individual courses are recognised according to the general rules laid down in legislation and the present Regulations.

Section 5-4 Recognition of examinations etc. from other educational institutions 

  1. Recognition of examinations from Sogn og Fjordane University College, Lillehammer University College, Buskerud og Vestfold University College, Agder University College and Stavanger University College:

    a) Courses from Sogn og Fjordane University College are recognised as follows for the Master's degree in Law at the Faculty of Law in Bergen:
    A one-year programme in law from Sogn og Fjordane University College is recognised as the first year of study. Students are required to have passed the Examen Philosophicum and Examen Facultatum preparatory examinations before embarking on the second year of study.

    b) Courses from Lillehammer University College are recognised as follows for the Master's degree in Law at the Faculty of Law in Bergen:
     
    i. A one-year programme in law from Lillehammer University College is recognised as the first year of study. Students are required to have passed the Examen Philosophicum and Examen Facultatum preparatory examinations before embarking on the second year of study.

    ii. A bachelor's degree in law from Lillehammer University College is recognised as the first, second and third year of study.

    iii. The second year of study in the Bachelor's Programme in Law at Lillehammer University College is recognised as JUS124 Property Law, JUS131 Contract Law II and JUS132 Money Claims.

    iv. Individual courses from Lillehammer University College:
      1. NIRI (16 credits) from Lillehammer University College (third year) is recognised as JUS121 NIRI (17 credits).
      2. Source of Law Theory, Comparative Law and Legal History (15 credits) are recognised as JUS133 Source of Law Theory and Methodology (10 credits) and JUS134 Legal History and Comparative Law (10 credits).

    c) Courses from Buskerud og Vestfold University College are recognised as follows for the Master's degree in Law at the Faculty of Law in Bergen:
     
    i. A Bachelor's degree in Law from Buskerud og Vestfold University college is recognised as the first and second year of study as well as JUS131 Contract Law II, JUS132 Money Claims, JUS134 Legal History and Comparative Law and JUS243 General Property Law Rights and Obligations.

    ii. Only the first two years of the Bachelor's Programme in Law from Buskerud og Vestfold University College are recognised as the first and second year of study.

    d) Courses from Agder University College are recognised as follows for the Master's degree in Law at the Faculty of Law in Bergen:

    i. A Bachelor's degree in Law from the University of Agder is recognised as the first, second and third year of study, as long as the degree includes the courses in property law, law of succession and family law, and legal methodology that are taught in the third year of study at the University of Agder.

    ii. The first year of study in the Bachelor's Programme in Law from Agder University College is recognised as follows:
    - EX-100 Examen philosophicum is recognised as EXPHIL Examen Philosophicum.
    - EX-101 Examen facultatum is recognised as EXFAC Preparatory Examination in Law.
    - JUR101 Legal Methodology I is recognised as JUS114 Legal Methodology.
    - JUR102 Administrative Law I is recognised as JUS111 Administrative Law I.
    - JUR103 Contract Law I is recognised as JUS113 Contract Law I.
    - JUS112 Law of Succession and Family Law is not recognised.

    iii. The first and second year of study in the Bachelor's Programme in Law from Agder University College are recognised as follows:
    - Administrative Law II in combination with Welfare Law is recognised as JUS123 Administrative Law II.
    - Contract Law II is recognised as JUS131 Contract Law II.
    - Money Claims is recognised as JUS132 Money Claims.
    - JUS122 Tort Law is not recognised

e) Courses from Stavanger University College are recognised as follows for the Master's degree in Law at the Faculty of Law in Bergen:
A Bachelor's Degree in Law from Stavanger University College is recognised as the first, second and third year of study.

  1. Students who, following recognition, end up with fewer than 300 credits overall must supplement this by taking additional specialist courses.

  2. Examinations, etc. not mentioned in Sections 5-3 or 5-4 may be recognised, on application, in accordance with the provisions in Section 3-5 of the Universities and University Colleges Act, cf. also Section 5-1 (1) and (2) above .

Section 5-5 Examinations taken under the 1997 programme requirements 

  1. Students who have passed the Examen Philosophicum and/or Examen Facultatum preparatory examinations under the 1997 programme requirements or at other faculties or educational institutions are exempt from these courses under the 2003 system. For these students, the first year of the Master's Programme in Law will constitute 40 or 50 credits.
     
  2. Students who have passed the examination from level 1 under the 1997 programme requirements may be admitted to the programme under the 2003 system starting from the second year. They must pass the Examen Facultatum and Examen Philosophicum before embarking on the fourth year of the programme.
     
  3. Students who have passed the examination from level 2 under the 1997 programme requirements may be admitted to the programme under the 2003 system starting from the third year, but these students must take Administrative Law II (17 credits) instead of Law on Money Claims (10 credits) and Comparative Law and Legal History (10 credits). They must pass the Examen Facultatum and Examen Philosophicum before embarking on the fourth year of the programme.
     
  4. Students who have passed the compulsory part of level 3 under the 1997 programme requirements may be admitted to the programme under the 2003 system starting from the fourth year. Instead of the course General Property Law Rights and Obligations, these students must take Administrative Law II (17 credits). These students are exempt from one elective course. They must pass the Examen Facultatum and Examen Philosophicum before embarking on the fourth year of the programme.
     
  5. Students who have passed the obligatory parts of level 4 under the 1997 programme requirements may be admitted to the programme under the 2003 system starting from the fifth year. These students will only have to write their Master's thesis to obtain a Master’s degree.

Section 5-6 Recognition – Effect on the individual education plan 

Students who have had one or more subjects on the Master's programme recognised and approved cannot expect to have their individual education plan revised, unless the recognition or approval applies to the entire year. As a main rule, all students must follow the same courses as the students in their year, and must expect to receive fewer than 60 credits for the years covering courses for which they have been granted exemption or specific recognition.

Section 5-7 Recognition of a Master's thesis 

  1. A Master's thesis will be recognised if the student has passed an equivalent examination at a Norwegian or foreign educational institution in the form of an original written piece of work that in essence corresponds to a Master's thesis written as part of a Norwegian Master's programme in law. In the judging of “equivalent”, the content, scope and depth is emphasized. Scope applies to the number of words as well as the number of credits. In assessing the number of credits, the semester may be considered as a whole.
     
  2. Theses consisting of several independent texts must have a reflective summary of at least 1500 words providing a more detailed account of the whole, and also a discussion of methodological questions that the work with these text has actualizied.
     
  3. For an original piece of written work to be recognised as a Master's thesis in law, it must discuss legal issues, including non-dogmatic subjects such as legal history, sociology of law, law and gender, law and economics and corporate governance.
     
  4. Master's programmes in law (LLM or equivalent) at overseas universities with a total of at least 60 ECTS credits (60 credits) may exempt students from elective subjects (30 credits) and the Master's thesis, if the programme description of the foreign programme included an original written paper of at least 10,000 words.
     
  5. If a paper as referred to in paragraphs 1-3 immediately above has been written during an exchange visit that has been approved in advance by the Faculty, the student loses the right to take the courses JUS399 / JUS398 Master's Thesis at the Faculty.
     
  6. Advance approval of a study visit abroad may be made conditional on the student writing his/her thesis as part of the stay.

Section 5-8 Recognition of elective courses 

Courses whose content is identical to or overlaps with the compulsory courses on the programme description will not be recognised as an elective course, unless it can be proved that the course differs significantly from the compulsory subject. Courses that are also offered as an elective course at the Faculty are recognised on the condition that the course has not been taken as an elective course at the University of Bergen.

Bachelor level courses may not be credited as elective courses at Masters level in the Master of Laws. They still imply curtailment of credits for certain elective courses at the master level, cf. Universities and College Act § 3-5 no. 1 last sentence. This also applies where the course at the bachelor level has been included in the basis for admission to two-year master's program.

Section 5-9 Period of study abroad – Nomination, prior approval and recognition 

  1. Students who have completed and passed the third year of study may go abroad on a student exchange period as part of the Master's programme. It is a condition that at least 60 credits are examinations passed in the Law Programme at the University of Bergen. Students in the two-year master's program may go on exchange as of their second semester.
     
  2. When ranking applicants to a specific place, students who are applying for an exchange for the first time shall have priority over students who have previously been on an exchange as part of the Master's programme.
     
  3. Prior approval – and subsequent recognition – may be granted for courses equivalent to 30 credits in elective courses, and/or written work equivalent to a Master's thesis (30 credits). This shall be included in the degree. Prior approval of paper equivalent to the Master thesis assumes that exchange stay is at a university where such a paper is an option.
     
  4. A student who has passed 30 credits in the fifth year will only be granted prior approval for an exchange of one semester or participation in an LLM programme. If the student has passed 30 credits elective courses, prior approval presupposes that exchange takes place at a university where a paper equivalent to the Master thesis is an option.
     
  5. Prior approval of part-time studies in Scandinavian-speaking countries, presupposes that at least one of the courses have non-Scandinavian language of instruction.
     
  6. Students shall apply for final approval of a period of study abroad within one month of receiving the official documentation of the results they achieved.
     
  7. A student who has been granted prior approval, and who have passed 30 credits elective courses abroad, cannot take additional elective courses in the Master's degree.
     
  8. Where studying abroad as part of the programme constitutes the last courses in the degree, the date of the degree is set as the date on which these courses are officially recognised.

Chapter 6. Diplomas and further studies

Section 6-1 Diploma Issuance and basis

  1. Diplomas are issued eight weeks after
    a) the academic requirements for the degree have been fulfilled and
    b) the law graduate's oath has been taken.
     
  2. The law graduate's oath is taken electronically by
    - 1 September for students completing the degree in the spring semester
    - 15 January for students completing the degree in the autumn semester.
     
  3. The academic requirements for the degree are stipulated in section 2-1.
     
  4. The academic requirements are met as stipulated in each student's education plan.

    a. The Faculty of Law records that a student has attained a degree at the earliest possible date. The courses in part two of the education plan constitute the basis for the diploma.

    b. As a general rule, the degree cannot contain more than 300 – respectively 120 – credits. When the education plan contains more than what can be included in a degree the following applies:

          i. Courses credited after an exchange have priority

          ii. Courses taken at UiB have priority ahead of courses taken at other Norwegian institutions, or other institutions without an exchange agreement.

    c. Where the priorities in subsection a do not clarify the entire basis for the diploma, it is the student’s own responsibility to indicate the courses to be included in the degree.

    d. If the student has not indicated which courses are to be included in the degree, the Faculty will select the oldest of the relevant courses. If this also does not clarify the basis for the diploma, the course with the best grade is selected, and courses are thereafter selected alphabetically.

Section 6-2 Termination of admission on obtaining a degree

The right to study in the Master's Programme in Law terminates without advance notice once the requirements for the degree have been met, or at the stipulated date of expiry. Once the diploma has been issued, individuals cannot be granted admission to study on the Master's Programme in Law again, nor can an expired right to study be reactivated.

Section 6-3 Further studies in the Faculty of Law

1. Admission for additional studies

Candidates with a Master of Law degree from the University of Bergen can apply for admission for additional studies in the Faculty of Law.

   a. Admission for additional studies can only be given once and then only as of the semester after the degree has been achieved.

   b. The application periods are
       - 1 July - 15 August for students completing the degree in the spring semester
       - 1 December - 15 January for students completing the degree in the autumn semester.
   c. Admission for additional studies is given for two semesters, but can be terminated earlier by giving notice to the Faculty. An expired or terminated admission for additional studies cannot be reactivated.

   d. With admission for additional studies, students can take JUS241, JUS242, JUS243, ethics courses and specialist courses, provided this is not precluded by the rules regulating re-sitting examinations or similar rules.

   e. Ethics courses and any grade improvements for courses that have already been passed can be included in the diploma, as long as this has not already been issued.

   f. Admission for additional studies automatically entails a postponement of the issuance of the diploma, but a diploma can nevertheless be ordered in the course of the period of admission for additional studies. The admission for additional studies is not terminated when a diploma is ordered or issued.

2. Special right of study for elective courses

 Candidates with a Master of Law from the University of Bergen can apply for special right of study to take further elective courses, c.f. section 2-7.

 The application deadlines are announced at the webpage for admission (norwegian only).

Chapter 7. Entry into force and transitional rules. Supplementary guidelines

Section 7-1 Entry into force and transitional rules 

These regulations start to apply from the 2012–2013 academic year.

Section 7-2 Supplementary guidelines 

The Education Committee or the Faculty Board may establish supplementary guidelines to these regulations. The following guidelines currently apply:

  • Guidelines on Calculation of Compulsory Participation
  • Grading Guidelines for the Master's Programme
  • Guidelines on the Selection and Approval of Auxiliary Teachers and Examiners
  • Guidelines on Setting Examinations in Law
  • Instructions on Setting Assignments and Grades in the Master's Degree Programme
  • Reading Room Regulations for the Faculty of Law

 

Adopted by the Faculty Board on 16 June 2011.

Chapter 1-7

Chapter 1. Scope and relationship to other regulations

Section 1-1 Legal basis and scope. Relationship to other regulations 

These regulations have been adopted pursuant to the "Regulations concerning Admissions, Academic Studies, and Examinations at the University of Bergen", which apply to all programmes and examinations at the Bachelor's and Master's levels at the Faculty of Law at the University of Bergen. The Regulations and the rules given in these Supplementary Regulations apply parallel to the "Programme description for the Master's Programme in Law at the University of Bergen" and the course descriptions for the individual courses taught at the Faculty. Separate rules may apply for courses offered as continuing education and further education through the Centre for Continuing Education (SEVU).

Section 1-2 Amendments 

  1. Any major amendments to these regulations or the programme description shall be adopted by the Faculty Board. Changes must be adopted and published a reasonable length of time before they come into effect. Where necessary, the Faculty Board shall establish transitional rules.
     
  2. Any amendments to the grading system or to guidelines for grading made by the Faculty, shall be adopted by the Faculty board.
     
  3. Minor changes to these regulations or the programme description shall be adopted by the Education Committee.
     
  4. Changes to the course descriptions shall be adopted by the Education Committee; however, decisions regarding the establishment or discontinuation of courses must be approved by the Faculty Board.
     
  5. Changes to the programme description and course descriptions must be adopted and published no later than four weeks before the course starts. Exceptions to this deadline is granted only where the amendment is necessary for the course to be completed in an academically justifiable manner.

Section 1-3 Terminology 

  1. In these Supplementary Regulations, the abbreviated term "Study Regulations" means the "Regulations concerning Admissions, Academic Studies and Examinations at the University of Bergen".
     
  2. In these Supplementary Regulations, "programme description" means the "programme description for the Master's Programme in Law at the University of Bergen". "Course" (i.e. “kurs” as opposed to “emne”) means "a teaching unit of a subjectspecific course as taught in a specific year".
     
  3. In these Supplementary Regulations, "the Faculty" means the Faculty of Law at the University of Bergen.
     
  4. In these Supplementary Regulations, "year" or "year of study" means those groups of courses listed in the programme description under the headings "First year" to "Fifth year".
     
  5. Unless otherwise specifically provided, the rules relating to recognition of prior studies in Chapter 5 apply correspondingly for specific recognition.
     
  6. All other words, terms and concepts used in these Supplementary Regulations shall otherwise be understood in the same way as they are defined in the Study Regulations.

Chapter 2. Degrees, admission to a course or spesific programme of study, individual education plan, teaching and compulsory teaching activities. Spesial admission to elective courses

Section 2-1 Master's Degree in Law

The Faculty awards the Master's degree in Law, which confers the title Master in Law, as laid down in pursuance of Section 3-2 of Act no. 15 of 1 April 2005 relating to universities and university colleges. Normal length of study including the Examen Philosophicum and Examen Facultatum is five years. Each year of study comprises 60 credits and the degree comprises a total of 300 ECTS credits.

The Master's degree programme comprises the preparatory courses Examen Philosophicum and Examen Facultatum, courses in public law, private law and international law, methodology and perspective courses, and an original piece of written work (the master's thesis). The Faculty of Law determines the subjects and courses included in the degree programme and the order in whichthe courses must be taken.

During the fourth and fifth academic year, students take a course in ethics.

The following addition to § 2-1, apply from the academic year 2016/2017:

For students who do not choose study abroad during the fourth or fifth year of study, should one of the elective courses in the degree have English as the language of instruction.

The requirement for English language course does not apply to students who choose to study abroad and take courses where the language of instruction is non-Scandinavian. The requirement for English-language elective course does not apply to students who choose to write a thesis of 60 credits, or for students who choose one of the following combinations of elective courses totaling 30 credits:

I) JUS254-2-A Police Law and JUS255-2-A Prosecution Law,

II) JUS256-2-A Tax Law I, JUS256-2-B Tax Law II and JUS257-2-A Fundamental company law

III) JUS260-2-A Design and patent law, JUS260-2-B Copyright, JUS260-2-C Know Paint Straight and JUS260-2-D marketing Straight (three of four)

IV) JUS325 Legal Aid

When JUS330 Moot Court Competition (participation pre-approved) is accomplished in English and is implemented into the masters degree in law, it will also meet the requirement for an English course in the degree.

Two-year master's program: Nominal length of study for the whole program is 2 years. Each academic year is 60 credits and the degree holds a total of 120 credits (ECTS).
Master program coincides with the fourth and fifth year of the five-year program.

Section 2-2 time limits for admission and the individual education plan. Adapted individual education plan

Admission to the Master's programme (the right to study) lasts respectively two or five years from the year in which admission is granted.

The Faculty may, pursuant to an application to such effect, create an individual education plan that deviates from the general education plan, for example where the student concerned is a part-time student or is exempt from certain courses as they have had one or more subjects on the Master's programme recognised and approved (cf. chapter 5), or where he or she due to illness or other compelling reasons has not or will not be able to attend the ordinary teaching schedule in the set order. In this respect, exemption from the rule defined in subsection 1 above may be granted.

It is not possible to draw up an individual education plan that entails that admission to the Master's programme (the right to study) lasts longer than ten years, unless there are special circumstances.

Section 2-3 Time limits for admission and the individual education plan for students who have previously passed courses on the master's programme or cand. jur. degree programme

Students who have previously been admitted to and/or been registered on the Master's Programme in Law or the Cand. jur. programme at the Faculty can apply for readmission and continue their studies, provided the combined length of study does not exceed ten years. The Faculty can make exceptions to this rule in the event of special circumstances.

Length of study is calculated as all the semesters the individual is registered on the law programme and/or has been admitted to teaching in courses on the law programme and/or is registered to take examinations in courses on the law programme.

Any courses that the student has previously passed will be integrated pursuant to the provisions in Section 5-2.

In connection with repetition of courses, including voluntary re-take, all examinations and examination attempts at the Faculty of Law in Bergen in courses that can be included in the Master of Law degree will count.

Section 2-4 General rules concerning teaching and compulsory teaching activities

  1. The programme description indicates which forms of teaching are used in the Master's programme. The course descriptions indicate which forms of teaching are used in the individual courses as well as the compulsory teaching activities. Unless otherwise provided in the course description, the rules in (2) to (5) below apply.
     
  2. The course can only be approved and the examination result can only be set if the student has completed all the compulsory teaching activities that have been set for the course. This applies even if a student's failure to participate is due to circumstances for which the student cannot be blamed. Compulsory teaching activities are listed in the course description.

    Valid attendance is only recorded in the group that the student is allocated to by the Faculty. A group leader may at any time conduct a roll call and may turn away students who do not belong to the group.

    A condition for approval of a course is valid registration for examination in the course at the examination date in the relevant semester.
     
  3. Unless otherwise provided in the course description, it is a minimum condition for approval of a course that the student has participated in the compulsory teaching activities and fulfilled the requirements set out in the course description. Up to 25 per cent deviation from full participation is accepted. Participation is calculated as defined in the "Guidelines on Calculation of Compulsory Participation".

    Approval of compulsory teaching activities can be reversed retroactively, cf. Section 35 of the Public Administration Act.

    If the course includes a compulsory course assignment, this must have been submitted and approved before the examination. Any exceptions will be stated in the course description.

    All the compulsory teaching activities must have been completed by the times and within the time limits defined in the course description.
     
  4. Any student whose participation is not sufficient for the course to be approved will be notified no later than the day before the final examination, see however Section 3, second paragraph.
     
  5. On application, the Faculty may set individually adapted compulsory teaching activities, if a student can document that he or she is not able, without unreasonable strain, to fulfil the participation requirements because of their own or a closely related person's illness, refresher exercises in the Armed Forces, caring for their own children in connection with birth or adoption, or for some other weighty medical, social or welfare reasons. Applications for individual adaptations of this kind must be submitted to the Faculty no later than three weeks before the examination and such that the adaptations can actually be implemented before the examination. Individually adapted teaching activity requirements must ensure that the learning objectives, learning outcomes and the overall workload are maintained. There is no exemption from compulsory teaching activities.
     
  6. If a student provides documentation of illness during the writing period for the compulsory course assignment, an extension of up to three days will be granted. The student must apply to the Faculty for an extension of the writing period no later than the ordinary assignment submission deadline. Documentation must explicitly specify that the candidate was unable to complete the paper within the ordinary deadline due to illness, as well as the period for the illness. The documentation must be received by the faculty no later than one week after the ordinary deadline for the paper.

Section 2-5 Revision of the individual education plan. Loss of place on the programme

  1. If a student has failed to obtain approval of a course, the Faculty shall revise the individual education plan for the student. A student who is behind by more than 20 credits can be moved down a year, cf. the rules in the programme description concerning order and progression. EXPHIL and EXFAC Juridisk forprøve must be passed before the second year can be commenced.
  2. Changes to the individual education plan do not entail a corresponding change in respect of which year of study the individual courses belong to pursuant to the programme description, cf. Section 1-3(4).
     
  3. Students who fall behind more than 60 credits will lose their place on the programme. In the event of special circumstances, the Faculty may, on application, grant exemption from this rule.
     
  4. Individual education plans are followed up in the autumn semester, following the end of the academic year.

Section 2-6 Leave of absence

  1. Students on the Master's Programme in Law may, after the have passed at least 40 ECTS credits of the programme (recognition of prior studies is not included), be granted a leave of absence for up to one full academic year, without giving a reason. Applications for a leave of absence must be submitted by 1 September for leave in the autumn semester or for the whole academic year and by 1 February for leave in the spring semester.
     
  2. Leave pursuant to this provision may be granted only once during the Master's programme, cf. the Study Regulations, Section 4-7 (7).
     
  3. Leave of absence pursuant to (1) above cannot be granted if this would result in the student taking more than ten years to complete their degree.

Section 2-7 Special admission to elective courses

  1. The Faculty admits students to elective courses twice a year, through a local admissions process. The deadline for such application is published on the website for admission. However, the Faculty does not guarantee that there will be teaching and examinations in all elective courses every year.
  2. Applicants who have completed the Cand. jur. and Master's in Law degree programmes and law students from other faculties or institutions who have completed at least three years of law studies will be admitted.
     
  3. Other applicants will be admitted after an individual academic assessment of their previous knowledge and education.

Section 2-8 Recording tuition

  1. Audio and/or visual recordings of lectures are not permitted without the explicit prior consent of the lecturer. If such permission is granted, it applies to all the students in the room, and for the entire series of lectures, unless it is explicitly retracted.
     
  2. Students are not permitted to make audio and/or visual recordings of large group sessions, study group sessions or seminars. Students who act in violation of this prohibition will not have the attendance of the relevant group meeting recorded, and can also be expelled from the group meeting by the group leader.
  3. Where there is doubt as to whether the form of teaching is a lecture or some other form, it is considered to be a lecture in this context.

Chapter 3. Examinations and students' rights and obligations

Section 3-1 Definitions

  1. In these Regulations, the term "examination" means examinations such as final written examinations sat at the University, home examinations, etc., as specified in the Study Regulations. Compulsory teaching activities and other elements that are not included in the grading basis do not count as "examinations".
     
  2. The term "ordinary examination" means the examination held at the end of the course in the ordinary semester, as indicated in the course description.
     
  3. "Re-sit examination" means the examinations held each year in August for students who have not completed or passed the ordinary examination, cf. the previous section. All students who had a valid right to sit examinations in the immediately preceding year and who are covered by the provisions of sections 3-4, 1.b)ii below are entitled to take a re-sit examination. More detailed rules about re-sit examinations are laid out in Section 3-4 below.
     
  4. The term "voluntary re-take" means a new attempt at sitting an examination that the student has already passed.

Section 3-2 General rules for admission to examinations 

In order to be entitled to take ordinary examinations, it is required that students:

  1. Have satisfied the general rules concerning admission to a course or specific programme of study, semester registration, etc., as defined in Chapter 4 of the Study Regulations, cf. in particular Sections 4-2 to 4-4.
     
  2. Have a valid registration for examination at the time of the ordinary examination for the course.
     
  3. Have had approved all the compulsory teaching activities in accordance with the programme description, course description and rules laid down here.

Section 3-3 Voluntary withdrawal from examinations 

Students who are registered to sit the ordinary examination for a course may choose to cancel their examination registration (i.e. withdraw from the examination) up to 14 calendar days prior to the scheduled examination day. For home examinations lasting several days, the deadline for withdrawing is calculated from the date the examination assignment is handed out. Withdrawal from an examination entails cancellation of the registration for examination, course registration and any group allocations for the course, rendering them invalid. The student loses his/her right to participate in closed classes and to have compulsory teaching activities for the course approved and any previously approved, compulsory teaching activities are discounted.

Section 3-4 Re-sit examinations and voluntary re-take 

  1. For courses in the first to fourth years, the following rules apply:

    a) Students who have not obtained approval of the compulsory teaching activities or who have withdrawn from the course in accordance with Section 3-3 above may not take the examination and must repeat the entire course. All compulsory written work in the course must be re-written. Previously submitted work may be used as the basis for a new submission, but the text must be reworked.  In cases where the work submitted is a rewritten version of previously submitted work, the requirement for rewriting will only be fulfilled if the student explains in a final note the improvements that have been made and, if relevant, why certain parts of the text are unchanged. If the requirement for rewriting is not met, the work may not be approved. 

    b) Students who have had the compulsory teaching activities approved:

    i.    Examinations must be taken at the end of the course.

    ii.    Students who do not pass the examination are automatically registered for the re-sit examination when the result is due to

    - failure to attend the examination
    - failure to complete the examination
    - legitimate reason for non-attendance, see paragraph 3 b ii below
    - failed result.

    Students who do not wish to take the re-sit examination must themselves withdraw from the re-sit examination within the deadline for withdrawal.

    Rescinded exam does not provide access to exam re-sit.

    Students who do not pass the re-sit examination must themselves register for the next ordinary examination.

    iii. On application, a student may complete the compulsory teaching activities again. Once the application has been granted, previous approval will be cancelled and the student will take the course on the same terms as students who have not previously passed.  All compulsory written work in the course must be re-written. Previously submitted work may be used as the basis for a new submission, but the text must be reworked.  In cases where the work submitted is a rewritten version of previously submitted work, the requirement for rewriting will only be fulfilled if the student explains in a final note the improvements that have been made and, if relevant, why certain parts of the text are unchanged. If the requirement for rewriting is not met, the work may not be approved.

    c) Students who have passed the course, including the examination(s), but who nevertheless want to take the examination again (voluntary re-take):

    i. The student may not attend classes again other than lectures.

    ii. The examination is taken at the ordinary examination.

    iii. Students may re-sit the examination for a single course up to two times (see 3.b) below for more details about examination attempts), within the limitations set forth in subsections iv to vii below. Students who have already passed the master thesis may not hand in a new thesis for assessment.

    iv. Students on the Master’s programme in law may voluntarily retake up to four previously passed examinations belonging to years 1–4 of the programme. Students at two-year master's program may voluntarily re-sit an exam in their first year. For counting voluntary re-sit, see § 3-1. 4.  Preliminary examinations (ex.phil. and ex.fac.) and elective courses are not included in the re-take quota. The re-take quota is reduced by one examination attempt for each year of study that the student has had recognised and approved, cf. Chapter 5. These rules enter into force on 1 January 2013. The re-take system will be evaluated in the spring semester 2015.

    v. Examinations for first-year courses may not be re-sat once the student has embarked upon the third year.
    “Embarked upon” meaning:
    a. has got third year couses in the plan for the current academic year of
    b. at semester start is eligible to commence the third academic year, jf. § 2-5 (1)

    vi. Examinations for second-year courses may not be re-sat once the student has embarked upon the fourth or fifth year of study.
    “Embarked upon” meaning:
    a. has got fourth year couses in the plan for the current academic year of
    b. at semester start is eligible to commence the fourth academic year, jf. § 2-5 (1)

    vii. Examinations for third-year courses may not be re-sat once the student has passed all the fourth-year examinations (JUS241, JUS242 and JUS243, plus JUS123 for transitional students).

    viii. Students who are unable to attend the ordinary examinations due to studies abroad will, on application to the Faculty, be allowed to take the examinations at the first re-sit examinations after they return from their studies overseas. This applies if the semester ends less than two weeks before the examinations in Bergen.
    Students setting off to study abroad who have been admitted to an LLM programme or who are participating in another exchange programme in which the University of Bergen participates may, on application, retake examinations (voluntary re-take) at the re-sit examinations before they leave. This applies if the date of the semester start or end at the host institution will prevent the student from being able to participate at the next ordinary examination and the next subsequent re-sit examination.

    ix. Students who, pursuant to an employment contract as a group leader, cannot retake an examination, can apply to retake an examination at the re-sit examinations the summer before employment commences.

    x.  Students whose supervised professional training with Jussformidlingen is recognised as a special course and who are therefore to only take fourth year courses and the thesis after their training period, can retake passed fourth-year examinations at the first re-sit examination.

    xi. In applying the rules on voluntary re-take, all previously passed examinations will count, regardless of whether the student has in the meantime been without and later been granted readmission to a course or specific programme of study, cf. however Section 5-2.
  2. For students on elective courses, the following rules apply:

    a) Each individual course description states whether the course has compulsory teaching activities. The provisions in subsections (1)a), (1)b)i, (1)c) apply to courses with compulsory teaching activities. Incoming exchange students can be granted the opportunity to repeat compulsory teaching activities in the same semester that they were rejected, provided the requirements concerning academic quality are fulfilled.

    b) Examinations are held in the semester during which there has been teaching and the following semester. Exceptions are made for courses where the examination is integrated into the teaching. Exceptions of this nature are defined in the course description.

    c) Re-sit examinations are not generally held for elective courses. Any exceptions will be stated in the course description.
     
  3. The following rules apply to all students:

    a) Students may take the same examination up to three times, see subsection b) below for details on what constitutes a valid attempt at sitting an examination. Students who have already passed the master thesis may not hand in a new thesis for assessment.

    b) An attempt at sitting an examination counts as a valid attempt if the student has not withdrawn their examination registration at the latest two weeks before the examination date or at the latest two weeks before the home examination assignment is handed out. This applies to ordinary examinations and re-sit examinations alike.

    i. An attempt at sitting an examination does not count as valid if the student is prevented from taking the examination because they have failed to obtain approval of the compulsory teaching activities.

    ii. Neither does it count as an exam attempt if the student provides documentation of authorized absence from written school examination, or for more than three days of the period for a home examination. A legitimate reason for absence from a written school exam or home examination is illness as documented by a medical certificate. The documentation must be issued no later than the day of the examination, or during the period for the home examination, it must explicitly specify that the candidate was unable to complete the examination that day or period due to illness, and it must be submitted to the Faculty no later than one week after the examination day or after the deadline for the home examination.

    iii. A legitimate reason for failing to attend an examination does not allow the student to re-sit the examination beyond the limitations defined in (1), c) above.

    c) Documentation of illness for three or less days of the home examination period is not a valid basis for cancellation of an examination attempt. Instead, students are granted an extension of the writing period of up to three days. The student must apply to the Faculty for an extension of the writing period no later than the ordinary deadline for submission of the home examination.

    d) In connection with voluntary re-take of examinations, the best grade that the student achieves counts as the final grade.

Section 3-5 Examination support materials 

Permitted support materials

1. Unless otherwise provided in the course description, the following support materials may be used in written examinations sat at the University:

  a) Up to two editions or copies of the collection of Norwegian laws "Norges lover" (issued by the Faculty of Law at the University of Oslo). Students are responsible for ensuring that they

    i) bring a copy of the collection of laws with them to the examination, and

    ii) have the latest edition

  b) One dictionary.  The dictionary may only include brief definitions of the words and their usage. Dictionaries that provide extensive legal definitions of the words and their usage are not permitted.

2. The course description for each individual course may specify additional use of support materials.

3. During the first two years of study, with the exception of the EXFAC Introductory Examination in Law, students who have been in Norway for less than four years can apply for permission to bring more dictionaries to examinations.

4. Printouts from websites or databases are not permitted as examination support materials.

Section 3-6 Submission and inspection of examination support materials 

  1. Unless some other time limit is specified, support materials that students wish to use during an examination must be placed on the examination table, at the latest 30 minutes before the start of the examination. Students who do not comply with this deadline cannot expect to start the examination at the appointed time. No books or notes can be brought into the premises once the book inspection has started, without being inspected. Books, notes, etc. that may not be used during the examination cannot be brought into the premises once the book inspection has started.
     
  2. Apart from the permitted examination support materials, only necessary writing materials and food and drink may be on or near the examination table. Mobile telephones, music players, smart watches and other electronic devices with or without transmitters, and which are not approved aids, may not be taken to the examination table.
     
  3. Students are responsible for ensuring that the support materials they have brought with them are in accordance with Sections 3-5 and 3-7 and with the provisions on examination support materials in the individual course description.
     
  4. Support materials that are found to be in breach of the examination regulations will be confiscated. Bringing non-permitted support materials to an examination may also qualify as "cheating", cf. Chapter 4 below. It is not possible to remedy a breach or otherwise make changes to the support materials once the book inspection has started.
     
  5. A decision concerning confiscation of examination support materials can be appealed within three weeks.
     
  6. Students who have had support materials confiscated before or during an examination will receive a written explanation of the decision from the Faculty. This explanation will also contain information about the further process.
     
  7. Students who have had the Norges lover collection of laws confiscated will be allowed to borrow an unannotated version during the examination.

Section 3-7 References, notes, etc. in examination support materials 

  1. In all support materials that students bring with them to examinations, whole words and sentences may be underlined, and horizontal and vertical lines of any colour are permitted in the margins.
     
  2. All support materials that students bring with them to examinations may also contain references to other pages in the same reference work and references to other permitted examination support materials. However, this does not apply in and to lists, registers, dictionaries, etc. The references may only start with words such as see, cf, ref, contra, compare, repealed, amended and abbreviations thereof. References to Acts of law, royal decrees, regulations and other rules shall only include the title and/or date (or number), section and/or paragraph, subsection, point or litra. Common abbreviations for legislation (e.g. grl., str., etc.) are also permitted.
    For example: Compare .FAL § 18-1; repealed by Act of 13 Feb. 1976; cf. Act no. 261969 § 2-1.
     
  3. Indexing marks (flags, etc.) whose purpose is to facilitate use of the support materials are permitted. In the collection of laws and in official printed versions of Norwegian laws, these may only indicate the name or abbreviated name of an Act of law, the year and number and/or chapter headings, etc. reproduced exactly as they appear on the page that has been indexed. Under no circumstances may they contain text that is in violation of the rules provided here.
     
  4. No other type of incorporation is permitted, for example, that amended wording of a piece of legislation is written into the reference work.

Section 3-8 Laptop for written exams

For all written exams students must provide their own laptop, with installed and functioning software according to the university's policy.

Section 3-9 General rules on grading 

  1. The grading deadline is regulated by the Regulation on Time Limits for Grading at the Faculty of Law and the Regulation on Time Limits for Grading of Master's theses.
     
  2. Assessment of work that counts towards the final grade shall be performed by a single examiner; however, papers that are assessed as F or Fail shall be assessed by two examiners. Grading shall be conducted in accordance with the Grading Guidelines for the Master's Programme.
     
  3. As far as is possible, written examinations shall be anonymous.
     
  4. The date on which examination results are announced will be stated in connection with the examination.
     
  5. If results are not available until later than was originally announced, the new results date will be published on Mitt UiB.
     
  6. If examination results are available earlier than was originally announced, the deadline for an explanation of the examination result and appeals is calculated from the date that was given in the examination.
     
  7. Requests for an explanation of the grade awarded shall generally be addressed to the examiner at the time and in the way determined by the Faculty for the individual examination (student consultation time). However, students are entitled to request an explanation of the grade awarded up to one week after the announcement of results, cf. the Universities and University Colleges Act, Section 5-3 (1), third sentence.
     
  8. In cases where the student has approached the examiner during their student consultation time (cf. subsection 7, first sentence above), the explanation of the examination result shall be given no later than the day after the request was made. If the examiner does not comply with this time limit, the student shall notify the person responsible for the relevant year of study in the administration on the same day or at latest the following morning. If a student has submitted a request for an explanation after the student consultation time, but within the final time limit defined by the Act, an explanation shall be provided no later than two weeks after the request was made.
     
  9. If the appeal about a grade for JUS399 Master's thesis 30 credits, JUS397 Master's thesis (60 credits) or JUS396 Master's thesis (60 credits) causes the original grade to be changed by more than two grade levels and concludes with the grade F, the thesis will be sent for a new assessment with two new examiners.
     
  10. In cases where the reassessment of an examination grade has resulted in a new grade that is two or more levels lower than the original, the student administration will inform the reassessment examiners about this fact and ask them to prepare a written explanation of the grade awarded. It should however be made clear to the examiners that the choice of written or oral explanation is still theirs to make.
     
  11. No overall grade is awarded for the Master's degree in Law.

Chapter 4. Requirements regarding independence and source citation – violations

Section 4-1 Requirements regarding independence and source citation 

  1. All work submitted for approval or assessment shall be the student's own work. This also applies to work that will not count towards grades. Sources used shall be acknowledged in accordance with the University's Guidelines on Source Citation. Any violation of these guidelines will be considered as cheating, see Section 4-2.
     
  2. Assignments with a word limit must include the word count on the completed paper. If the listed word count is incorrect, this may be considered an attempt to cheat.

    a) For a Master's degree thesis, exceeding the word limit will lead to the thesis being rejected. It must then be revised and submitted in a later semester.

    b) For compulsory course assignments, exceeding the word limit will lead to the paper being rejected. The paper cannot be resubmitted, and the student will be ineligible to pass the course. The course must be retaken in a later semester.

    c) For workgroup assignments with an absolute word limit, exceeding the word limit will lead to the paper being rejected. The impact of this on whether the course is passed/not passed is dependent on whether the requirement for 75 % is nonetheless, or will nonetheless be, fulfilled.

Section 4-2 Violation of the regulations 

  1. Violation of the rules in Section 4-1 or the rules in Section 4-7 of the Universities and University Colleges Act concerning Master's theses, examinations or submitted assignments and/or other compulsory elements related to the teaching may be considered as cheating.
     
  2. Wilful or grossly negligent violation may lead to annulment of the relevant examination or assignment, cf. the Universities and University Colleges Act, Section 4-7, subsection 1, and possibly also exclusion from the University for up to two semesters, cf. the Universities and University Colleges Act, Section 4-8, subsection 3.
     
  3. Attempted violations will be treated in the same manner as actual violations, if intent can be shown.
     
  4. An annulled examination or assignment counts as an attempt to sit the examination as regards the number of times the examination can be taken.
     
  5. Providing false information about attendance at study group sessions or large group sessions or any other classes where attendance is required may be considered as cheating or an attempt at cheating.
     
  6. Cases of annulment or exclusion will be decided upon by the University's Appeals Committee. The appeal body is the national appeals board "Felles klagenemnd", cf. the Universities and University Colleges Act, Section 5-1 subsection 7, cf. Regulation FOR 2005-10-10 no. 1192: Regulations on the central appeal board for the consideration of complaints and appeals pursuant to the Universities and University Colleges Act, Sections 4-7 to 4-10.

Chapter 5. Rights and duties concerning recognition and specific recognition

Section 5-1 General information on recognition of prior studies and specific recognition 

  1. Courses, subjects, examinations or tests that a student has previously passed from studies that are accredited pursuant to the Universities and University Colleges Act will be recognised in degrees, cf. Section 1-3, fifth paragraph, where it can be demonstrated that the examination, etc. in question is equivalent to the examination for which exemption is being applied for in terms of content, scope and depth, cf the Universities and University Colleges Act, Section 3-5, point 1. For other courses, subjects, examinations or tests, specific recognition may be granted pursuant to the same guidelines, on application, cf. the Universities and University Colleges Act, Section 3-5 subsection 2. When assessing the requirement "equivalent depth", variations in the educational structure and the legal systems must be taken into account.
     
  2. Judging of "similar scope" is based upon the ECTS provided the ECTS system is in use. 1 ECTS credit = 1 “studiepoeng”. Upon recognition of qualifications awarded by institutions that do not use the ECTS system, scope is calculated based on what constitutes full-time study for the legal degree at the institution in question. Thesis are considered according to specific criteria, see § 5-7.
     
  3. The assessment of "equivalent" for the recognition of external courses is based on the following principles; cf. the first paragraph of this provision:

    i. Courses that are part of accredited Master's programmes or Bachelor programmes in law, are recognised in the law programme in Bergen if they fulfil academic requirements in the sense that it is prudent for us to certify candidates with the academic background in question.

    ii. Courses that are not part of accredited master's programmes or bachelor's programmes in law, are generally not recognised for compulsory courses in the law programme in Bergen. Specific exceptions may be made where the course in a strict sense corresponds to the course in question here with regard to content, scope and depth.
     
  4. For courses taken during exchange at foreign institutions also apply:
    a) As a general rule, only courses at the master level at the host institution will be approved in advance and credited to the Master's program in Law.
    b) Where only courses at bachelor level are available, more advanced courses at this level can be approved and credited.
    c) Courses and subjects related to legal systems that are markedly different from the Norwegian system, such as common law (trust, equity, contract, tort, etc.) may be recognised specifically as equivalent to fourth or fifth year level courses at the Faculty, even if the subject is not at Master's level in the country in question.
    d) Courses on first-year level in a basic program (program without any requirement of prior higher education) may not be approved or credited.
    e) Courses on first-year level in a basic program may still be approved and credited if the course is mandatory for incoming exchange students at the host institution.

  5. It is generally not permitted for a student on the Master's programme to attend classes and sit examinations in courses on the first to fourth years of study that he/she can receive recognition or specific recognition for on the basis of previous education. On application, however, the student may nevertheless be granted such permission. In such cases, the student is not entitled to have their previous examination, etc. included in the basis for the diploma from the Faculty. The deadline for application for this is 1 February of the academic year in which the student embarks on or resumes their Master's degree studies.
     
  6. A student who has already successfully completed and passed a course on the Master's programme and who subsequently completes and passes an equivalent course at another institution, is not eligible for recognition or specific recognition of this course.
     
  7. Anyone can take the EXFAC preparatory examination in law, even if they are entitled to recognition, if they have already passed a different ex.fac. course, i.e. not for law.

Section 5-2 Time limit for recognition 

A Master's thesis and examinations from Norwegian faculties of law that have been passed within the last ten years can be included in the Master of Law degree at the University of Bergen. On application, the Faculty may also approve inclusion in the degree of examinations taken longer than ten years ago.

Section 5-3 Recognition of examinations etc. from Oslo and Tromsø 

  1. Completion of levels 1 and 2 in the Master of Law at the University of Oslo (2004 system) or the University of Tromsø is recognised as equivalent to the first and second year of the Master's Programme in Law in Bergen. The same applies to the first and second years of study under the 2011 system (Oslo). 
  2. First level only from Master of Law in Tromsø is credited as JUS112 Arve- og familierett, JUS113 Kontraktsrett I og JUS121 Norske og internasjonale rettslige institusjoner i the master program i Bergen.

  3. Completion of levels 3 and 4 in the Master of Law at the University of Oslo (2004 system) or the University of Tromsø is recognised as equivalent to the third and fourth year of the Master's Programme in Law in Bergen. The same applies to the third and fourth years of study under the 2011 system (Oslo). Level 3 or 4 alone does not qualify students for exemption.
     
  4. Special Courses at Master level at the Faculty of Law in Oslo which can be included in the master's degree there, and special courses at Master's level at the Faculty in Tromsø that can be included in the master's degree there, are credited as special courses in the master's degree at the Faculty of Law in Bergen.
     
  5. Courses from the Master of Law at the University of Oslo (less than completion of levels 1+2 or 2+4) are credited like this in the master's degree at the Faculty of Law in Bergen:
     
    Master of Law at the University of Oslo (2011 system)Master's Programme in Law in Bergen
    JUS2211 ForvaltningsrettJUS111 / Administrative Law I
    JUS1211 Privatrett IIJUS112 / Law of Succession, Family Law
    JUS1111 Privatrett IJUS113 / Contract Law I
    JUS1111 Privatrett IJUS114 / Legal Methodology
    JUS2111 Statsforfatningsrett og internasjonal rettJUS121 / Norwegian and International Legal Institutions
    Not creditedJUS122 / Tort Law
    JUS2211 ForvaltningsrettJUS123 / Administrative Law II
    Not credited  JUS124 / Property Law
    JUS3111 Formuerett IJUS131 / Contract Law II
    JUS3211 Formuerett II JUS132 / Law on Money Claims
    JUS4111 Metode og etikk  JUS133 / Legal Method and Sources of Law
    JUS3211 Formuerett IIJUS134 / Legal History and Comparative Law
    Not creditedJUS135 / The Rule of Law and Human Rights
    Not credited  JUS241 / Criminal Law
    JUS4211Prosess og strafferettJUS242 / Law of Procedure (Civil and Criminal)
    JUS3111Formuerett I + JUS3211Formuerett II are credited, but not separatelyJUS243 / General Law of Property Rights and Obligations

     
  6. Examinations from the Cand. jur. law programme in Tromsø are recognised in the Master's Programme in Law pursuant to the same rules as for students from the Cand. jur. programme in Bergen, cf. Section 5-5.
     
  7. Students from the Cand. jur. programme in Oslo:

    a) Completion of the foundation level course ("grunnfag") in private law qualifies students for exemption from the first year apart from the course JUS111 Administrative Law I, and JUS122 Tort Law in the second year.

    b) Completion of the foundation level courses ("grunnfag") in private law and public law qualifies students for exemption from the first and second year of the Master's Programme in Law.
     
  8. Recognition of the first year only includes the compulsory preparatory examinations Examen Philosophicum and Examen Facultatum if the student has passed an equivalent examination.
     
  9. Individual courses are recognised according to the general rules laid down in legislation and the present Regulations.

Section 5-4 Recognition of examinations etc. from other educational institutions 

  1. Recognition of examinations from Sogn og Fjordane University College, Lillehammer University College, Buskerud og Vestfold University College, Agder University College and Stavanger University College:

    a) Courses from Sogn og Fjordane University College are recognised as follows for the Master's degree in Law at the Faculty of Law in Bergen:
    A one-year programme in law from Sogn og Fjordane University College is recognised as the first year of study. Students are required to have passed the Examen Philosophicum and Examen Facultatum preparatory examinations before embarking on the second year of study.

    b) Courses from Lillehammer University College are recognised as follows for the Master's degree in Law at the Faculty of Law in Bergen:
     
    i. A one-year programme in law from Lillehammer University College is recognised as the first year of study. Students are required to have passed the Examen Philosophicum and Examen Facultatum preparatory examinations before embarking on the second year of study.

    ii. A bachelor's degree in law from Lillehammer University College is recognised as the first, second and third year of study.

    iii. The second year of study in the Bachelor's Programme in Law at Lillehammer University College is recognised as JUS124 Property Law, JUS131 Contract Law II and JUS132 Money Claims.

    iv. Individual courses from Lillehammer University College:
      1. NIRI (16 credits) from Lillehammer University College (third year) is recognised as JUS121 NIRI (17 credits).
      2. Source of Law Theory, Comparative Law and Legal History (15 credits) are recognised as JUS133 Source of Law Theory and Methodology (10 credits) and JUS134 Legal History and Comparative Law (10 credits).

    c) Courses from Buskerud og Vestfold University College are recognised as follows for the Master's degree in Law at the Faculty of Law in Bergen:
     
    i. A Bachelor's degree in Law from Buskerud og Vestfold University college is recognised as the first and second year of study as well as JUS131 Contract Law II, JUS132 Money Claims, JUS134 Legal History and Comparative Law and JUS243 General Property Law Rights and Obligations.

    ii. Only the first two years of the Bachelor's Programme in Law from Buskerud og Vestfold University College are recognised as the first and second year of study.

    d) Courses from Agder University College are recognised as follows for the Master's degree in Law at the Faculty of Law in Bergen:

    i. A Bachelor's degree in Law from the University of Agder is recognised as the first, second and third year of study, as long as the degree includes the courses in property law, law of succession and family law, and legal methodology that are taught in the third year of study at the University of Agder.

    ii. The first year of study in the Bachelor's Programme in Law from Agder University College is recognised as follows:
    - EX-100 Examen philosophicum is recognised as EXPHIL Examen Philosophicum.
    - EX-101 Examen facultatum is recognised as EXFAC Preparatory Examination in Law.
    - JUR101 Legal Methodology I is recognised as JUS114 Legal Methodology.
    - JUR102 Administrative Law I is recognised as JUS111 Administrative Law I.
    - JUR103 Contract Law I is recognised as JUS113 Contract Law I.
    - JUR104 Labour Law I is not recognised.
    - JUS112 Law of Succession and Family Law is not recognised.

    iii. The first and second year of study in the Bachelor's Programme in Law from Agder University College are recognised as follows:
    - Administrative Law II in combination with Welfare Law is recognised as JUS123 Administrative Law II.
    - Contract Law II is recognised as JUS131 Contract Law II.
    - Money Claims is recognised as JUS132 Money Claims.
    - JUS122 Tort Law is not recognised

    e) Courses from Stavanger University College are recognised as follows for the Master's degree in Law at the Faculty of Law in Bergen:
    A Bachelor's Degree in Law from Stavanger University College is recognised as the first, second and third year of study.

  2. Students who, following recognition, end up with fewer than 300 credits overall must supplement this by taking additional specialist courses.

  3. Examinations, etc. not mentioned in Sections 5-3 or 5-4 may be recognised, on application, in accordance with the provisions in Section 3-5 of the Universities and University Colleges Act, cf. also Section 5-1 (1) and (2) above .

Section 5-5 Examinations taken under the 1997 programme requirements 

  1. Students who have passed the Examen Philosophicum and/or Examen Facultatum preparatory examinations under the 1997 programme requirements or at other faculties or educational institutions are exempt from these courses under the 2003 system. For these students, the first year of the Master's Programme in Law will constitute 40 or 50 credits.
     
  2. Students who have passed the examination from level 1 under the 1997 programme requirements may be admitted to the programme under the 2003 system starting from the second year. They must pass the Examen Facultatum and Examen Philosophicum before embarking on the fourth year of the programme.
     
  3. Students who have passed the examination from level 2 under the 1997 programme requirements may be admitted to the programme under the 2003 system starting from the third year, but these students must take Administrative Law II (17 credits) instead of Law on Money Claims (10 credits) and Comparative Law and Legal History (10 credits). They must pass the Examen Facultatum and Examen Philosophicum before embarking on the fourth year of the programme.
     
  4. Students who have passed the compulsory part of level 3 under the 1997 programme requirements may be admitted to the programme under the 2003 system starting from the fourth year. Instead of the course General Property Law Rights and Obligations, these students must take Administrative Law II (17 credits). These students are exempt from one elective course. They must pass the Examen Facultatum and Examen Philosophicum before embarking on the fourth year of the programme.
     
  5. Students who have passed the obligatory parts of level 4 under the 1997 programme requirements may be admitted to the programme under the 2003 system starting from the fifth year. These students will only have to write their Master's thesis to obtain a Master’s degree.

Section 5-6 Recognition – Effect on the individual education plan 

Students who have had one or more subjects on the Master's programme recognised and approved cannot expect to have their individual education plan revised, unless the recognition or approval applies to the entire year. As a main rule, all students must follow the same courses as the students in their year, and must expect to receive fewer than 60 credits for the years covering courses for which they have been granted exemption or specific recognition.

Section 5-7 Recognition of a Master's thesis 

  1. A Master's thesis will be recognised if the student has passed an equivalent examination at a Norwegian or foreign educational institution in the form of an original written piece of work that in essence corresponds to a Master's thesis written as part of a Norwegian Master's programme in law. In the judging of “equivalent”, the content, scope and depth is emphasized. Scope applies to the number of words as well as the number of credits. In assessing the number of credits, the semester may be considered as a whole.
     
  2. Theses consisting of several independent texts must have a reflective summary of at least 1500 words providing a more detailed account of the whole, and also a discussion of methodological questions that the work with these text has actualizied.
     
  3. For an original piece of written work to be recognised as a Master's thesis in law, it must discuss legal issues, including non-dogmatic subjects such as legal history, sociology of law, law and gender, law and economics and corporate governance.
     
  4. Master's programmes in law (LLM or equivalent) at overseas universities with a total of at least 60 ECTS credits (60 credits) may exempt students from elective subjects (30 credits) and the Master's thesis, if the programme description of the foreign programme included an original written paper of at least 10,000 words.
     
  5. If a paper as referred to in paragraphs 1-3 immediately above has been written during an exchange visit that has been approved in advance by the Faculty, the student loses the right to take the courses JUS399 / JUS398 Master's Thesis at the Faculty.
     
  6. Advance approval of a study visit abroad may be made conditional on the student writing his/her thesis as part of the stay.

Section 5-8 Recognition of elective courses 

Courses whose content is identical to or overlaps with the compulsory courses on the programme description will not be recognised as an elective course, unless it can be proved that the course differs significantly from the compulsory subject. Courses that are also offered as an elective course at the Faculty are recognised on the condition that the course has not been taken as an elective course at the University of Bergen.

Bachelor level courses may not be credited as elective courses at Masters level in the Master of Laws. They still imply curtailment of credits for certain elective courses at the master level, cf. Universities and College Act § 3-5 no. 1 last sentence. This also applies where the course at the bachelor level has been included in the basis for admission to two-year master's program.

Section 5-9 Period of study abroad – Nomination, prior approval and recognition 

  1. Students who have completed and passed the third year of study may go abroad on a student exchange period as part of the Master's programme. It is a condition that at least 60 credits are examinations passed in the Law Programme at the University of Bergen. Students in the two-year master's program may go on exchange as of their second semester.
     
  2. When ranking applicants to a specific place, students who are applying for an exchange for the first time shall have priority over students who have previously been on an exchange as part of the Master's programme.
     
  3. Prior approval – and subsequent recognition – may be granted for courses equivalent to 30 credits in elective courses, and/or written work equivalent to a Master's thesis (30 credits). This shall be included in the degree. Prior approval of paper equivalent to the Master thesis assumes that exchange stay is at a university where such a paper is an option.
     
  4. A student who has passed 30 credits in the fifth year will only be granted prior approval for an exchange of one semester or participation in an LLM programme. If the student has passed 30 credits elective courses, prior approval presupposes that exchange takes place at a university where a paper equivalent to the Master thesis is an option.
     
  5. Prior approval of part-time studies in Scandinavian-speaking countries, presupposes that at least one of the courses have non-Scandinavian language of instruction.
     
  6. Students shall apply for final approval of a period of study abroad within one month of receiving the official documentation of the results they achieved.
     
  7. A student who has been granted prior approval, and who have passed 30 credits elective courses abroad, cannot take additional elective courses in the Master's degree.
     
  8. Where studying abroad as part of the programme constitutes the last courses in the degree, the date of the degree is set as the date on which these courses are officially recognised.

Chapter 6. Diplomas and further studies

Section 6-1 Diploma Issuance and basis

  1. Diplomas are issued eight weeks after
    a) the academic requirements for the degree have been fulfilled and
    b) the law graduate's oath has been taken.
     
  2. The law graduate's oath is taken electronically by
    - 1 September for students completing the degree in the spring semester
    - 15 January for students completing the degree in the autumn semester.
     
  3. The academic requirements for the degree are stipulated in section 2-1.
     
  4. The academic requirements are met as stipulated in each student's education plan.

    a. The Faculty of Law records that a student has attained a degree at the earliest possible date. The courses in part two of the education plan constitute the basis for the diploma.

    b. As a general rule, the degree cannot contain more than 300 – respectively 120 – credits. When the education plan contains more than what can be included in a degree the following applies:

          i. Courses credited after an exchange have priority

          ii. Courses taken at UiB have priority ahead of courses taken at other Norwegian institutions, or other institutions without an exchange agreement.

    c. Where the priorities in subsection a do not clarify the entire basis for the diploma, it is the student’s own responsibility to indicate the courses to be included in the degree.

    d. If the student has not indicated which courses are to be included in the degree, the Faculty will select the oldest of the relevant courses. If this also does not clarify the basis for the diploma, the course with the best grade is selected, and courses are thereafter selected alphabetically.

Section 6-2 Termination of admission on obtaining a degree

The right to study in the Master's Programme in Law terminates without advance notice once the requirements for the degree have been met, or at the stipulated date of expiry. Once the diploma has been issued, individuals cannot be granted admission to study on the Master's Programme in Law again, nor can an expired right to study be reactivated.

Section 6-3 Further studies in the Faculty of Law

1. Admission for additional studies

Candidates with a Master of Law degree from the University of Bergen can apply for admission for additional studies in the Faculty of Law.

   a. Admission for additional studies can only be given once and then only as of the semester after the degree has been achieved.

   b. The application periods are
       - 1 July - 15 August for students completing the degree in the spring semester
       - 1 December - 15 January for students completing the degree in the autumn semester.
   c. Admission for additional studies is given for two semesters, but can be terminated earlier by giving notice to the Faculty. An expired or terminated admission for additional studies cannot be reactivated.

   d. With admission for additional studies, students can take JUS241, JUS242, JUS243, ethics courses and specialist courses, provided this is not precluded by the rules regulating re-sitting examinations or similar rules.

   e. Ethics courses and any grade improvements for courses that have already been passed can be included in the diploma, as long as this has not already been issued.

   f. Admission for additional studies automatically entails a postponement of the issuance of the diploma, but a diploma can nevertheless be ordered in the course of the period of admission for additional studies. The admission for additional studies is not terminated when a diploma is ordered or issued.

2. Special right of study for elective courses

 Candidates with a Master of Law from the University of Bergen can apply for special right of study to take further elective courses, c.f. section 2-7.

 The application deadlines are announced at the webpage for admission (norwegian only).

Chapter 7. Entry into force and transitional rules. Supplementary guidelines

Section 7-1 Entry into force and transitional rules 

These regulations start to apply from the 2012–2013 academic year.

Section 7-2 Supplementary guidelines 

The Education Committee or the Faculty Board may establish supplementary guidelines to these regulations. The following guidelines currently apply:

  • Guidelines on Calculation of Compulsory Participation
  • Grading Guidelines for the Master's Programme
  • Guidelines on the Selection and Approval of Auxiliary Teachers and Examiners
  • Guidelines on Setting Examinations in Law
  • Instructions on Setting Assignments and Grades in the Master's Degree Programme
  • Reading Room Regulations for the Faculty of Law