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  • E-mailChristoph.Heinze@uib.no
  • Phone+47 55 58 98 44+47 913 74 288
  • Visitor Address
    Allégaten 70
  • Postal Address
    Postboks 7803
    5020 BERGEN

Modelling of marine biogeochemical cycles.

Quantifications of the global carbon cycle.

Simulation and interpretation of the climatic sediment record.

Feedbacks between biogeochemistry and climate.

Chemical Oceanography GEOF236, GEOF336

Seminar on "Earth system science for sustainability studies" GEOF347

Academic article
  • Show author(s) 2020. Ocean biogeochemistry in the Norwegian Earth System Model version 2 (NorESM2). Geoscientific Model Development. 2393-2431.
  • Show author(s) 2020. 230Th Normalization: New Insights on an Essential Tool for Quantifying Sedimentary Fluxes in the Modern and Quaternary Ocean. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology.
  • Show author(s) 2018. The potential of 230Th for detection of ocean acidification impacts on pelagic carbonate production. Biogeosciences. 3521-3539.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Southern Ocean controls of the vertical marine δ13C gradient – a modelling study. Biogeosciences. 7205-7223.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Mechanisms and early detections of multidecadal oxygen changes in the interior subpolar North Atlantic. Geophysical Research Letters. 4218-4229.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Response of export production and dissolved oxygen concentrations in oxygen minimum zones to pCO2 and temperature stabilization scenarios in the biogeochemical model HAMOCC 2.0. Biogeosciences. 781-797.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Amplification of global warming through pH dependence of DMS production simulated with a fully coupled Earth system model. Biogeosciences. 3633-3648.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Towards improved and more routine Earth system model evaluation in CMIP. Earth System Dynamics. 813-830.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Ocean carbon cycling during the past 130ĝ000 years- A pilot study on inverse palaeoclimate record modelling. Climate of the Past. 1949-1978.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Inconsistent strategies to spin up models in CMIP5: implications for ocean biogeochemical model performance assessment. Geoscientific Model Development. 1827-1851.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Evaluation of NorESM-OC (versions 1 and 1.2), the ocean carbon-cycle stand-alone configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1). Geoscientific Model Development. 2589-2622.
  • Show author(s) 2015. Recent trends and drivers of regional sources and sinks of carbon dioxide. Biogeosciences. 653-679.
  • Show author(s) 2014. The role of the ocean carbon cycle in climate change. European Review. 97-105.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Projected pH reductions by 2100 might put deep North Atlantic biodiversity at risk. Biogeosciences. 6955-6967.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Nonlinearity of ocean carbon cycle feedbacks in CMIP5 earth system models. Journal of Climate. 3869-3888.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Long-term surface pCO2 trends from observations and models. Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system. Biogeosciences. 3547-3602.
  • Show author(s) 2013. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data products. Earth System Science Data.
  • Show author(s) 2013. Oxygen and indicators of stress for marine life in multi-model global warming projections. Biogeosciences. 1849-1868.
  • Show author(s) 2013. Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems in the 21st century: projections with CMIP5 models. Biogeosciences. 6225-6245.
  • Show author(s) 2013. Global ocean carbon uptake: magnitude, variability and trends. Biogeosciences. 1983-2000.
  • Show author(s) 2013. Evaluation of the carbon cycle components in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). Geoscientific Model Development. 301-325.
  • Show author(s) 2013. A uniform, quality controlled Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). Earth System Science Data. 125-143.
  • Show author(s) 2012. Variability of the ocean carbon cycle in response to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology. 1-25.
  • Show author(s) 2011. Regional Impacts of Climate Change and Atmospheric CO2 on Future Ocean Carbon Uptake: A Multimodel Linear Feedback Analysis. Journal of Climate. 2300-2318.
  • Show author(s) 2011. Long-term controls on ocean phosphorus and oxygen in a global biogeochemical model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles.
  • Show author(s) 2010. Impact of changes in river fluxes of silica on the global marine silicon cycle: a model comparison. Biogeosciences. 441-453.
  • Show author(s) 2010. An isopycnic ocean carbon cycle model. Geoscientific Model Development. 143-167.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Bergen earth system model (BCM- C): model description and regional climate-carbon cycle feedbacks assessment. Geoscientific Model Development. 845-887.
  • Show author(s) 2009. An isopycnic ocean carbon cycle model. Geoscientific Model Development. 1023-1079.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Reconciling surface ocean productivity, export fluxes and sediment composition in a global biogeochemical ocean model. Biogeosciences. 803-836.
  • Show author(s) 2006. On the potential of 230Th, 231Pa, and 10Be for marine ratio determinations: A modelling study. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 12 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2005. Impact of paleocirculations on the silicon redistribution in the world ocean. Marine Geology. 201-213.
  • Show author(s) 2004. Simulating oceanic CaCO3 export production in the greenhouse. Geophysical Research Letters. 4 pages.
  • Show author(s) 2003. Sensitivity of the marine biospheric Si cycle for biogeochemical parameter variations. Global Biogeochemical Cycles.
  • Show author(s) 2003. Impact of paleo circulations on the siliconredistribution in the world ocean. Marine Geology.
  • Show author(s) 2003. Coupled Al-Si geobiochemistry in an ocean general circulation model: A tool for the validation of oceanic dust seposition? Global Biogeochemical Cycles.
  • Show author(s) 2002. Modelling of the marine Si cycle. Achievements and missing links. Océanis. 557-566.
Academic lecture
  • Show author(s) 2020. Our common future ocean in the Earth system - introduction to ocean tipping points.
  • Show author(s) 2020. Our common future ocean in the Earth system - introduction to ocean tipping points.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Pitch talk - COMFORT project.
  • Show author(s) 2019. Global ocean carbon cycle modelling – unresolved issues concerning climate feedbacks and impacts .
  • Show author(s) 2019. Climate feedbacks in the Earth system and their evaluation.
  • Show author(s) 2019. COMFORT: Our common future ocean in the Earth system – quantifying coupled cycles of carbon, oxygen, and nutrients for determining and achieving safe operating spaces with respect to tipping points .
  • Show author(s) 2019. COMFORT - Welcome and overview .
  • Show author(s) 2018. The Ocean Carbon Cycle in a high CO2 world.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Summing up the EVA project.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Observations-constrained projections reveal early and strong deoxygenation in the interior North Atlantic.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Early detection of anthropogenic climate change signal in the interior subpolar North Atlantic oxygen.
  • Show author(s) 2018. Early detection of anthropogenic climate change signal in the interior subpolar North Atlantic.
  • Show author(s) 2018. C-isotopes in NorESM – status of implementation.
  • Show author(s) 2017. The ocean carbon cycle modelling of Ernst Maier-Reimer.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Opening and Introduction.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Low and overshoot emission scenarios – from a high to a low carbon society (LOES).
  • Show author(s) 2017. Feedbacks between carbon cycle and climate .
  • Show author(s) 2017. Earth system modelling - what, why, infrastructure needs, future challanges.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Couplings between biogeochemistry and climate.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Amplification of global warming through pH-dependence of DMS-production.
  • Show author(s) 2017. Addressing knowledge gaps in climate science in support of IPCC reports .
  • Show author(s) 2016. The role of the Southern Ocean in Earth system modelling.
  • Show author(s) 2016. The nationally coordinated flagship project on Earth system modelling funded through the Research Council of Norway: EVA – Earth system modelling of climate Variations in the Anthropocene.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Research Group 3: Carbon Cycle and Biogeochemistry - Overview.
  • Show author(s) 2016. NorESM2 - ocean updates for CMIP6.
  • Show author(s) 2016. From CMIP5 to CMIP6: New developments for the ocean biogeochemistry module of NorESM.
  • Show author(s) 2016. Earth system modelling and the NorESM as a pillar for climate services.
  • Show author(s) 2016. EVA WP 2: Coupling of DMS emissions - first results.
  • Show author(s) 2016. A pilot study towards modelling of the sedimentary paleo-climate record 130 - 0 kyrBP.
  • Show author(s) 2015. The Norwegian Earth System Model - NorESM, Status and Plans for CMIP6 and Crescendo.
  • Show author(s) 2015. Positive future climate feedback due to changes in oceanic DMS emissions.
  • Show author(s) 2015. Positive future climate feedback due to changes in oceanic DMS emissions.
  • Show author(s) 2015. NFR nationally coordinated project NORKLIMA/KLIMAFORSK): EVA Earth system modelling of climate Variations in the Anthropocene (overview/introduction) .
  • Show author(s) 2015. HAMOCC at the Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research.
  • Show author(s) 2015. Changes in carbon uptake and emissions by oceans in a changing climate (Overview) .
  • Show author(s) 2015. A 130 kyr synthetic sediment core study and carbon isotopes.
  • Show author(s) 2014. The CaCO3 cycle in the climate system.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Summary about RCN nationally coordinated project (NORKLIMA/KLIMAFORSK): EVA - Earth system modelling of climate Variations in the Anthropocene.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Status and Perspective (CARBOCHANGE).
  • Show author(s) 2014. NFR nationally coordinated project(NORKLIMA/KLIMAFORSK): EVA - Earth system modelling of climate Variations in the Anthropocene.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Marine CO2 modelling and inversions.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Future pH Reductions put North Atlantic Deep-Sea Ecosystems at Risk.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Evaluation of ocean biogeochemical models as part of ESMs.
  • Show author(s) 2014. EVA - Earth system modelling of climate Variations in the Anthropocene.
  • Show author(s) 2014. Does it make sense to include interactive sediment modules in global carbon cycle models for applications on decadal-centennial time scales?
  • Show author(s) 2013. Progress in quantifying ocean carbon sources and sinks - results from the CARBOCHANGE project.
  • Show author(s) 2013. North Atlantic variability of oceanic CO2 uptake in response to simulated past, present and future climate change.
  • Show author(s) 2013. Emergent constraints - relevant for ocean carbon cycling and climate change?
  • Show author(s) 2013. Changes in carbon uptake and emissions by oceans in a changing climate - status and perspective.
  • Show author(s) 2012. The role of the ocean carbon cycle in climate change.
  • Show author(s) 2012. Sediment core modelling on a global basis for improving Earth system models.
  • Show author(s) 2012. North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean carbon biogeochemical responses and feedbacks to climate change.
  • Show author(s) 2012. Changes in carbon uptake and emissions by oceans in a changing climate - CARBOCHANGE.
  • Show author(s) 2012. CARBOCHANGE - status and perspective.
  • Show author(s) 2012. CARBOCHANGE.
  • Show author(s) 2012. BIOFEEDBACK - Biogeochemical feedbacks in the climate system - Introduction.
  • Show author(s) 2011. WP3: Changes in marine carbon cycle.
  • Show author(s) 2011. Monitoring the impact of ocean acidification through 230Th – where and when?
  • Show author(s) 2011. Modelling the global marine carbon cycle 'end-to-end'.
  • Show author(s) 2011. Global carbon cycle overview.
  • Show author(s) 2011. Carbon Data Assimilation Systems for Oceans - overview and perspectives (key note).
  • Show author(s) 2011. CARBOCHANGE: Ocean carbon uptake under changing climate.
  • Show author(s) 2011. CARBOCHANGE - Goals and Impacts.
  • Show author(s) 2011. Assessment of the ocean carbon cycle feedbacks strength using multi-Earth system models.
  • Show author(s) 2011. An attempt to simulate the sedimentary paleo-record for determining governing parameters of the Earth system.
  • Show author(s) 2010. Winter versus summer onset of undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean.
  • Show author(s) 2010. WP3: Changes in Marine Carbon Cycle -modelling part-.
  • Show author(s) 2010. WP1: Enhancing interoperability of existing networks in land and ocean.
  • Show author(s) 2010. The ocean carbon cycle and climate – what we may learn from the paleo-record and how to prepare for entering unknown territory in the future.
  • Show author(s) 2010. The challenge of detecting large scale impacts of ocean acidification.
  • Show author(s) 2010. Scientific presentation by new member (of the SSC).
  • Show author(s) 2010. On the combination of a biogeochemical ocean modelling with the sedimentary paleoclimate record for estimating ocean acidification impacts.
  • Show author(s) 2010. Complexity - Model development/Science drivers.
  • Show author(s) 2010. Combining water column data with sediment trap and satellite observations for improved marine carbon export estimates (introduction into workshop).
  • Show author(s) 2009. WP7 - Climate projections and feedbacks.
  • Show author(s) 2009. WP11 highlights.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Vision and approach - WP1 Enhancing interoperability.
  • Show author(s) 2009. The potential of radionuclides for detecting the impact of ocean acidification on marine particle fluxes.
  • Show author(s) 2009. The potential of marine biogeochemical processes to feedback to atmospheric CO2.
  • Show author(s) 2009. The low CO2 glacial ocean as a reverse paleo-analog for the future high CO2 ocean.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Phosphorus cycle in a biogeochemical ocean model: Response to changes on sediment redox conditions.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Overview RG4 and modelling of biogeochemical cycles.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Modelling of marine biogeochemical cycles from end to end.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Marine CO2 sources and sinks (CarboOcean IP), ocean acidification, and artificial Fe fertilization.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Large scale response of the marine biological carbon pumps to high CO2 as inferred from global sediment modeling.
  • Show author(s) 2009. How old is marine sediment at the burial stage?
  • Show author(s) 2009. Glacial rain ratio revisited using a sediment age transport model for synthetic sediment cores.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Detecting early signs of global-scale effects of ocean acidification on marine calcification.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Current status on carbon cycle studies, feedbacks, and ocean acidification.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Core theme 5 - 5-year scientifc summary and perspectives.
  • Show author(s) 2009. CARBOOCEAN update for EPOCA annual meeting.
  • Show author(s) 2009. CARBOOCEAN - results and research perspectives on marine carbon sources and sinks.
  • Show author(s) 2009. Biogeochemical part of the Earth System Model.
  • Show author(s) 2009. A model intercomparison of the climate-carbon cycle feedback from the global ocean:Regional feedback analyses and mechanisms.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Towards the estimation of past carbon cycle parameters from sediment core data.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Towards synthesizing regional and global carbon budgets - the RECCAP context.
  • Show author(s) 2008. The ocean carbon sinks, processes, timescales, and impacts.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Projects on the oceanic carbon sink - CARBOOCEAN & CarboSeason and others.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Perspectives for biogeochemical climate research with the Norwegian ESM.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Overview of Bergen Earth system model.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Overview CARBOOCEAN.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Marine carbon sources and sinks assessment, (CARBOOCEAN).
  • Show author(s) 2008. Land Ocean Coupling.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Glacial/interglacial carbon cycle changes as derived from global modeling of marine sediment cores.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Enhancing interoperability of existing networks in land and ocean (COCOS WP1).
  • Show author(s) 2008. Decadal changes in anthropogenic carbon uptake in an isopycning ocean carbon cycle model.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Coupling riverine fluxes of nutrients to a global biogeochemical ocean general circulation model.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Contribution of riverine nutrients to the biogeochemistry of the global ocean.
  • Show author(s) 2008. Carbon cycle modelling strategy.
  • Show author(s) 2008. CarboOcean II - might there be one? What happens on 1.1.2010?
  • Show author(s) 2008. CT5 Highlights - Future scenarios for marine carbon sources and sinks.
  • Show author(s) 2008. CARBOOCEAN –"marine carbon sources and sinks assessment" overview and results.
  • Show author(s) 2008. CARBOOCEAN assessment report (in collaboration with terrestrial Carbo-Europe project).
  • Show author(s) 2008. A tool for early detection of global-scale changes in marine calcification.
  • Show author(s) 2008. A first interactive carbon cycle climate run based on BCM.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Was there a higher glacial rain ratio CaCO3:POC than today?
  • Show author(s) 2007. The changing oceanic carbon sink in a warming high CO2 world.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Overview CARBOOCEAN.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Modeling Early Signs of Ocean Acidification Effects on Marine Calcification.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Methodologies for ocean scale carbonate system modelling (HAMOCC5/MICOM/OM/LSG).
  • Show author(s) 2007. Coupling riverine fluxes of nutrients to a global biogeochemical ocean general circulation model.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Core Theme 5: Future scenarios for marine carbon sources and sinks.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Carbon cycling at high latitudes - bottleneck for anthropogenic CO2 and precursor for ocean acidification.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Carbon cycling at high latitudes - an early warning system for changes in oceanic CO2 uptake and carbonate saturation.
  • Show author(s) 2007. Carbon cycle climate feedbacks – can we learn anything from the past?
  • Show author(s) 2007. CARBOOCEAN - the European contribution to a global marine sources and sinks assessment.
  • Show author(s) 2007. CARBOOCEAN - Marine carbon sources and sinks assessment.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Towards Earth system modelling in Bergen - status and vision.
  • Show author(s) 2006. The glacial-interglacial CO2 variation revisited - experiments with a long-term biogeochemical model.
  • Show author(s) 2006. The carbon cycle - FP7. Rationale for research and and priorities for the calls for the first years to come.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Submission and evaluation of Integrated Projects - Topic 1: Prior to closing date, Topic 2: Submission procedure.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Overview about CARBOOCEAN.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Modelling the marine sediment core record - a blueprint for identifying the cause for the glacial-interglacial pCO2 variation.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Marine carbon cycle climate feedbacks.
  • Show author(s) 2006. Long-term changes of the global oceanic Si cycle.
  • Show author(s) 2006. CARBOOCEAN Marine sources and sinks assessment - Emerging research questions for FP7.
  • Show author(s) 2006. CARBOOCEAN Marine carbon sources and sinks assessment.
  • Show author(s) 2006. CARBOOCEAN IP - IMBER, Marine carbon sources and sinks assessment.
  • Show author(s) 2006. CARBOOCEAN Core Theme 5, The big scientific questions – new answers and new challenges.
  • Show author(s) 2005. The potential of upper ocean alkalinity controls for atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (plenary talk).
  • Show author(s) 2005. Simulation of rain ratio changes with a global ocean carbon cycle model.
  • Show author(s) 2005. Ocean carbon cycle and biogeochemistry.
  • Show author(s) 2005. Ocean carbon cycle - a playground for turbulence researchers?
  • Show author(s) 2005. Marine carbon cycle climate feedbacks - magnitude and timescales.
  • Show author(s) 2005. Marine biological carbon cycle climate feedbacks - do they matter or not?
  • Show author(s) 2005. Coordination of an EU Integrated Project.
  • Show author(s) 2005. CARBOOCEAN (project overview).
  • Show author(s) 2005. 1. The 1st year of CARBOOCEAN. 2. Core Theme 5 - Future Scenarios.
  • Show author(s) 2005. 1. Hystory of proposal. 2. Workplan. 3. Implementation of core theme "5". 4. Review&Assessment 5. Workpackage "11". 6. Dissemination. SERIES OF TALKS WITHIN KICK-OFF MEETING.
  • Show author(s) 2004. What is the role of the Greenland-Scotland overflows in the climate system?
  • Show author(s) 2004. Towards the reconstruction of past biogeochemical cycles: Simulation of the sediment core record in the world ocean with a biogeochemical ocean general circulation model.
  • Show author(s) 2004. The art of global modelling.
  • Show author(s) 2004. Predicting anthropogenic CO2 uptake by the high latitude oceans - the Bjerknes 1904 paper revisited.
  • Show author(s) 2004. Ocean pH in the greenhouse.
  • Show author(s) 2004. Ocean pH in the greenhouse.
  • Show author(s) 2004. ORFOIS - ORigin and Fate of biogenic particle fluxes in the Ocean and their Interactions with the atmospheric CO2 concentration as well as the marine Sediment.
  • Show author(s) 2004. ORFOIS - 2nd Annual Workshop, a. project flow, b. goals, c. towards a shelf seas parameterisation.
  • Show author(s) 2004. Modeling 230Th, 231Pa, and 10Be in the ocean: Particle species dependent scavenging and its potential for rain ratio determinations.
  • Show author(s) 2003. Simulating the response of the CaCO3 counter pump to climate change.
Academic literature review
  • Show author(s) 2019. ESD Reviews: Climate feedbacks in the Earth system and prospects for their evaluation. Earth System Dynamics. 379-452.
  • Show author(s) 2015. The ocean carbon sink - Impacts, vulnerabilities and challenges. Earth System Dynamics. 327-358.
  • Show author(s) 2013. Anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon fluxes from land to ocean. Nature Geoscience. 597-607.

More information in national current research information system (CRIStin)

Heinze, C. T. Blenckner, H. Martins, D. Rusiecka, R. Döscher, M. Gehlen, N. Gruber, E. Holland, Ø. Hov, F. Joos, J. B. R. Matthews, R. Rødven, and S. Wilson: The quiet crossing of ocean tipping points, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,118 (9) e2008478118;  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2008478118, 2021.

Seland, O., Bentsen, M., Olivie, D., Toniazzo, T., Gjermundsen, A., Graff, L. S., Debernard, J. B., Gupta, A. K., He, Y. C., Kirkevag, A., Schwinger, J., Tjiputra, J., Aas, K. S., Bethke, I., Fan, Y. C., Griesfeller, J., Grini, A., Guo, C. C., Ilicak, M., Karset, I. H. H., Landgren, O., Liakka, J., Moseid, K. O., Nummelin, A., Spensberger, C., Tang, H., Zhang, Z. S., Heinze, C., Iversen, T., and Schulz, M.: Overview of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM2) and key climate response of CMIP6 DECK, historical, and scenario simulations, Geosci Model Dev, 13, 6165-6200, 10.5194/gmd-13-6165-2020, 2020.

Tjiputra, J.F. J. Schwinger, M. Bentsen, A.L. Morée, S. Gao, I. Bethke, C. Heinze, N. Goris, A. Gupta, Y.-C. He, D. Olivié, Ø. Seland, and M. Schulz, Ocean biogeochemistry in the Norwegian Earth System Model version 2 (NorESM2), Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2393–2431, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-13-2393-2020. Link https://www.geosci-model-dev.net/13/2393/2020/

Heinze, C., V. Eyring, P. Friedlingstein, C. Jones, Y. Balkanski, W. Collins, T. Fichefet, S. Gao, A. Hall, D. Ivanova, W. Knorr, R. Knutti, A. Löw, M. Ponater, M.G. Schultz, M. Schulz, P. Siebesma, J. Teixeira, G. Tselioudis, and M. Vancoppenolle, ESD Reviews: Climate feedbacks in the Earth system and prospects for their evaluation, Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 379–452, 2019, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-10-379-2019.

Morée. A.L., J. Schwinger, and C. Heinze: Southern Ocean controls of the vertical marine δ13C gradient – a modelling study, Biogeosciences, 15, 7205–7223, 2018, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-7205-2018

Heinze, C., Ilyina, T., and M. Gehlen, 2018, The potential of 230Th for detection of ocean acidification impacts on pelagic carbonate production, Biogeosciences, 15, 3521-3539, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-3521-2018

Tjiputra, J. F., N. Goris, S.K. Lauvset, C. Heinze, A. Olsen, J. Schwinger, and R. Steinfeldt, 2018, Mechanisms and early detections of multidecadal oxygen changes in the interior subpolar North Atlantic, Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 4218–4229, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL077096

Schwinger, J., J. Tjiputra, N. Goris, K. D. Six, A. Kirkevåg, Ø. Seland, C. Heinze, and T. Ilyina, 2017, Amplification of global warming through pH dependence of DMS production simulated with a fully coupled Earth system model, Biogeosciences, 14, 3633-3648, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-3633-2017

Heinze, C., B. Hoogakker, and A. Winguth, 2016, Ocean carbon cycling during the past 130,000 years – a pilot study on inverse paleoclimate record modelling, Climate of the Past, 12, 1949-1978, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1949-2016

Eyring, V.,  P.J. Gleckler, C. Heinze, R.J. Stouffer, K.E. Taylor, V. Balaji, E. Guilyardi, S. Joussaume, S. Kindermann, B. N. Lawrence, G.A. Meehl, M. Righi, and D.N. Williams, 2016, Towards improved and more routine Earth system model evaluation in CMIP, Earth System Dynamics, 7, 813-830, doi:10.5194/esd-7-813-2016

Beaty, T., C. Heinze, T. Hughlett, and A. M. E. Winguth, 2017, Response of export production and dissolved oxygen concentrations in oxygen minimum zones to pCO2 and temperature stabilization scenarios in the biogeochemical model HAMOCC 2.0, Biogeosciences, 14, 781-797, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-781-2017

Schwinger, J., N. Goris, J.F. Tjiputra, I. Kriest, M. Bentsen, I. Bethke, M. Ilicak, K.M. Assmann, and C. Heinze, 2016, Evaluation of NorESM-OC (versions 1 and 1.2), the ocean carbon-cycle stand-alone configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1), Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2589-2622, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-2589-2016

Séférian, M., M. Gehlen, L. Bopp, L. Resplandy, J.C. Orr, O. Marti, J.P. Dunne, J.R. Christian, S.C. Doney, T. Ilyina, K. Lindsay, P.R. Halloran, C. Heinze, J. Segschneider, J. Tjiputra, O. Aumont, and Anastasia Romanou, 2016, Inconsistent strategies to spin up models in CMIP5: implications for ocean biogeochemical model performance assessment, Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1827-1851, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-1827-2016

Goris, N., J. Tjiputra, J. Schwinger, and C. Heinze, 2015, Responses of carbon uptake and oceanic pCO2 to climate change in the North Atlantic: A model study with the Bergen Earth System Model, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 29, 29, 1567–1583, doi:10.1002/2015GB005109

Olsen, A., L.G. Anderson, and C. Heinze, 2015, Arctic Carbon Cycle: patterns, impacts and expected change, in: The New Arctic, B. Evengård, J. Nymand Larsen, and Ø. Paasche, eds., Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York, 95-115, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-17602-4, ISBN 978-3-319-17601-7.

Heinze, C., S. Meyer, N. Goris, L. Anderson, R. Steinfeldt, N. Chang, C. Le Quéré, and D.C.E. Bakker, 2015, The ocean carbon sink – impacts, vulnerabilities, and challenges, Earth System Dynamics, 6, 327–358, 2015 www.earth-syst-dynam.net/6/327/2015/ doi:10.5194/esd-6-327-2015

Sitch, S., P. Friedlingstein, N. Gruber, S. D. Jones, G. Murray-Tortarolo, A. Ahlström, S. C. Doney, H. Graven, C. Heinze, C. Huntingford, S. Levis, P. E. Levy, M. Lomas, B. Poulter, N. Viovy, S. Zaehle, N. Zeng, A. Arneth, G. Bonan, L. Bopp, J. G. Canadell, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, R. Ellis, M. Gloor, P. Peylin, S. Piao, C. Le Quéré, B. Smith, Z. Zhu, and R. Myneni, 2015, Trends and drivers of regional sources and sinks of carbon dioxide over the past two decades, Biogeosciences, 12, www.biogeosciences.net/12/653/2015/ doi:10.5194/bg-12-653-2015

Gehlen, M., R. Séférian, D. O. B. Jones, T. Roy, R. Roth, J. Barry, L. Bopp, S. C. Doney, J. P. Dunne, C. Heinze, F. Joos, J. C. Orr, L. Resplandy, J. Segschneider, and J. Tjiputra, 2014, Projected pH reductions by 2100 might put deep North Atlantic biodiversity at risk, Biogeosciences, 11, 6955–6967, www.biogeosciences.net/11/6955/2014/ doi:10.5194/bg-11-6955-2014

Ciais, P., A. J. Dolman, A. Bombelli, R. Duren, A. Peregon, P. J. Rayner, C. Miller, N. Gobron, G. Kinderman, G. Marland, N. Gruber, F. Chevallier, R. J. Andres, G. Balsamo, L. Bopp, F.-M. Bréon, G. Broquet, R. Dargaville, T. J. Battin, A. Borges, H. Bovensmann, M. Buchwitz, J. Butler, J. G. Canadell, R. B. Cook, R. DeFries, R. Engelen, K. R. Gurney, C. Heinze, M. Heimann, A. Held, M. Henry, B. Law, S. Luyssaert, J. Miller, T. Moriyama, C. Moulin, R. B. Myneni, C. Nussli, M. Obersteiner, D. Ojima, Y. Pan, J.-D. Paris, S. L. Piao, B. Poulter, S. Plummer, S. Quegan, P. Raymond, M. Reichstein, L. Rivier, C. Sabine, D. Schimel, O. Tarasova, R. Valentini, G. van der Werf, D. Wickland, M. Williams, and C. Zehner,  2014, Current systematic carbon cycle observations and needs for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system, Biogeosciences, 11, 3547–3602, www.biogeosciences.net/11/3547/2014/ doi:10.5194/bg-11-3547-2014

Tjiputra, J.F., A. Olsen, L. Bopp, A. Lenton, B. Pfeil, T. Roy, J. Segschneider, I. Totterdell, and C. Heinze, 2014, Long–term surface pCO2 trend from observations and models, Tellus B, 66, article no. 23083, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v66.23083

Schwinger, J., J.F. Tjiputra, C. Heinze, L. Bopp, J.R. Christian, M. Gehlen, T. Ilyina, C.D. Jones, D. Salas-Mélia, J. Segschneider, R. Séférian, and I. Totterdell, 2014, Non-linearity of ocean carbon cycle feedbacks in CMIP5 earth system models, Journal of Climate, 27, 3869-3888, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00452.1

Heinze, C. und M. Gehlen, 2013, Modeling Ocean Biogeochemical Processes and the Resulting Tracer Distributions (Ch. 26), in Siedler, G., Griffies, S., Gould, and J. Church, (eds.): Ocean Circulation and Climate, 2nd Ed., A 21st century perspective, Elsevier, 667-694. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-391851-2.00026-X

Ilyina, T., D. Wolf-Gladrow, G. Munhoven, and C. Heinze, 2013, Assessing the potential of calcium-based artificial ocean alkalinization to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 and ocean acidification, Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 1–6, doi:10.1002/2013GL057981

Bopp, L., L. Resplandy, J.C. Orr, S.C. Doney, J. P. Dunne, M. Gehlen, P. Halloran, C. Heinze, T. Ilyina, R. Séférian, J. Tjiputra, and M. Vichi, 2013, Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems in the 21st century: projections with CMIP5 models, Biogeosciences, 10, 6225–6245, www.biogeosciences.net/11/3547/2014/ doi:10.5194/bg-11-3547-2014

Palastanga, V., C. P. Slomp, and C. Heinze, 2013, Glacial-interglacial variability in ocean oxygen and phosphorus in a global biogeochemical model, Biogeosciences, 10, 945–958, www.biogeosciences.net/10/945/2013/ doi:10.5194/bg-10-945-2013

Pfeil, B., A. Olsen, D. C. E. Bakker, S. Hankin, H. Koyuk, A. Kozyr, J.,  Malczyk, A. Manke, N. Metzl, C. L. Sabine, J. Akl, S.R. Alin, R. G. J.,  Bellerby, A. Borges, J. Boutin, P.J. Brown, W-J. Cai, F.P. Chavez, A. Chen,  C. Cosca, A.J. Fassbender, R.A. Feely, M. González-Dávila, C. Goyet, N. Hardman- Mountford, C. Heinze, M. Hood, M. Hoppema, C.W Hunt, D. Hydes, M.  Ishii, T. Johannessen, S.D. Jones, R. M. Key, A. Körtzinger, P. Landschützer, S.K.  Lauvset, N. Lefèvre, A. Lenton, A. Lourantou, L. Merlivat, T. Midorikawa, L.  Mintrop, C. Miyazaki, A. Murata, A. Nakadate, Y. Nakano, S. Nakaoka, Y.  Nojiri, A.M. Omar, X.A. Padin, G.-H. Park, K. Paterson, F. F. Perez, D.  Pierrot, A. Poisson, A. F. Ríos, J. Salisbury, J.M. Santana-Casiano, V.V.S.S. Sarma,  R. Schlitzer, B. Schneider, U. Schuster, R. Sieger, I. Skjelvan, T. Steinhoff, T.  Suzuki, T. Takahashi, K. Tedesco, M. Telszewski, H. Thomas, B. Tilbrook,  J. Tjiputra, D. Vandemark, T. Veness, R. Wanninkhof, A.J. Watson, R. Weiss, C.  S. Wong, and H. Yoshikawa-Inoue, 2013, A Uniform Quality Controlled Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT), Earth System Science Data, 5, 125–143, www.earth-syst-sci-data.net/5/125/2013/ doi:10.5194/essd-5-125-2013

Regnier, P., P. Friedlingstein, P. Ciais, F.T. Mackenzie, N. Gruber, I.A. Janssens, G.G. Laruelle, R. Lauerwald, S. Luyssaert, A.J. Andersson, S. Arndt, C.  Arnosti, A.V. Borges, A.W. Dale, A. Gallego-Sala, Y. Goddéris, N. Goossens, J. Hartmann, C. Heinze, T. Ilyina, F.  Joos, D.E. LaRowe, J. Leifeld, F.J. R. Meysman, G. Munhoven, P. A. Raymond, R. Spahni, P. Suntharalingam, and M. Thullner, 2013, Anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon fluxes from land to ocean, Nature Geoscience, 6(8), 597-607, DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1830

Sabine, C.L., S. Hankin, H. Koyuk, D. C. E. Bakker, B. Pfeil, A. Olsen, N. Metzl, A.  Kozyr, A. Fassbender, A. Manke, J. Malczyk, J. Akl, S.R. Alin, R. G. J.  Bellerby, A. Borges, J. Boutin, P.J. Brown, W-J. Cai, F.P. Chavez, A. Chen, C. Cosca, R.A. Feely, M. González-Dávila, C. Goyet, N. Hardman-Mountford, C. Heinze, M. Hoppema, C. W. Hunt, D. Hydes, M. Ishii, T. Johannessen, R. M.  Key, A. Körtzinger, P. Landschützer, S.K. Lauvset, N. Lefèvre, A. Lenton, A.  Lourantou, L. Merlivat, T. Midorikawa, L. Mintrop, C. Miyazaki, A. Murata, A.  Nakadate, Y. Nakano, S. Nakaoka, Y. Nojiri, A.M. Omar, X.A. Padin, G.-H. Park, K. Paterson, F. F. Perez, D. Pierrot, A. Poisson, A. F. Ríos, J. Salisbury, J.M.  Santana-Casiano, V.V.S.S. Sarma, R. Schlitzer, B. Schneider, U. Schuster, R. Sieger, I.  Skjelvan, T. Steinhoff, T. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, K. Tedesco, M. Telszewski,, H.  Thomas, B. Tilbrook, D. Vandemark, T. Veness, A.J. Watson, R. Weiss, C. S.  Wong, and H. Yoshikawa-Inoue, 2013, Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) Gridded Data Products, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 145–153, www.earth-syst-sci-data.net/5/145/2013/ doi:10.5194/essd-5-145-2013

Tjiputra, J.F., C. Roelandt, M. Bentsen, D. M. Lawrence, T. Lorentzen, J. Schwinger, Ø. Seland, and C. Heinze, 2013, Evaluation of the carbon cycle components in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM), Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 301–325, www.geosci-model-dev.net/6/301/2013/doi:10.5194/gmd-6-301-2013

Wanninkhof, R., G.-H. Park, T. Takahashi, C. Sweeney, R. A. Feely, Y. Nojiri, N. Gruber, G. McKinley, A. Lenton, C. Le Quéré, C. Heinze, J. Schwinger, H. Graven, S. Khatiwala, and S. C. Doney, 2013, Global Ocean Carbon Uptake: Magnitude, Variability and Trends, Biogeosciences, 10, 1983–2000, www.biogeosciences.net/10/1983/2013/ doi:10.5194/bg-10-1983-2013

Cocco, V., F. Joos, M. Steinacher, T.L. Frölicher, L. Bopp, J. Dunne, M. Gehlen, C. Heinze, J. Orr, A. Oschlies, B. Schneider, J. Segschneider, and J. Tjiputra, 2013, Oxygen and indicators of stress for marine life in multi-model global warming projections,  Biogeosciences, 10, 1849–1868, www.biogeosciences.net/10/1849/2013/ doi:10.5194/bg-10-1849-2013

Keller, K.M., F. Joos, C.C. Raible, V. Cocco, T.L. Frölicher, J.P. Dunne, M. Gehlen, T. Roy, L. Bopp, J.C. Orr, J. Tjiputra, C. Heinze, J. Segschneider, and N. Metzl, 2012, Variability of the ocean carbon cycle in response to the North Atlantic Oscillation, Tellus B, 64, 18738, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.18738

Tjiputra, J.F., A. Olsen, K. Assmann, B. Pfeil, and C. Heinze, 2012, A model study of the seasonal and long–term North Atlantic surface pCO2 variability, Biogeosciences, 9, 907–923, www.biogeosciences.net/9/907/2012/ doi:10.5194/bg-9-907-2012

Palastanga, V., C. P. Slomp, and C. Heinze, 2011, Long-term controls on ocean phosphorus and oxygen in a biogeochemical ocean model, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 25, GB3024, 19 S., DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003827

Tschumi, T., F. Joos, M. Gehlen, and C. Heinze, 2011, Deep ocean ventilation, carbon isotopes, marine sedimentation and the deglacial CO2 rise, Climate of the Past, 7, 771-800, www.clim-past.net/7/771/2011/ doi:10.5194/cp-7-771-2011

Roy, T., L. Bopp, M. Gehlen, B. Schneider, P. Cadule, T. Frölicher, J. Segschneider, J. Tjiputra, C. Heinze, and F. Joos, 2011, Regional Impacts of Climate Change and Atmospheric CO2 on Future Ocean Carbon Uptake: A Multimodel Linear Feedback Analysis. J. Climate, 24(9), 2300-2318, DOI: 10.1175/2010JCLI3787.1

Bernard, C., H. Dürr, C. Heinze, J. Segschneider, and E. Maier-Reimer, 2011, Contribution of riverine nutrients to the silicon biogeochemistry of the global ocean – a model study. Biogeosciences, 8, 551- 564, www.biogeosciences.net/8/551/2011/ doi:10.5194/bg-8-551-2011

Tjiputra, J.F., K. Assmann, and C. Heinze, 2010, Anthropogenic carbon dynamics in the changing ocean, Ocean Science, 6, 605–614, www.ocean-sci.net/6/605/2010/ doi:10.5194/os-6-605-2010

Assmann, K.M., M. Bentsen, J. Segschneider, and C. Heinze, 2010, An isopycnic ocean carbon cycle model, Geoscientific Model Development, 3, 143–167, www.geosci-model-dev.net/3/143/2010/, doi:10.5194/gmd-3-143-2010

Tjiputra, J.F., K. Assmann, M. Bentsen, I. Bethke, O.H. Otterå, C. Sturm, and C. Heinze, 2010, Bergen earth system model (BCM-C): Model description and regional climate-carbon cycle feedbacks assessment, Geoscientific Model Development, 3, 123–141, www.geosci-model-dev.net/3/123/2010/, doi:10.5194/gmd-3-123-2010

Bernard, C.Y., G.G. Laruelle, C.P. Slomp, and C. Heinze, 2010, Impact of changes in river nutrient fluxes on the global marine silicon cycle: a model comparison, Biogeosciences, 7, 441–453, www.biogeosciences.net/7/441/2010/, doi:10.5194/bg-7-441-2010

Watson, A.J., U. Schuster, D.C.E. Bakker, N.R. Bates, A. Corbière, M. González-Dávila, T. Friedrich, J. Hauck, C. Heinze, T. Johannessen, A. Körtzinger, N. Metzl, J. Olafsson, A. Olsen,  A. Oschlies, X.A. Padin, B. Pfeil, J. M. Santana-Casiano, T. Steinhoff, M. Telszewski, A.F. Rios, D.W.R. Wallace, and R. Wanninkhof, 2009, Tracking the variable North Atlantic sink for atmospheric CO2, Science, 326, 1391-1393, DOI: 10.1126/science.1177394

Heinze, C., I. Kriest, and E. Maier-Reimer, 2009, Age offsets among different biogenic and lithogenic components of sediment cores revealed by numerical modeling, Paleoceanography, 24, PA4214, 17 S., doi:10.1029/2008PA001662

Ilyina, T., R.E. Zeebe, E. Maier-Reimer, and C. Heinze, 2009, Early detection of ocean acidification effects on marine calcification, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23, GB1008, doi:10.1029/2008GB003278.

Denman, K.L., G. Brasseur, A. Chidthaisong, P. Ciais, P.M. Cox, R.E. Dickinson, D. Hauglustaine, C. Heinze, E. Holland, D. Jacob, U. Lohmann, S. Ramachandran, P.L. da Silva Dias, S.C. Wofsy, and X. Zhang, 2007, Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor und H.L. Miller (Hrsg.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, S. 499-587.

Gehlen, M., L. Bopp, N. Emprin, O. Aumont, C. Heinze, and O. Ragueneau, 2006, Reconciling surface ocean productivity, export fluxes and sediment composition in a global biogeochemical ocean model, Biogeosciences, 3, 521–537, www.biogeosciences.net/3/521/2006/ doi:10.5194/bg-3-521-2006

Heinze, C., M. Gehlen, and C. Land, 2006, On the potential of 230Th, 231Pa, and 10Be for marine rain ratio determinations - a modeling study, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 20, GB2018, doi:10.1029/2005GB002595

Heinze, C., 2006, The long-term oceanic Si cycle and the role of opal sediment. In: The silicon cycle - human perturbations and impacts on aquatic systems. SCOPE 66. Chicago, Il 60628, USA: Island Press 2006. ISBN 1-59726-114-9, p. 229-243.

Heinze, C., and N. Dittert, 2005, Impact of paleocirculations on the silicon redistribution in the world ocean, Marine Geology, 214, 201-203, doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2004.10.026

Skjelvan, I., A. Olsen, L.G. Anderson, R.G.J. Bellerby, E. Falck, Y. Kasajima, C. Kivimäe, A. Omar, F. Rey, K.A. Olsson, T. Johannessen, and C. Heinze, 2005, A Review of the Inorganic Carbon Cycle of the Nordic Seas and Barents Sea, in: The Nordic Seas - An integrated perspective, H. Drange, T. Dokken, T. Furevik, R. Gerdes, and W. Berger, editors, AGU Geophysical Monograph, 158, 157-175.

Heinze, C., 2004, Simulating oceanic CaCO3 export production in the greenhouse, Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L16308, doi:10.1029/2004GL020613

Heinze, C., A. Hupe, E. Maier-Reimer, N. Dittert, and O. Ragueneau, 2003, Sensitivity of the marine biospheric Si cycle for biogeochemical parameter variations, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17, No. 3, 1086, doi:10.1029/2002GB001943

Gehlen, M., C. Heinze, E. Maier-Reimer, and C. I. Measures, 2003, Coupled Al-Si geochemistry in an ocean general circulation model: A tool for the validation of oceanic dust deposition? Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17, No. 1, 1028, doi:10.1029/2001GB001549

Heinze, C., 2002, Assessing the importance of the Southern Ocean for natural atmospheric pCO2 variations with a global biogeochemical general circulation model, Deep-Sea Research II, 49, 3105-3125, DOI: 10.1016/S0967-0645(02)00074-7

Winguth, A. M. E., C. Heinze, J. E. Kutzbach, E. Maier-Reimer, U. Mikolajewicz, D. Rowley, A. Rees, and A. M. Ziegler, 2002, Simulated warm polar currents during the middle Permian, Paleoceanography, 17, No. 4, 1057, doi:10.1029/2001PA000646

Dittert, N., M. Diepenbroek, C. Heinze, and O. Ragueneau, 2002, Managing (pale-) oceanographic data sets using the PANGAEA information system: The SINOPS example, Computers & Geosciences, 28, 789-798, DOI: 10.1016/S0098-3004(01)00112-1

Heinze, C., 2002, Das marine Sediment als Klimazeuge und Komponente des Klimasystems - eine Modellstudie, Habilitationsschrift, Fachbereich Geowissenschaften, Universität Hamburg, GCA-Verlag, Serie Forschen und Wissen - Physik, ISBN 3-89863-084-6, Herdecke, Germany, 124 S.

Heinze, C., 2001, Towards the time dependent modeling of sediment core data on a global basis, Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 4211-4214, DOI: 10.1029/2001GL013479

Ragueneau, O., P. Tréguer, A. Leynaert, R. F. Anderson, M. A. Brzezinski, D. J. DeMaster, R. C. Dugdale, J. Dymond, G. Fischer, R. François, C. Heinze, E. Maier-Reimer, V. Martin-Jézéquel, D. M. Nelson, and B. Quéguiner, 2000, A review of the Si cycle in the modern ocean: recent progress and missing gaps in the application of biogenic opal as a paleoproductivity tracer, Global and Planetary Change, 26, 317-365, DOI: 10.1016/S0921-8181(00)00052-7

Heinze, C., E. Maier-Reimer, A. M. E. Winguth, and D. Archer, 1999, A global oceanic sediment model for long-term climate studies, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 221-250, DOI: 10.1029/98GB02812

Henderson, G. M., C. Heinze, R. F. Anderson, and A. M. E. Winguth, 1999, Global distribution of the 230Th flux to ocean sediments constrained by GCM modelling, Deep-Sea Research I, 46, 1861-1893, DOI: 10.1016/S0967-0637(99)00030-8

Heinze, C., E. Maier-Reimer, and P. Schlosser, 1998, Transient tracers in a global OGCM - source functions and simulated distributions, Journal of Geophysical Research, 103 (C8), 15903-15922, DOI: 10.1029/98JC00144

Broecker, W. S., S. Peacock, S. Walker, R. Weiss, E. Fahrbach, M. Schroeder, U. Mikolajewicz, C. Heinze, R. Key, T.-H. Peng, and S. Rubin, 1998, How much deep water is formed in the Southern Ocean? Journal of Geophysical Research, 103 (C8), 15833-15844, DOI: 10.1029/98JC00248

Heinze, C., and T. J. Crowley, 1997, Sedimentary response to ocean gateway circulation changes, Paleoceanography, 12, 742-754 DOI: 10.1029/97PA02050

Drijfhout, S., C. Heinze, M. Latif, and E. Maier-Reimer, 1996, Mean circulation and internal variability in an ocean primitive equation model, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26, 559-580, DOI: 10.1175/1520-0485(1996)026<0559:MCAIVI>2.0.CO;2

Heinze, C., and W. S. Broecker, 1995, Closing-off the Southern Ocean surface, Paleoceanography, 10, 49-58, DOI: 10.1029/94PA02353

Heinze, C., and K. Hasselmann, 1993, Inverse multi-parameter modelling of paleo-climate carbon cycle indices, Quaternary Research, 40, 281-296, doi:10.1006/qres.1993.1082

Heinze, C., 1993, Glacial ocean carbon cycle modelling, in: Carbon cycling in the glacial ocean: Constraints on the ocean's role in global change, R. Zahn, M. A. Kaminski, L. Labeyrie, and T. F. Pedersen, eds., Proceedings Volume, NATO ARW Fellhorst September 17-19, 1992, Kluwer Academic Publishers, S. 15-37.

Lautenschlager, M., U. Mikolajewicz, E. Maier-Reimer, and C. Heinze, 1992, Application of ocean models for the interpretation of atmospheric general circulation model experiments on the climate of the last glacial maximum, Paleoceanography, 7, 769-782, DOI: 10.1029/92PA02091

Heinze, C., E. Maier-Reimer, and K. Winn, 1991, Glacial pCO2 reduction by the World Ocean - experiments with the Hamburg Carbon Cycle Model, Paleoceanography, 6, 395-430. DOI: 10.1029/91PA00489

Heinze, C., P. Schlosser, K. P. Koltermann, and J. Meincke, 1990, A tracer study of the deep water renewal in the European Polar Seas, Deep-Sea Research, 37(a), 1425-1453, DOI: 10.1016/0198-0149(90)90136-J

Heinze, C., 1990, Zur Erniedrigung des atmosphärischen Kohlendioxidgehalts durch den Weltozean während der letzten Eiszeit, Doktorarbeit (PhD thesis), Universität Hamburg, Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Examensarbeit  (ISSN 0938-5177), Nr. 3, Hamburg, 180 p.

Heinze, C., 1986, Diskussion der Tiefenwassererneuerung im Europäischen Nordmeer und im Eurasischen Becken unter Zuhilfenahme anthropogener Spurenstoffe, Diplomarbeit (diploma thesis), Fachbereich Geowissenschaften, Universität Hamburg, 124 p.

 

COMFORT - Our Common Future Ocean In The Earth System – Quantifying Coupled Cycles Of Carbon, Oxygen, And Nutrients For Determining And Achieving Safe Operating Spaces With Respect To Tipping Points (EU H2020, coordinator)

CRESCENDO - Coordinated Research in Earth Systems and Climate: Experiments, kNowledge, Dissemination and Outreach (EU H2020, UiB-PI)

INES: Infrastructure for Norwegian Earth System modelling (NFR, UiB-PI)

Key Earth System processes to understand ArcticClimate Warming and Northern Latitude Hydrological Cycle Changes (NFR)

LOES: LOw Emission and overshoot Scenarios – from a high to a low carbon society (Bjerknes Centre strategic project, UiB-PI)

 

 

Prognostic 3-D simulations with biogeochemical ocean general circulation models.

Marine carbon and silicon cycles.

Early diagenesis modelling including synthetic sediment cores.

Simulations of oceanic tracers including transient tracers and radionuclides.

Earth system modelling.

Research groups