CIH PhD Theses
Below are listed graduated PhD candidates at CIH and those with an affiliation to CIH, either through the Quota scholarship programme or research projects administered by CIH.
See bottom of page for the 2020 theses
For more information about: current CIH PhD candidates
2019 - 2010
- Temsunaro Rongsen-Chandola Rotavirus Vaccines in India
- Eric Nagaonlè Somè Breastfeeding patterns and mothers' health in an HIV context in Sub Saharan Africa
- Endrias Markos Woldesemayat The burden of smear-positive tuberculosis in South Ethiopia: Risk factor and importance of follow-up of people with the risk factors
- Anthony Waruru Mapping HIV in Kenya: Geospatial variability of HIV diagnoses, treatment, and impact – Implications for HIV epidemic control
- Israel Paul Nyarubeli What do workers know and practise? Occupational noise exposure and noise-induced hearing loss among Tanzanian iron and steel workers
- Mahima Venkateswaran Attributes and consequences of health information systems data for antenatal care: health status, health systems performance and policy
- Akeza Awealom Asgedom Wood-dust exposure and respiratory health among particleboard workers in Ethiopia
- Jobiba Chinkhumba Economic evaluation of Results based financing in Malawi-strengthening the evidence based for alternative maternal and perinatal healthcare funding
- Taye Gari Ayana Malaria, anaemia and undernutrition in a drought-affected area of the Rift Valley of Ethiopia: Experiences from a trial to prevent malaria
- Peter John Binyaruka Distributional effects of payment for performance in the health sector: Examining effects on structural quality, performance outcomes and service utilization in Tanzania
- Alemayehu Hailu Economic evaluation of malaria prevention in Ethiopia: Economic burden, equity, and cost-effectiveness analysis of malaria prevention in south-central Ethiopia
- Angela Akol Access to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services in Uganda: Investigating the Role of Primary Health Care and Traditional Healers
- Shallo Daba Hamusse
Tuberculosis Control in Arsi in Ethiopia: Programme Performance and Disease Burden
Hiba Mohamed Hassan Mohamedali
Oral Health in Sudanese Children with Congenital Heart Defects
- Fekadu Massebo
Malaria vectors in southern Ethiopia. Some challenges and opportunities for vector control
- Peter Hangoma
Social Protection, Health Risk and Household Welfare in Zambia
- Amare Workyie Nigatu
Respiratory health and acute pesticide intoxications among workers in the flower farm industry in Ethiopia
- Barbara Kirunda
Body weight and physical activity of adults in rural Uganda
- Leila Katirayi
Experiences of the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV program in Southern Africa: A three country qualitative study
- "Growth of HIV-exposed and HIV–unexposed children in South Africa: Anthropometric nutritional status and growth rates"
- Catherine Schwinger
- “Growth velocity of young children in two low-resource settings: Patterns and abilities to predict negative health outcomes”
- Inger Aakre
- "Excessive iodine status among refugee women and children from Western Sahara. -Possible impact on thyroid function and developmental status"
- Simon Peter Sebina Kibira
- "Male circumcision, sexual risk behavior and HIV infection in Uganda"
- Amin Al-Ashtal
On dental erosion among Yemeni children, adolescents, dentists and dental students: Prevalence, scoring system, risk indicators and awareness
- Sushma Bartaula-Brevik
Vascularization and Host Response in Bone Tissue Engineering
- Frida Ngalesoni
Forebygging av kroniske sykdommer i Tanzania: Kostnadseffektivitet og fordelingseffekter av primærforebygging av hjerte- og karsykdommer i Tanzania
- Nancy Birungi
Early life course factors, early childhood caries and oral health related quality of life among five-year-olds – a prospective and intergenerational study from eastern Uganda
- Mbazi Senkoro
Burden of pulmonary tuberculosis and its major determinants: A national prevalence survey in Tanzania
- Richard Banda
Measuring maternal mortality in a context of deficient vital registration systems: use of population census in Zambia
- Sheila Monde Mwangala
Quality of HIV testing services in Zambia in the era of rapid task-shifting: a mixed method investigation on test accuracy and experiences of providers
- Seifu Hagos Gebryesus
Spatial variations in child undernutrition in Ethiopia: Implications for intervention strategies
- Mesay Hailu Dangisso
Tuberculosis control in Sidama in Ethiopia. Programme performance and spatial epidemiology
- Andrew Kilale
Mycobacteria in northern Tanzania: Exposure and risk of disease among agropastoralists and programmatic challenges in investigation of re-treatment cases
- Phyllis Awor
Drug shops in integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea in Uganda. Appropriateness of care and adherence to treatment guidelines
- Sudha Basnet
Severe pneumonia in hospitalized young Nepalese children-Studies on the efficacy of oral zinc, respiratory viruses and prognostic determinants
- Abebe Animut Ayele
Anopheles species and malaria transmission risk in a highland area, south-central Ethiopia
- Hallgeir Kismul
Determinants of child malnutrition. Studies from a rural area in the Democratic Republic of Congo
- Selia Nganjo
Maternal health care services in Zambia – access barriers to facility childbirth and unmet obstetric need
- Amani Thomas Mori
Pharmacoeconomics and formulary decisionmaking in Tanzania: Generating evidence for antimalarial drugs
- George Mugambage Ruhago
Economic evaluation and equity impact analysis of interventions for maternal and child health in Tanzania: Evidence for fair and efficient priority setting
- Razia Kaniz Fatima
Assessing the burden of missing tuberculosis cases in Pakistan
- Arne Taxt
Characterisation of toxic, antigenic and cross-reactive determinants of the heat-stable toxin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Towards rational design of a toxoid vaccine
- Bodil Bø Våga
Scrutinizing care in nursing practice. An ethnographic study of nurse-mother interaction in programmes to prevent HIV transmission from mother to child in Tanzania
- Elizabeth Shayo
Stakeholder engagement in health-related decision making in Mbarali District, Tanzania
- Balla, Yaliso Yaya
Maternal and neonatal mortality in rural south Ethiopia: Comparing mortality measurements and assessing obstetric care
- Okware, Samuel Ikwaras (Dr. Philos)
Three ebola outbreaks in Uganda 2000-2011
- Babirye, Juliet
"Childhood immunisation in Uganda: timeliness, supportive structures and health system barriers"
- Osman, Tarig
“Cancer stem cell-related markers in normal and neoplastic oral mucosa; a study on human samples and experimental models”
- El Tayeb, Sally
“Injuries in Khartoum State, Sudan. Magnitude, consequences and healthcare utilization: a community-based survey”
- Thanh, Duong Cong
"People Living With HIV in Viet Nam: Individual and Contextual Factors Affecting Risk Taking, Health and Help Seeking Behaviour"
- Finger, Jonas D. (Dr. Philos)
“Social inequality in physical activity and nutrition in Germany”
- Byamugisha, Robert - Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme in Eastern Uganda: Men’s involvement in a changing HIV testing policy context
- Kahabuka, Catherine - “Care seeking and management of common childhood illnesses in Tanzania: Questioning the quality of primary care services”
- Kayeyi, Nkomba - Trends in HIV Prevalence and Sexual Behaviour among Young People in Zambia: geographical and socio-economic differentials.
- Lunde, Torleif Markussen. On the dynamics of two efficient malaria vectors of the Afrotropical region: Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis.
- Mbawalla, Hawa Shariff - Planning, implementation and evaluation of a school program to promote oral health among Tanzanian adolescents
- Shumbullo, Eskindir Loha - Variation in malaria transmission in southern Ethiopia: The impact of prevention strategies and a need for targeted intervention
- Spjeldnæs, Ingrid Onarheim Family values of young people in Limpopo, South Africa: A sociocultural psychological study on perceptions and experiences of reproduction and parenthood
- Østebø, Marit Tolo Translations of Gender Equality in International Aid. Perspectives from Norway and Ethiopia
- Nils Gunnar Songstad
“Health worker motivation in a low-income context; the case of rural health services in Tanzania”
- Chen Yuan Chiang (Dr.Philos)
“Integration of tuberculosis services in Taiwan, 2001: challenges and opportunities”
- Nicola Barsdorf
"South Africa's Duty to Support Health Research for the Global Poor"
- Jolly K. Nankunda
“Individual peer counselling for exclusive breastfeeding in Uganda”
- Elin Hestvik
“Helicobacter pylori and faecal calprotectin in apparently healthy and HIV-infected Ugandan children”
«HIV testing and HIV-related stigma in Zambia»
- Daniel G. Datiko “Improving Tuberculosis Control in Ethiopia: Performance of TB control programme, community DOTS and its cost-effectiveness”
- Dipak Sapkota “S100 Gene Family Members in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas (OSCCs): Functional Characterization of S100A14 in Proliferation and Invasion of OSCC Derived Cells”
- Eli Fjeld Falnes ”The mother, her confidants and the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services in the Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania”
- Kijakazi Obed Mashoto “Dental caries, oral health-related quality of life and Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART): a study of adolescents in Kilwa district of Tanzania”
- Grace Ndeezi ”Multiple micronutrient supplementation in HIV-infected children – a randomised trial among children aged 1-5 years in Uganda”
- Peter Jay Chipimo “Mental health in the era of HIV: Investigating mental distress, its determinants, conceptual models and impact of HIV in Zambia”
- Mercy Njeru “HIV testing services in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia: Determinants, experiences and responsiveness”
- Lars Thore Fadnes ”Counselling, child growth and feeding of children in Uganda in the era of HIV: Contexts and consequences”
- Michael Aloyce Munga “The unequal distribution of health workers in Tanzania: Its magnitude, causes and remedies”
- Nazik Mostafa Nurelhuda “Aspects of dental caries in Sudanese schoolchildren”
- Philippa Musoke (Dr.philos) “Paediatric HIV-1 infection in Uganda: natural history and early antiretroviral treatment response”
- Sigrun Henjum “Excess iodine intake among refugees from Western Sahara. A cross-sectional study of long-term refugees located in Tindouf, Algeria”
- Victoria Nankabirwa “Child health in a Ugandan cohort: Studies on survival, vaccination and malaria”
- Ying Xue "Interactions between endothelial and bone marrow stromal cells of relevance to bone tissue engineering"
- Zeyede K. Zeleke “Respiratory health among cement workers in Ethiopia “
- Esther Stanslaus Ngadaya: "Passive case finding: Diagnostic approaches, cost and delay in TB management in Dar es Salaam and Pwani regions, Tanzania"
- Maria Mathisen: "Epidemiological and clinical studies of viral pneumonia in young children in Bhaktapur, Nepal." --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Øystein Evjen Olsen: "Barriers of Implementing Emergency Obestric Care in Northern Tanzania: Balancing Quality and Quantity" --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Demissew Beyene: "Towards improved diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis"
2009 - 1990
- Margaret Nekesa Wandera: "Oral disease and Oral health realted quality of life in pregnancy and early childhood: Surveys from urban and rural areas of Uganda" --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Vincent Didas Assey: “Controlling iodine deficiency disorders through salt iodation in Tanzania” --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Sam Agatre Okuonzi: “Free market illusions: health sector reforms in Uganda 1987 – 2007” --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Bernard James Ngowi: ”HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis coinfection in rural northern Tanzania. Epidemiology, clinical presentation and impact on CD4 T-cell counts” --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Ingunn Marie Stadskleiv Engebretsen: ”Feeding and growth of infants in Eastern Uganda: Methodological challenges and associated factors”
- Sopheap Heng: ”Epidemiological contexts of the HIV epidemic in Cambodia: changes over time and links to preventive interventions”
- Ingvild Fossgard Sandøy: "Investigating trends in HIV transmission and risk factors in Zambia" --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Matilda Mtaya: ”Malocclusion and quality of life in Tanzanian schoolchildren” --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Akwilina Kayumba: ”Work Environment and Health among Sisal Processors in Tanzania”
- Hanifa Bachou: ”The challenge of improving the management of hospitalised children with severe acute malnutrition in Uganda” --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Sebalda Charles Leshabari: "Infant feeding in the context of HIV infection: Mother’s experiences and programme implications for maternal and child health services in Tanzania" --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Kumbutso Dzekedzeke: "Adult mortality in the era of HIV in Zambia: making plausible estimates of adult mortality and the impact of HIV from limited data"
- Khadija Innocensia Yahya-Malima: "Epidemiological context of HIV infection in rural Manyara and Singida regions, Tanzania; antenatal and population-based studies"
- Mohammed Al-Haroni: “Antibiotic resistance in oral microbiota; a study on prevalence, molecular analysis and possible contributing factors in Yemen and Norway” --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Irene Anderson Kida: "Examining tooth loss, oral impacts on daily performances and satisfaction with chewing ability: a household survey of older adults in Tanzania. --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Estifanos Biru Shargie: "Trends, challenges and opportunities in tuberculosis control in rural Ethiopia. Epidemiological and operational studies in a resource-constrained setting" --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Charles Michelo: "Trends and determinants of HIV prevalence in Zambia: Evidence from surveys in selected communities" --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Degu Jerene Dare: "HIV antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia. Overcoming implementation challenges.” --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Elizabeth Anne Okumu Dimba: "Khat (Catha edulis, Forsk.) induces apoptosis in leukaemia cell lines
- Deodatus Conatus Kakoko: “Voluntary HIV counselling and testing service uptake among primary school teachers in Mwanza, Tanzania: assessment of socio-demographic, psychosocial and socio-cognitive aspects” --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Charles Karamagi: ”Supporting Mothers for Child Health and Nutrition in Uganda”
- Ruan Jian Ping: ”Fluoride, dental fluorosis and caries in China”
- Simon Henry David Mamuya: ”Dust exposure and respiratory health problems in a labour-intensive coal mine in Tanzania” --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Jamil David: “Dental caries among adolescents. Implications for planning oral health services in India and Norway” --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Suzanne Namusoke Kiwanuka: “Sugar snack consumption, caries experience and dental pain: surveys of 3-5- and 10-14-year-old children” --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Mabula Joseph Kasubi: ”Detection and molecular characterization of herpes simplex virus from Tanzania and Norway” --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Nezar Noor Al-hebshi: “Khat and oral microbiota – a microbial study with relevance to periodontitis and dental caries” --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Espérance Kashala: “Mental health of African school children – Epidemiological, clinical and neuropsychological studies from Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo” --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Daniela Elena Costea: "Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in normal and neoplastic human oral mucosa - a study on in vitro organotypic models" --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Candia Moshiro: “The epidemiology of injuries in an urban and two rural areas of Tanzania. A population-based study”
- Julius Mwaiselage: "Dust exposure and respiratory health effects in the cement industry."
- Christopher Oleke: ”The challenge of orphans in the era of AIDS: Assessing community experience in Uganda”
- Bjarne Robberstad: "Economic evaluation of health interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Applied economic evaluations and studies on time preferences for health in Tanzania"
- Henry Wamani: "Malnutrition and child health inequalities. The case of Uganda and sub-Saharan Africa"
- Eliud Richard Wandwalo: "Community tuberculosis care in Tanzania: the role of direct observation of tuberculosis treatment and collaborative TB and HIV/AIDS intervention"
- Fantaye Wondwossen: "Dental fluorosis in Ethiopia. An assessment of dental fluorosis and relation to dental caries as well as the social acceptance of fluorotic teeth in rural and urban areas"
- Håvard Valvatne (PhD): "Colonization Factors of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli; detection, characterization and expression"
- Denbel, Mekonnen K. (PhD): "Molecular approaches to the diagnosis of Mycobacteria with special reference to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium leprae"
- Hardie, Jon Andrew (Dr. Med): "Respiratory health and normative values for pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gases in the elderly: a Norwegian general population survey"
- Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund (Dr. Med): "Perinatal mortality and anaemia in pregnancy in rural northern Tanzania" --- PhD thesis (PDF-format)
- Kazaura, Method R. (PhD): "Birth defects and age effects"
- Kisanga, Elton Richard (PhD): "Pharmacology of low-dose tamoxifen regimens in breast cancer treatment"
- Lugada, Eric Stephen (PhD): "Affordable alternatives for managing HIV infected patients in a resource-poor country, Uganda"
- Mfinanga, Sayoki Godfrey M. (PhD): "Mycobacterial adenitis in Arusha, Tanzania: epidemiology and diagnostic challenges"
- Mwanza, Jean Claude (PhD): "Neuro-Ophthalmology of Konzo, Human African Trypanosomiasis and NeuroAIDS"
- Mwaiselage, Julius (PhD): "Dust exposure and respiratory health effects in the cement industry"
- Okullo, Isaac (Dr. Odont): "Assessing oral impacts on daily performance, dental caries and aspects of oral care services among adolescents in Uganda"
- Aminmohammed Awadia K. (Dr. Odont): "Fluoride and dental health. An assessment of some factors related to dental fluorosis and dental caries in Tanzania"
- Darout, Ismail A. (Dr. Odont): "The natural toothbrush “miswak” as an alternative to the modern toothbrush. A clinical, microbial and chemical evaluation"
- Haile, Yosef (PhD): "Mycobacterila mammalian cell entry (mce) operons and the significance of RNA for the detection of mycobacterial specimens"
- Kapiriri, Lydia (Dr. Med): "Opportunities for public accountability in priority setting in health care: The case of Uganda"
- Madebo, Tesfaye (Dr. Med): "Clinical and operational challenges in the control of tuberculosis in south Ethiopia"
- Steinsland, Hans (PhD): "The epidemiology of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections and diarrhea in early childhood"
- Strand, Tor Arne (Dr. Med): "Zinc and Infectious Disease – studies of mice and men"
- Tumwine, James K. (PhD): "Childhood diarrhoea and nutrition in Uganda. Studies in diarrhoea, water, sanitation, nutrition and emerging protozoa"
- Demissie, Meaza (Dr. Med): "Challenges of tuberculosis control in Ethiopia"
- Fischer, Thea Kølsen (Dr. Med): "Epidemiological studies ofrotavirus infection in Guinea- Bissau, West Africa"
- Masalu, Joyce R. (Dr. Odont): "Oral health behaviour and oral quality of life among students in Tanzania Intervention opportunities"
- Moland, Karen Marie (Dr. Polit): "Giving birth in Kilimanjaro. The politics of knowledge in moral contexts"
- Olsen, Bjørg Evjen (Dr. Med): "Motherhood - a hazardous endeavour. Maternal deaths and urinary tract infections in pregnancy in rural northern Tanzania"
- Trovik, Tordis Agnete (Dr. Odont): "Tooth extraction in general dental practice: A study of time trend, normative and perceived need for replacement"
- Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi (Dr. Med): "Anaemia and Nutritional deficiencies in pregnant Nepali women"
- Loro, Lado Lako (Dr. Odont): "Apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma"
- Masatu, Melkiory C. (Dr. Med): "Promoting reproductive health of Tanzanian young people. Intervention Opportunities"
- Mbonde, Martin (Dr. Med): "A Pathological study of Carcinomas of the Female breast in Tanzania" (Sandwich with MUCHS)
- Muna, Ziad (Dr. Scient): "Studies on the antioxidant potential of tetradecylthioacetic acid in relation to atherosclerosis"
- Mylvaganam, Haima (Dr. Med): "Molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pyogenes"
- Khazen, Reem A. Rahil (Dr. Scient): "Multi-element analysis in humans by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry with emphasis on trace elements. Methodology and application"
- Rwenyonyi, Charles M. (Dr. Odont): "Dental fluorsis and dental caries in rural Western Uganda; Measurement and determinants"
- Tessema, Tsigeweini. A. (Dr. Med): "Improving Case-finding in Tuberculosis Control by Antigen Detection, Clinical Scoring and Serology"
- Blystad, Astrid (Dr. Polit): "Precarious Procreation"
- Cimpan, Michaela Roxana (Dr. Odont): "In vitro biological effects and physical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate)-based denture base resins"
- Haram, Liv (Dr. Polit): "Women out of sight. Modern Women in Gendered Worlds: The Case of the Meru of Northern Tanzania"
- Mustafa, Tehmina (Dr. Med): "Murine models of chronic tuberculosis: significance of granuloma morphology, apoptosis and immune evasion"
- Phyu, Sabai (Dr. Med): "Mouse models for latent and slowly progressive tuberculosis: Host immune responses and importance of compartmentalization"
- Ibrahim, Salah Osman (Dr. Odont): "Keratins, human papilloma virus and protooncogenes in oral squamous cell carcinomas from snuffdippers and non-snuff-dippers from the Sudan and Scandinavia"
- Rekdal, Ole Bjørn (Dr. Polit): "The invention by tradition: Creativity and change among the Iraqw of northern Tanzania"
- El-Madhun, Abdullah Sami (Dr. Scient): "Characteristics of the Humoral Immune Response after Parental Influenza Vaccination"
- Sims, Tom J. (PhD): "Recognition of Cross-reactive and Strain-variable Antigens of Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans, Prophyromonas Gingivalis and Bacteriodes Forsythus by Antibodies in Sera from Periodontitis Patients,-with reference to the development of Vaccines"
- Cuida, Michaela (Dr. Odont): "Host defence factors in Sjogren's syndrome with special reference to calprotectin"
- Ali, A. Raof W. Wahab (Dr. Odont): Comparative Identification and Characterization of Selected Putative Periodontal Pathogens in Norwegian, Sudanese and Romanian Adults. With Special Reference to Typing of Porphyromonas Gingivalis.
- Lie, Gro Therese (Dr. Psychol): The Disease that Dares Not Speak its Name. Studies on Factors of Importance for Coping with HIV/AIDS in Northern Tanzania.
- Lugoe, Wycliffe L. (PhD): Prediction of Tanzanian students` HIV risk and preventive behaviours.
- Mnyika, Kagoma S. (Dr. Med): Epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in northern Tanzania.
- Zewdie, Teka (PhD): Mother-Child Relational Patterns in Ethiopia. Issues of developmental theories and intervention programmes.
- Demoz, Abraham (Dr. Med): The Influence of omega-3 Fatty Acids and Sulphur Substituted Fatty Acids Peroxisomes and Oxidative Status.
- Grewal, Harleen M.S. (Dr. Med): Colonization factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Detection and expression.
- Holm-Hansen, Carol Church (Dr. philos): Detection and characterization of HIV-1 from Tanzania and Romania.
- Howlett, William P. (Dr. Med): Neurological Disorders in Tanzania. Studies on HIV-1, Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Konzo.
- Hussain, Akhtar (PhD): Night blindness in Bangladesh - diagnosis, determinants and prevention
- Andrews, Barry John (PhD): "The Chemotherapy of pathogenic protozoa - in vitro and in vivo studies with bacitracin zink"
- Asaidu, Daniel Kwaku (Dr. Med): "Modulation of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism by 3-thia fatty Acids"
- Asiedu, Mathilda Steiner (Dr. Scient): "Evaluation of the nutritive value of locally processed fish and cereals from Africa"
- Lindtjørn, Bernt (Dr. Med): "Child health and nutrition. A study from drought prone areas in southern Ethiopia"
- Sommerfelt, Halvor (Dr. Med): "DNA Hybridization for Identification of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli"